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|Cyrillic letter Izhitsa|
|Cyrillic numerals: 400|
|Majuscule: U+0474 0476|
|Minuscule: U+0475 0477|
|List of Cyrillic letters|
Izhitsa (Ѵ, ѵ; Russian: И́жица) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet and several later alphabets, usually the last in the row. It originates from the Greek letter ypsilon (Υ, υ) and was used in words and names derived from or via Greek, such as кѵрилъ (kürilǔ, 'Cyril') or флаѵии (flavii, 'Flavius'). It represented sounds /i/ or /v/ as normal letters и and в respectively. The Glagolitic alphabet has a corresponding letter with the same name izhitsa (Ⱛ, ⱛ). Also, izhitsa in its standard form or (mostly) in a tailed variant (similar to lowercase y) was a part of a digraph оѵ/оу representing sound /u/ (the digraph is known as Cyrillic letter Uk, and today's Cyrillic letter U originates from its simplified form).
The letter's traditional name izhitsa (ижица) is explained as a diminutive either of the word иго (igo, 'yoke'), due to the letter's shape, or of иже (izhe, 'which'), the name of the "main" Cyrillic and Glagolitic letters for the same sound /i/.
The numeral value of Cyrillic izhitsa is 400 (Glagolitic izhitsa has no numeral value). Church Slavonic editions printed in Russia use a tailed variant of the letter for the numeral purpose, whereas editions from Serbia or Romania (including books in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet), as well as early printed books from Ukraine, prefer a basic form without the tail.
In the Russian language, the use of izhitsa became progressively rarer during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. At the beginning of the twentieth century, there was only one word with relatively stable spelling with izhitsa: мѵро (müro, 'myrrh') and its derivatives. The orthographic reforms of 1917-1918 do not mention the letter at all, so it “died” with no formal act.
The traditional spelling of Serbian was more conservative. It preserved all etymologically motivated izhitsas in words of Greek origin. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić had reformed the Serbian alphabet in the beginning of the nineteenth century and eliminated the letter, but the old spelling was used in some places as late as the 1880s.
(New) Church Slavonic 
Izhitsa is still in use in the Church Slavonic language. Like Greek ypsilon, it can be pronounced /i/ as и, or /v/ as в. The basic distinction rule is simple: izhitsa with stress and/or aspiration marks is a vowel and therefore pronounced /i/; izhitsa without diacritical marks is a consonant and pronounced /v/. Unstressed /i/-sounding izhitsas are marked with a special diacritical mark, the so-called kendema or kendima (from the Greek word κέντημα ['kjεndima]). The shape of kendema over izhitsa may vary: in books of Russian origin, it typically looks like double grave or sometimes like double acute. In older Serbian books, kendema most often looked like two dots (trema) or might even be replaced by a surrogate combination of aspiration and acute. These shape distinctions (with the exception of aspiration+acute) have no orthographical meaning and must be considered just as font style variations, so the Unicode name “izhitsa with double grave” is slightly misleading. Izhitsa with kendema (majuscule: Ѷ, minuscule: ѷ) is not a separate letter of the alphabet, but it may have personal position in computer encodings (e.g., Unicode). Historically, izhitsa with kendema corresponds to the Greek ypsilon with trema (or διαλυτικά: Ϋ, ϋ). While in modern editions of ancient and modern Greek the trema is used only to prevent a digraph (as <ευ> [εv/εf] versus <εϋ> [εi]), Slavonic kendema-usage still continues that of many mediaeval Greek manuscripts, where the "diaeresis" sign was often used simply to mark an ypsilon or iota as such, irrespective of any other vowels (e.g. δϊαλϋτϊκά, which would not be correct by today's conventions).
Traditional orthography of the Romanian language (see Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) used izhitsa in the same Church Slavonic manner, with all the above-mentioned pecularities. This writing system was used until about 1860 in Romania and until 1910s in church books in Moldova.
The Cyrillic letter Izhitsa was also used historically in certain loanwords in the Cyrillic script version of Aleut.
Izhitsa as a replacement of a different character 
In Russian typography, the capital form of izhitsa has traditionally been used instead of the Roman numeral V, the tradition survived several decades longer than izhitsa as a letter of the alphabet.
Computing codes 
|Unicode name||CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IZHITSA||CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IZHITSA||CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER
IZHITSA WITH DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT
|CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER
IZHITSA WITH DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT
|UTF-8||209 180||D1 B4||209 181||D1 B5||209 182||D1 B6||209 183||D1 B7|
|Numeric character reference||Ѵ||Ѵ||ѵ||ѵ||Ѷ||Ѷ||ѷ||ѷ|
- Tailed izhitsa has no individual position in Unicode, CYRILLIC CAPITAL/SMALL LETTER U (U+0423, U+0443) is supposed to represent it.
- A Berdnikov and O Lapko, "Old Slavonic and Church Slavonic in TEX and Unicode", EuroTEX ’99 Proceedings, September 1999 (PDF)
- F Lauritzen, Michael the Grammarian's irony about hypsilon: a step towards reeconstructing Byzantine pronuntiation, Byzantinoslavica 67 (2009) 231-240