The Java Sea (Indonesian: Laut Jawa) is a large (320,000-km²) shallow sea on the Sunda Shelf formed as sea levels rose at the end of the last ice age. The Java Sea lies between the Indonesian islands of Borneo to the north, Java to the south, Sumatra to the west, and Sulawesi to the east. Karimata Strait to its northwest links it to the South China Sea.
The sea measures about 1,500 km (900 miles) east-west by 420 km (260 miles) north-south and occupies a total surface area of 433,000 square km (167,000 square miles). It covers the southern section of the 1,790,000-square-km (690,000-square-mile) Sunda Shelf.
A shallow sea, it has a mean depth of 46 metres (151 feet). The almost uniform flatness of the sea bottom and the presence of drainage channels (traceable to the mouths of island rivers) indicate that the Sunda Shelf was once a stable, dry, low-relief land area (peneplain) above which were left standing a few monadnocks (granite hills that by virtue of their resistance to erosion form the present islands).
On the North. By the Southern limit of the South China Sea [Lucipara Point ( ) thence to Tanjong Nanka, the Southwest extremity of Banka Island, through this island to Tanjong Berikat the Eastern point ( ), on to Tanjong Djemang ( ) in Billiton, along the North coast of this island to Tanjong Boeroeng Mandi ( ) and thence a line to Tanjong Sambar ( ) the Southwest extreme of Borneo], the South coast of Borneo and the Southern limit of Makassar Strait [By a line from the Southwestern extreme of Celebes ( ), through the Southern point of Tana Keke, to the Southern extreme of Laoet ( ) thence up the West coast of that island to Tanjong Kiwi and thence across to Tanjong Petang, Borneo ( ) at the Southern end of Laoet Strait].
On the East. By the Western limit of Flores Sea [A line from Tg Sarokaja ( ) to the Western Paternoster island ( ) thence to the Northeastern Postiljon Island ( ) and to the West point of Laikang Bay, Celebes].
On the South. By the Northern and Northwestern limits of Bali Sea [A line from the Western Paternoster Island to the East point of Sepandjang and thence through this island to the West point of Gedeh Bay on the South coast of Kangean ( ). A line from the West point of Gedeh Bay, Kangean Island, to Tg Sedano, the Northeast extreme of Java and down the East coast to Tg Bantenan, the Southeast extreme of the island], the North and West coasts of Java to Java Hoofd ( ) its Western point, and thence a line to Vlakke Hoek ( ) the Southern extreme of Sumatra.
On the West. The East coast of Sumatra between Vlakke Hoek and Lucipara Point ().
The Battle of the Java Sea from February to March 1942, was one of the costliest naval battles of World War II. The naval forces of the Netherlands, Britain, Australia, and the United States were nearly destroyed trying to defend Java from Japanese attack.
The southern section of the seafloor has long been recognized as geologically similar to northern Java, where oil fields occur and extend under the sea. Prospects are also favourable for oil fields in the waters off southeast Kalimantan. As the site of successful exploration for petroleum and natural gas, the Java Sea has become the basis of Indonesia’s export program.
Fishing is an important economic activity in the Java Sea. Over 3,000 species of marine life are found in the area. A number of national parks exist in the area such as Karimunjawa. The Thousand Islands are located north of the national capital Jakarta, and are the city's only regency.
- "Pleistocene Sea Level Maps". The Field Museum. 2003.
- "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition". International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- Oosten, F. C. van The Battle of the Java Sea Publisher: London : I. Allen, 1976. ISBN 0-7110-0615-6
- Thomas, David A. Battle of the Java Sea. London: Pan Books, 1971. ISBN 0-330-02608-9
- AirAsia flight: teams retrieve bodies from Java Sea. The Guardian. Dec 30, 2014.
- Epton, Nina. The Islands of Indonesia. London, Pitman 1955
- Touwen, Jeroen (editor) (2001) Shipping and trade in the Java Sea region, 1870-1940 : a collection of statistics on the major Java Sea ports ISBN 90-6718-162-5
- (2008) "Java Sea a study on its economic impacts."