Islamabad–New Delhi hotline
The Islamabad—New Delhi hotline is a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of India and Pakistan. The hotline, according to the media sources, was established in 1971, shortly after the end of the 1971 war. The hotline linked the Prime minister Secretariat in Islamabad via Directorate-General of Military Operations (DGMO) to Secretariat Building in New Delhi.
The hotline have seldom been used by the military leadership of India and Pakistan, even at the time of an escalation of tension. It is also called as Hotline Linkage. In regards to the Moscow–Washington hotline model, the hotline serves the purpose, as both technologically and strategic rationale, for establishing the link between two counties. The hotlines Islamabad–Delhi hotline is a secure communication link over many procedural operations are obtained in different formats.
According the Indian media sources, the hotline was established by the governments of India and Pakistan shortly after the end of 1971 war. The Foreign ministries of India and Pakistan did signed the mutual agreement for the implementation of the hotlines. The hotlines were modeled directly on Moscow–Washington hotline which was established in 1963. The hotline became operation 1970s after both countries' foreign ministries transmitting the messages.
The next usage of the hotlines was in 1991 between the militaries of India and Pakistan to work on confidence-building measure. The second usage of hotline was in 1997, when both countries informed each other on trade issues. In 1998, during which, when both countries had publicly conducted nuclear tests, the hotlines were extensively used between the leaders of both countries. Since 2005, the hotlines are used by each country to inform their nuclear missile tests in the region.
There are other hotlines for issues involving the terrorism (established in 2011), cyber warfare, and another hotline for record communications on prevention of the nuclear risk. The nuclear hotline was set up on 20 June 2004, which was initiated by President Pervez Musharraf with the assistance of United States military officers (as an advisers) in his regime.
- Ahmar, edited by Moonis (2001). The challenge of confidence-building measures in South Asia. New Delhi, India: Har-Anand. ISBN 8124108404.
- Malhotra, Jyoti (Saturday, October 24, 1998). "The hotline that has cooled Indo-Pak pressures". Express India, 1998. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- editor, Janne E. Nolan, (1994). Cooperation and security in the 21st century. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. ISBN 0815760981.
- Thorpe, Edgar; Thorpe, Showick. The Pearson General Knowledge Manual (10th ed. ed.). New Delhi: Pearson. ISBN 8131761908.
- AsiaNews/Agencies (August 11, 2005; 09:31). "India and Pakistan: A hotline against nuclear risk". Asia News. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Dean Nelson, New Delhi (4:12PM BST 29 Mar 2011). "India and Pakistan to establish counter-terrorism hotline". Telegraph, Uk. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- The Independent—Monday, June 21, 2004--"India and Pakistan to Have Nuclear Hotline":