Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa

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Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa
1st Emir of Bahrain
13th Hakim of Bahrain
Essa bin Salman Al-Khalifa 1998.jpg
Reign 2 November 1961 – 6 March 1999
Coronation 16 December 1961
Predecessor Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa
Successor Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Spouse Hessa bint Salman Al Khalifa
Issue

King hammad
Sheikh Rashed
Sheikh Mohammed
Sheikh Abdullah

Sheikh Ali
Sheika Munira
Sheika Maryam
Sheika shaikha
Sheika Nora
House Al Khalifa
Father Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa
Born (1933-06-03)3 June 1933
Jasra, Bahrain
Died 6 March 1999(1999-03-06) (aged 65)
Manama, Bahrain
Religion Sunni Islam

Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, GCB, GCMG (Arabic: عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفة‎; 3 June 1933 – 6 March 1999) was the 1st emir of Bahrain from 1961 until his death. Born in Jasra, he became emir upon the death of his father, Salman ibn Hamad.

Reign[edit]

Isa Bin Salman,1968

Isa's reign began in December 1961 since his father Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa I died in November.[1][2] Isa visited Ayetollah Mohsin Al Hakim İn Najaf in 1968 to indicate his keenness to reinforce relationships with the Shia.[3]

His term saw Bahrain gain its independence from the United Kingdom in 1971.[4] While the government initially considered joining the United Arab Emirates, Isa had his country withdraw (along with Qatar) over his dissatisfaction with the proposed constitution. He then attempted to introduce a moderate form of parliamentary democracy, and men (though not women) were given the vote in parliamentary elections in 1973.[5] In August 1975, however, he dissolved Parliament because it refused to pass the government-sponsored State Security Law of 1974.[6] The parliamentary system was never restored and forced the emir to contend with occasional protests from the leftist and Islamist camps, which reached their peak in 1994 (see: History of Bahrain).[citation needed]

During his reign there was an arrangement between him and his brother Sheikh Khalifa bin Salman.[7] Emir was assigned a diplomatic and ceremonial role, whereas Sheikh Khalifa involved in controlling the government and economy as prime minister.[7]

Marriage and Children[edit]

Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa had one wife, Shaikha Hessa bint Salman Al Khalifa (1933–2009). They married on 8 May 1949. They had six sons and six daughters:

  • King Hamad
  • Sheikh Rashed (Died on 17 December 2010)
  • Sheikh Mohamed (Commander of the National Guard)
  • Sheikh Abdullah (Vice President of the Higher Committee for the Horseback riding club)
  • Sheikh Ali (Minister of the Royal Court Affairs)
  • Sheikha Munira
  • Sheikha Maryam
  • Sheikha Shaikha
  • Sheikha Noura

Legacy and death[edit]

During his 38 years as Emir, the economic transformation of Bahrain into a modern nation and a key financial center in the Persian Gulf area took place. Nevertheless, critics note that he also dissolved Parliament, giving absolute power to the royal family.

Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa died of a heart attack on 6 March 1999 at the al Sakhir Palace in Manama shortly after his meeting with the United States defense secretary William Cohen.[8] He was 65.[4]

US President Bill Clinton expressed "deep sadness" at the news of the emir's death calling him "a good friend of peace." UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan also expressed "great sadness," and described the emir as "a force for stability" in the region. Emir was buried at the Al-Rifa'a cemetery.

He was succeeded by his eldest son, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa.[8]

Foreign Honors[edit]

Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa was awarded :[9]

Titles[edit]

  • 1933–1961: Sheikh Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa
  • 1961–1964: His Highness Sheikh Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa, Hakim of Bahrain
  • 1964–1971: His Highness Sheikh Sir Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa, Hakim of Bahrain, KCMG
  • 1971–1979: His Highness Sheikh Sir Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa, Emir of Bahrain, KCMG
  • 1979–1984: His Highness Sheikh Sir Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa, Emir of Bahrain, GCMG
  • 1984–1999: His Highness Sheikh Sir Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa, Emir of Bahrain, GCB, GCMG

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bernard Reich (1990). Political leaders of the contemporary Middle East and North Africa: a biographical dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 528. ISBN 978-0-313-26213-5. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  2. ^ "Chronology for Shi'is in Bahrain". UNHCR. 2004. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  3. ^ Al Jimri, Mansoor (November 2010). "Shia and the State in Bahrain". Alternative Politics (1). Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Jehl, Douglas (7 March 1999). "Sheik Isa, 65, Emir of Bahrain Who Built Non-Oil Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  5. ^ Wright, Stephen (June 2006). "Generational change". Durham Middle East Papers. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  6. ^ "Democratic test ended". Spokane Daily Chronicle (Manama). AP. 28 August 1975. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Wright, Steven (2008). "Fixing the Kingdom: Political Evolution and Socio-Economic Challenges in Bahrain". CIRS. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  8. ^ a b "Bahrain's ninth al Khalifa". BBC. 6 March 1999. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  9. ^ "The Al Khalifa Dynasty". Royal Ark. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  10. ^ "Boletín Oficial del Estado format=PDF". Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  11. ^ "1995 National Orders awards". INFO. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  12. ^ "Badraie". Badraie. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  13. ^ "Badraie". Retrieved 20 June 2014. 

External links[edit]

See also[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa
Emir of Bahrain
1961–1999
Succeeded by
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa