Dotted I (Cyrillic)

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Cyrillic letter
soft-dotted i
Cyrillic letter dotted I - uppercase and lowercase.svg
Numeric value: 10
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
А Б В Г Ґ Д Ђ
Ѓ Е Ѐ Ё Є Ж З
Ѕ И Ѝ І Ї Й Ј
К Л Љ М Н Њ О
П Р С Т Ћ Ќ У
Ў Ф Х Ц Ч Џ Ш
Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э Ю Я
Non-Slavic letters
Ӑ Ӓ Ә Ӛ Ӕ Ғ Ҕ
Ӻ Ӷ Ԁ Ԃ Ӗ Ӂ
Җ Ӝ Ԅ Ҙ Ӟ Ԑ Ӡ
Ԇ Ӣ Ҋ Ӥ Қ Ӄ Ҡ
Ҟ Ҝ Ԟ Ԛ Ӆ Ԓ Ԡ
Ԉ Ԕ Ӎ Ӊ Ң Ӈ Ҥ
Ԣ Ԋ Ӧ Ө Ӫ Ҩ Ԥ
Ҧ Ҏ Ԗ Ҫ Ԍ Ҭ Ԏ
Ӯ Ӱ Ӳ Ү Ұ Ҳ Ӽ
Ӿ Һ Ԧ Ҵ Ҷ Ӵ Ӌ
Ҹ Ҽ Ҿ Ӹ Ҍ Ӭ
Ԙ Ԝ Ӏ
Archaic letters
Ҁ Ѻ ОУ Ѡ Ѿ Ѣ
Ѥ Ѧ Ѫ Ѩ Ѭ Ѯ
Ѱ Ѳ Ѵ Ѷ

The dotted i (І і; italics: І і ), also called decimal i, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

It commonly represents the close front unrounded vowel /i/, like the pronunciation of ⟨i⟩ in "machine".

It is used in the orthographies of the Belarusian, Kazakh, Khakas, Komi, Rusyn and Ukrainian languages, where it is the equivalent of the Cyrillic letter i (И и) as used in Russian and other languages. (Ukrainian і is therefore Russian и, while Ukrainian uses и for a sound close to Russian ы. Belarusian meanwhile uses only і and ы, excluding и entirely. Rusyn uses і, и, and ы for three different sounds: /i/, /ɪ/, and /ɨ/ respectively.) In Komi, і occurs only after the consonants д, з, л, н, с, and т and does not palatalize them, whereas и does. In Kazakh and Khakas, і represents /ɪ/, as in "bit".

Just like the Latin letters I/i (and J/j), the dot above the letter only appears in its lowercase form, and only if that letter is not combined with a diacritic above it (notably the diaeresis used in Ukrainian to note the letter yi of its alphabet, and the macron). But even in that case (and as with the Latin letters i and j), this dot has not always been rendered in historic texts where the lowercase form was present without any other diacritic, and some modern texts and font styles may still discard this "soft" dot on the lowercase letter, because it is necessary for the readability of the text only for cursive styles.

History[edit]

The Cyrillic soft-dotted letter i was derived from the Greek letter iota (Ι ι).

The name of this letter in the Early Cyrillic alphabet was и/ижеи (i/ižei), meaning "and".

In the Cyrillic numeral system, soft-dotted I had a value of 10.

In the early Cyrillic alphabet there was little or no distinction between the Cyrillic letter i (И и), derived from the Greek letter eta, and the soft-dotted letter i. They both remained in the alphabetical repertoire because they represented different numbers in the Cyrillic numeral system, eight and ten respectively, and are therefore sometimes referred to as octal I and decimal I.

Usage[edit]

Languages Notes
Belarusian, Kazakh, Khakas, Komi, Rusyn, Ukrainian In current use.
Macedonian This letter or the letter ‹Й› were used by Macedonian authors to represent the sound /j/ until the introduction of the letter ‹Ј›.
Russian In use until 1918, when a significant reform of the Russian orthography came into effect.
Bulgarian In use until 1878.

Rules for usage in Russian (pre-1918)[edit]

  • ‹і› was used before all vowels and before the semivowel ‹й›, except at the end of a morpheme in a compound word, where ‹и› is used: пяти + акровый = пятиакровый, (five-acre)
  • ‹и› was used as the last letter of a word and before consonants, except in міръ for "world, universe, local community, commons, society, laity", and words derived from it.

The distinction between миръ ("peace") and міръ ("world"), lost when they were merged to мир, led to the legend that Tolstoy's War and Peace was originally titled "War and (the) World". As it turns out, the spelling of the two variants of мир was an artificial distinction to separate two different definitions of what was originally in fact the same word (much as with English "to" vs. "too").

Computing codes[edit]

Character І і
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER
BYELORUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN I
CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER
BYELORUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN I
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1030 U+0406 1110 U+0456
UTF-8 208 134 D0 86 209 150 D1 96
Numeric character reference І І і і
KOI8-U 182 B6 166 A6
Code page 855 139 8B 138 8A
Windows-1251 178 B2 179 B3
ISO-8859-5 166 A6 246 F6
Macintosh Cyrillic 167 A7 180 B4

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of І at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of і at Wiktionary