John I of Aragon

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John I
Chuan I d'Aragón.jpg
John I of Aragon, portrayed as a hunter.
King of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca and Count of Barcelona
Reign 6 January 1387 – 19 May 1396
Predecessor Peter IV
Successor Martin
Consort Martha of Armagnac
Violant of Bar
Issue
among others...
Joanna, Countess of Foix
Yolande, Duchess of Anjou
House House of Barcelona
Father Peter IV of Aragon
Mother Eleanor of Sicily
Born 27 December 1350
Perpignan
Died 19 May 1396(1396-05-19) (aged 45)
Foixà
Burial Poblet Monastery
Signature
Religion Roman Catholicism

John I (27 December 1350 – 19 May 1396), called by posterity the Hunter (Juan el Cazador in Castilian, Chuan lo Cazataire in Aragonese and Joan el Caçador in Catalan) or the Lover of Elegance (el Amador de la Gentileza in Castilian and l'Amador de la Gentilesa in Catalan), but the Abandoned (el Descurat) in his lifetime, was the King of Aragon from 1387 until his death.

Biography[edit]

John was the eldest son of Peter IV and his third wife, Eleanor, who was the daughter of Peter II of Sicily. He was born in Perpignan, in the province of Roussillon, which at that time belonged to Aragon. He was a man of character, with a taste for verse. He was a Francophile and married Violant of Bar against the wishes of his father, who had wanted him to marry a princess of Sicily.[1] His last marriage was happy. His wife frequently participated in government, since the king was often ill.[2]

Once on the throne, John abandoned his father's relatively Anglophile policy and made an alliance with France. He continued Aragon's support for the Pope of the Avignon line, Clement VII, in the Western Schism. John also made an alliance with Castile, and confirmed in 1388 a treaty with Navarre fixing borders between these kingdoms.

In 1389-90, the Aragonese battled the troops of the Count of Armagnac, John III, who was attempting to conquer the lands of the vassal taifa of Majorca. The attack went from Empordà to Gerona. The invaders were defeated in 1390 by Aragonese troops commanded by the Infante Martin, the king's brother (and successor).

During 1388-90, John gradually lost all lands of the Duchies of Athens and Neopatras in Greece. In 1391, John promulgated legislation on Jews in different cities of Aragon. Also in 1391, his administration faced a revolt in the vassal kingdom of Sicily, where the population had proclaimed Louis of Durazzo as king.

John was a protector of culture of Barcelona. He established in 1393 the Consistory of Barcelona (jocs florals), imitating the same office in Toulouse.

Aragon had been attempting to subjugate Sardinia since the reign of James II, and gradually the Aragonese had conquered most of the island. However, in the 1380s, the remaining independent principality Arborea became a fortress of rebellion and the Aragonese were rapidly driven back by Eleanor de Bas-Serra. The Aragonese continued in John's reign to attempt to suppress rebels in Sardinia and regain lost territories. However, during John's reign, practically the whole of Sardinia was lost.

John's reign was characterized by disastrous financial administration.

He died during a hunt in forests near Foixà by a fall from his horse, like his namesake, cousin, and contemporary, John I of Castile. He left no sons, and was succeeded by his younger brother Martin. Two daughters, however, survived to adulthood.

Family and children[edit]

From his first marriage in 24 June 1373 to Martha of Armagnac (18 February 1347 - 23 October 1378), daughter of Count Jean I of Armagnac:

  • Infante James of Aragon (Valencia, 24 June 1374 - Valencia, 22 August 1374)
  • Infanta Joanna of Aragon (Daroca, October 1375 - Valencia, September 1407), who married in 4 June 1392 at Barcelona to Mathieu, Count of Foix. Together they claimed the throne of Aragon after her father's death. Matthew of Foix invaded Aragonese territories, but was driven back by the new King Martin. Joanna died soon after, childless.
  • Infante John of Aragon (Barcelona, 23 July 1376 – 24/31 July 1376)
  • Infante Alfonso of Aragon (9 September 1377 – 1377)
  • Infanta Eleanor of Aragon (Zaragoza, 13 July 1378 – Zaragoza, 1378)

From his second marriage in 2 February 1380 to Yolande of Bar (c. 1365 - 3 July 1431), daughter of Robert I, Duke of Bar and Marie of Valois:

  • Infante James of Aragon (22 March 1382 – 1 September 1388), Duke of Girona and Count of Cervera
  • Infanta Yolande of Aragon (Zaragoza 1384 - Saumur 14 November 1442), married in 2 December 1400 at Louis II of Naples. She played a role in the history of France.
  • Infante Ferdinand of Aragon (18 March 1389 - Monzón, October 1389), Duke of Girona and Count of Cervera
  • Infanta Antonia of Aragon (1391 – 1392)
  • Infanta Eleonor of Aragon (2 January 1393 – July 1393)
  • Infante Peter of Aragon (13 January 1394 – January 1394), Duke of Girona and Count of Cervera
  • Infanta Joanna of Aragon (12 January – 4 August 1396)

Ancestors[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Goldstone. Goldstone. p. 5. 
  2. ^ Goldstone. Goldstone. p. 16. 

Sources[edit]

  • Goldstone, Nancy (2013). The Maid and the Queen: The Secret History of Joan of Arc. Phoenix Paperbacks, London. 
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
John I of Aragon
Cadet branch of the House of Barcelona
Born: 27 December 1350 Died: 19 May 1396
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Peter IV
King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca,
Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica;
Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne

1387–1396
Succeeded by
Martin
Duke of Athens
1387–1388
Succeeded by
Nerio I Acciaioli
Duke of Neopatria
1387–1390