||This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not simply have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names. This system was mainly in use throughout Arabia and part of the Levant.
Structure of the Arabic name
The ism (Arabic: اسم) is the personal name (e.g. "Kareem" or "Fatimah"). Most names are Arabic words with a meaning, usually signalling the good character of the person. Such words are employed as adjectives and nouns in regular language.
- Karīm means "generous"
- Maħmūd means "praiseworthy"
Generally, the context and grammar should differentiate between names and adjectives, but Arab newspapers sometimes try to avoid confusion by placing names in brackets or quotation marks.
A common form of Muslim Arab names is the combination of ʿAbd for males or ʿAmah for females (both English: servant) followed by an adjective of God. A particularly common masculine example is Abdullah (Arabic: عبد الله / English: servant of God); the feminine counterpart being Amatullah.
This practice creates a possibility of 99 names for each sex, as there are 99 exclusive adjectives for God in Islam.
- ʿAbd is not used upon the usage of one of the prophets' names (in Islam)[clarification needed]
- This practice is not exclusive to Muslims in the Arab world. For example, in Lebanon and Egypt, AbdelMassih (servant of Christ) is commonly used as a Christian last name.
To an extent, most Christian Arabs have names indistinguishable from Muslims except that they do not often use explicitly Islamic names, i.e., Muhammad. The following is most common:
- Arabic versions of Christian names (e.g. saints' names: Botros for Peter, although not a translation).
- Names of Greek, Armenian, and Assyrian / Aramaic origin.
- Use of European names, especially French, Greek and, to a lesser extent, Spanish ones (in Morocco). (This has been a centuries-long convention for Christian Arabs, especially in the Levant. For example: George Habash, Charles Helou, Camille Chamoun, etc.
- Names in honor of Jesus Christ.
- Abd al-Yasuʿ (masc.) / Amat al-Yasuʿ (fem.) (slave of Jesus)
- Abd al-Maseeḥ (masc.) / Amat al-Maseeḥ (fem.) (slave of The Messiah)
- Derivations of Maseeḥ (Christ): Masūḥun (Most-Annointed), Amḥās (More-Annointed), Mamsūḥ (Annointed) and Musayḥ (Baby-Christ). The root, M-S-Ḥ, literally means 'to annoint' (as in Masah) and is cognate to the Hebrew Mashiah.
- Abd al-Ilaah: An equivalent to the common Muslim name Abdullah or Abd-Ar-Raḥmān, meaning slave of God, is also used by Christians.
The laqab (Arabic: لقب "cognomen" / "surname") is intended as a description of the person.
- The famous Abbasid Caliph Haroun al-Rashid (of A Thousand and One Nights fame). Haroun is the Arabic form for Aaron and "al-Rashid" means "the rightly-guided".
The laqab was very popular in ancient Arab societies, ca 1000 years ago. Today, the Laqab is only used if it is actually a person's birth Surname/Family name.
- Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: ابن خلدون) means "son of Khaldun". Khaldun is the father's proper name or, in this particular case, the proper name of a remote ancestor.
Several nasab can follow in a chain to trace a person's ancestry backwards in time, as was important in the tribally based society of the ancient Arabs, both for purposes of identification and for socio-political interactions. Today, however, ibn or bint is no longer used. (Unless it is the official naming style in a country, region, etc.: Adnen bin Abdallah). The plural is 'Abnā for males and Banāt for females. However, Banu or Bani is tribal and encompasses both sexes.
The nisbah (Arabic: نسبة) Surname. It could be an everyday name, but is mostly the name of the ancestors' tribe, city, country, or any other term used to show relevance. It follows a family through several generations.
Note: The Laqab and the Nisbah are similar in use, thus, a name rarely contains both.
محمد بن سعيد بن عبد العزيز الفلسطيني
Muhammad ibn Saeed ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Filasteeni
muḥammad ibn saʻīdi ibn ʻabdi l-ʻazīzi l-filasṭīnī
- Ism - Muhammad (Proper name). Muhammad: praised.
- Nasab - Saeed (Father's name). Saeed: happy
- Nasab - Abd al-Aziz (Grandfather's name). Abd al-Aziz: Servant of the Magnificient.
- Nisbah - al-Filasteenee (The Palestinian). Filasteen: Palestine.
Muhammad, son of Saeed, son of Abdul-Aziz, the Palestinian
This person would simply be referred to as "Muhammad" or by relating him to his first-born son, e.g.:"Abu Kareem" (father of Kareem). To signify respect or to specify which Muhammad one is speaking about, the name could be lengthened to the extent necessary or desired.
Westernization of Arabic naming practices and names
||This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
Almost all Arabic-speaking countries (excluding for example Saudi Arabia or Bahrain) have now adopted a Westernized way of naming. This is the case for example in the Levant and Maghreb, as well as some North African countries, where French or English conventions are followed (an effect of European colonization), and it is rapidly gaining ground elsewhere.
Also, many Arabs adapt to Western conventions for practical purposes when travelling or when residing in Western countries, constructing a given name/family name model out of their full Arab name, to fit Western expectations and/or visa applications or other official forms and documents. The reverse side to this is the surprise of many Westerners when asked to supply their first name, father's name, and family name in some Arab visa applications.
The Westernization of an Arab name may require transliteration. Often, one name may be transliterated in several ways (Abdul Rahman, Abdoul Rahman, Abdur Rahman, Abdurahman, Abd al-Rahman, or Abd ar-Rahman), as there is no single accepted Arabic transliteration system. A single individual may try out several ways of transliterating his or her name, producing even greater inconsistency. This has resulted in confusion on the part of governments, security agencies, airlines and other: for example, especially since 9/11, persons with names written similarly to those of suspected terrorists have been detained.
Non-Arabic speakers often make these mistakes:
- Separating "the X of Y" word combinations (see idafa):
- With "Abdul": Arabic names may be written "Abdul (something)", but "Abdul" means "servant of the" and is not, by itself, a name. Thus for example, to address Abdul Rahman bin Omar al-Ahmad by his given name, one must say "Abdul Rahman", not merely "Abdul". If he introduces himself as "Abdul Rahman" (which means "the servant of the Merciful"), one must not say "Mr. Rahman" (as "Rahman" is not a family name but part of his (theophoric) personal name); instead it would be Mr. Ahmad, being the family name).
- People not understanding Arabic sandhi in genitive constructions: Habību-llāh = "beloved (Habīb) of (ul) God (Allāh)"; here a person may in error report the man's name as 'forename "Habib", surname "Ullah"'. Likewise, people may confuse a name such as Jalālu-d-dīn ("The Majesty of the Religion") as being "Jalal Uddin", or "Mr. Uddin", when "Uddin" is not a surname, but the second half of a two-word name (the desinence -u of the construct state nominative, plus the article, appearing as -d-, plus the genitive dīn[i]). To add to the confusion, some immigrants to Western countries have adopted Uddin as a surname, although it is grammatically incorrect in Arabic outside the context of the associated "first name". Even Indian Muslims commit the same error. If a person's name is Abd-ul-Rahim (Servant of the Merciful), his companions may call him as Mr Abdul (Servant of) erroneously which will sound quite odd to a native speaker of Arabic.
- Confusing "`alā'" with "Allah": Some Muslim names include the Arabic word `alā' علاء = "nobility". (Here, ` represents the ayin sound, the voiced pharyngeal fricative, and ' represents the hamza sound, the glottal stop, and L is spelled and pronounced once. In Allāh, L is spelled twice and pronounced separately.) In Arabic pronunciation, `alā and Allāh are clearly different. But Europeans, Iranians, and Indians often cannot pronounce some Arabic sounds as precisely, and tend to pronounce these two names the same. For example, the Muslim male name `Alā'-ad-dīn = "the nobility of the religion" (commonly known to English speakers as Aladdin) is often misspelt as Allah-ad-din. Because these two words are different, there is an Arabic male given name "`Ala' Allah" (Aliullah), meaning "the nobility of God."
- Confusing the "bin" or "ibn" for a middle name: As stated above, "bin" and "ibn" indicate the family chain. Westerns often confuse them for middle names, especially when they're written as "Ben", as it is the case in some countries. For example, Sami Ben Ahmed would be mistakenly addressed as Mr. Ahmed. To correctly address the person, one should use Mr. Ben Ahmed.
- Grammar errors: These can result from differences between Arabic grammar and the grammar of some other languages. Arabic forms noun compounds in the opposite order from Indo-Iranian languages. For example, during the war in Afghanistan in 2002, a BBC team found in Kabul an internal refugee whose name they stated as "Allah Muhammad". This may be a misspelling, as described in the previous paragraph, but if not, by the rules of Arabic grammar, this name means "the Allah who belongs to Muhammad", which is not acceptable as a man's name and is ideologically and logically incorrect; however, by the rules of Iranian and most Indian languages this name means "Muhammad who belongs to Allah", which is acceptable; the Arabic equivalent is "Muhammad Ullah". Most Afghans speak Iranian languages. Such Arabic-and-Iranian or Arabic-and-Indian mixed-language compound names are not uncommon in Afghanistan, Iran, and Tajikistan. Compare the Pakistani/Indian name "Allah Ditta".
Arab family naming convention
In Arabic culture a person's ancestry and his/her family name are very important. An example is explained below.
Assume a man has the name of Saleh ibn Tariq ibn Khalid al-Fulan.
- Saleh is his personal name, and the one that his family and friends would call him by.
- ibn translates as "son of", so Tariq is Saleh's father's name.
- ibn Khalid means that Tariq is the son of Khalid, making Khalid the grandfather of Saleh.
- al-Fulan would be Saleh's family name.
Hence, Saleh ibn Tariq ibn Khalid al-Fulan translates as "Saleh, son of Tariq, son of Khaled; of the family al-Fulan."
The Arabic for "daughter of" is bint. A woman with the name Fatimah bint Tariq bin Khalid al-Fulan translates as "Fatimah, daughter of Tariq, Son of Khaled; of the family al-Fulan."
In this case, ibn and bint are included in the official naming. Most Arab countries today, however, do not use 'ibn' and 'bint' in their naming system. If Saleh was an Egyptian, he would be called Saleh Tariq Khalid al-Fulan and Fatimah would be Fatimah Tariq Khalid al-Fulan.
If Saleh marries a wife (who would keep her own maiden, family, and surnames), their children will take Saleh's family name. Therefore, their son Mohammed would be called Mohammed ibn Saleh ibn Tariq al-Fulan.
All Arab countries however do not use the name to its full length, but conventionally use 2 and 3 word names, and sometimes 4 word names in official or legal matters. Thus the first name is the personal name, the middle name is the father's name and the last name is the family name.
Arabic names and their biblical equivalent
The Arabic names listed below are used in the Arab world, as well as some other Muslim regions, with correspondent Hebrew, English, Syriac and Greek equivalents. They are not necessarily of Arabic origin, although some are. Most are derived from Syriac transliterations of the Hebrew Bible. For more information, see also Iranian, Malay, Pakistani, and Turkish names.
|Arabic name||Hebrew name||English name||Syriac name||Greek name|
Andrāwus / ʾIdrīs(?)
Akhnūkh / ʾIdrīs(?)
|Iyov / Iov
Iyyov / Iyyôḇ
Āzar / Taraḥ
|Téraḥ / Tharakh||Terah||Thara||Athār|
Būlus / Bilus
|Dawoud / Davoud
Dāwūd / Dāwid
ʾIfrāym / 'Ufayr
Ḥabīb / Shu'ayb(?)
|Chava / Hava
Ḥusayn / Ḥassan
ʾIbrāhīm / Abrāhīm(?)
|Eliahu / Eliyahu
|Eisa / Yasoua
ʿĪsā / Yasūʿ
|Yitzhak / Yitzchak
Yišmaʿel / Yišmāʿêl
|Israel / Yisrael
Yisraʾel / Yiśrāʾēl
|Jibril / Gebril
Ǧibraīl / Jibraīl
|Jad / Gad
Ǧād / Jād
|Jalut / Galut
Ǧālūt / Jālūt / Ǧulyāt
|Jasham / Gushaam
Jašam / Ǧūšām
Jūrj / Jurjus / Jurj / Jurayj
|George (given name)||Geōrgios|
|Migdal||Magdalene (given name)||Magdala|
|Maryam / Miriam
Maryam / Mīryām
|Miriam / Miryam
Mattā / Matatiyā
|Matatiahu / Matatyahu
|Matthew||Mattai||Ματταthίας / Mατthαῖος|
Miḫāʾīl / miḵāʼīl / Mikhāʼīl
|Michael / Mikhael
|Noach / Noah
|Tzfanya / Ṣəp̄anyā
|Tzipora / Tsippora
Ṣamu’īl / Ṣamawāl
|Shmu'el / Šəmûʼēl
|Sara / Sarah
|Sarah / Sara|
Shamsān / Shamsūn
|Shimshon / Šimšôn
Sulaymān / Silimān
Ṭālūt / Sāʼûlā
ʿUbaydallāh / 'Ubaydīyā
Ovádyah / Ovádyah
|Yahia / Yehia / Youhanna
Yaḥyā / Yiḥyā / Yūḥannā **
|Yochanan / Yohanan
Yāhwāh / Yāhūwah(?)
Yahweh / Yāhôveh
Yathrun / Shu'ayb(?)
|Younos / Younes
Yūni / Yūnus
|Yona / Yonah
|Youssof / Youssef
Yūsuf / Yūsif
Zakariyyā / Zakarīyā
|Zachary or Zechariah|
- The popular romanization of the Arabized and Hebrew names are written first, then the standardized romanization are written in oblique. Notice that Arabized names may have variants.
- If a literal Arabic translation of a name exists, it will be placed after the final standardized romanization.
- If an Arabic correlation is ambiguous, (?) will be placed following the name in question.
- * Yassou' is the Arab Christian name, while `Īsā is the Muslim version of the name, as used in the Qur'an. There is debate as to which is the better rendition of the Aramaic Yeshua' because both names are of late origin.
- ** Youhanna is the Arab Christian name of John, while Yahya is the Muslim version of the name, as used in the Qur'an. They have completely different triconsonantal roots (e.g. Grace : H-N-N vs Life : H-Y-Y).
- El, the Hebrew word for strength/might or deity, is usually represented as īl in Arabic, although it carries no meaning in classical and modern Arabic. The only exception is its usage in the archaic Iraqi dialect.
- List of Arabic star names
- List of Arabic theophoric names
- List of traditional Arabic place names
- Iranian name
- Pakistani name
- Turkish name
- Arabic names
- Arabic Nomenclature: A summary guide for beginners. A.F.L. Beeston (Oxford, 1971).
- Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices (2003) by Da'ud ibn Auda (David B. Appleton)
- Automated recognition of Arabic person names