John Warwick Montgomery
|John Warwick Montgomery|
October 18, 1931 |
Warsaw, New York, United States
|Citizenship||Naturalized British citizen|
|Education||11 earned degrees including, Ph.D, Th.D, and LLD|
|Occupation||Lawyer, Professor, Theologian|
|Known for||Christian apologetics|
|Spouse(s)||Lanalee de Kant Montgomery|
John Warwick Montgomery is a noted lawyer, professor, Lutheran theologian, and prolific author living in France. He was born October 18, 1931, in Warsaw, New York, United States. In 2007 he was named "Distinguished Research Professor of Philosophy and Christian Thought" at Patrick Henry College. He continues to work as a barrister specializing in religious freedom cases in international Human Rights law.
Since 2007 he is Emeritus Professor at University of Bedfordshire, England, where from 1995–2007 he held a full professorship in law and humanities. He is the director of the International Academy of Apologetics, Evangelism & Human Rights, Strasbourg, France, and is the editor of the theological online journal Global Journal of Classical Theology.
Montgomery traces his ancestry back to Comte Roger de Montgomery who accompanied William the Conqueror in 1066 in the invasion of England. His other titles include Baron of Kiltartan and Lord of Morris, and Comte de St-Germain de Montgommery. Montgomery's more immediate branch of the family hailed from County Antrim in Ireland. His parents were Maurice Warwick Montgomery (owned a retail feed company) and Harriet (Smith) Montgomery. His one sibling, a sister, died in 2008. Montgomery has been twice married. His first wife is deceased. He married Lanalee de Kant, a professional harpist, in 1988. They have an adopted son, Jean-Marie, and two grandchildren, Sarah and William.
Montgomery is a scholarly maverick who has 11 earned degrees in multiple disciplines: philosophy, librarianship, theology, and law. His degrees include: the A.B. with distinction in Philosophy (Cornell University; Phi Beta Kappa), B.L.S. and M.A. (University of California, Berkeley), B.D. and S.T.M. (Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio), LL.B. (La Salle Extension University), M. Phil. in Law (University of Essex, England), Ph.D. (University of Chicago), Th.D. Doctorat d'Universite (University of Strasbourg), LLM and LLD in canon law (Cardiff University). He also holds an honorary doctorate awarded in 1999 by the Institute for Religion and Law, Moscow.
Montgomery became a Christian in 1949 as an undergraduate student majoring in the classics and philosophy at Cornell University. Upon graduation Montgomery then began studies in librarianship through the University of California, followed on by two degrees in theology, and ordination as a Lutheran clergyman. His M.A. thesis in library science was published by the University of California as A Seventeenth Century View of European Libraries. In 1959–60 he served on the faculty of theology as principal librarian in the Divinity school's library at the University of Chicago, whilst simultaneously undertaking doctoral studies in bibliographical history.
He then served as Chairman of the Department of History at Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada, where he began to develop a reputation as a Christian apologist. Some of his earliest apologetic lectures in defending the historical reliability of the gospel records were presented at the University of British Columbia and the lectures were subsequently published in his book History and Christianity.
On receiving a Canada Council Senior Research Fellowship, Montgomery commenced doctoral studies in theology at the University of Strasbourg, France. His doctoral dissertation, which was on the life and career of the Lutheran pastor Johannes Valentinus Andreae and his alleged connections with Rosicrucianism, was subsequently published as Cross and Crucible. Montgomery regards this particular text as his most important piece of scholarship.
After completing his Th.D (1964), Montgomery assumed a post as professor of church history at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois (1964–74). It was during the 1960s that he emerged as a significant spokesman for Protestant Evangelicals, writing as a regular columnist in the flagship periodical Christianity Today (1965–83).
He injected himself into the theological controversies of his denomination the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod concerning Biblical inerrancy and higher criticism. On the wider church scene he wrote against the death-of-God theology, and publicly debated one of its proponents Thomas J. J. Altizer at the University of Chicago in 1967. He was also critical of Karl Barth, Paul Tillich and Rudolf Bultmann. He summed up much of his opposition to Liberal Christianity and radical theologies in works such as Crisis in Lutheran Theology, The Suicide of Christian Theology and God's Inerrant Word.
His role as an apologist for the Christian faith extended to climbing Mount Ararat with interest in finding Noah's Ark and to debates with the American atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair (1967), situation ethicist Joseph Fletcher (1971), Australian atheist Mark Plummer (1986), humanist George A. Wells (1993), and Jesus Seminar scholar Gerd Ludemann.
During the 1970s Montgomery began training in the law with the twin aims of reintegrating Christian foundations into jurisprudence, and to integrate insights from legal theory and doctrines of proof relevant to furthering Christian evidentialist apologetics. To that end Montgomery established in 1980 The Simon Greenleaf School of Law in California, which is now part of Trinity International University. Montgomery resigned his post as Greenleaf Law School Dean and Professor in 1989. In 1991 he relocated to London, where he became a Barrister-at-Law, wrote widely on apologetics, defended international cases of religious freedom, and taught at the University of Bedfordshire. In 2009, Montgomery passed the French bar examinations and became an avocat à la Cour, barreau de Paris; he is a member of the Paris law firm of Noual Hadjaje Duval.
Montgomery's apologetic work has generally centred on establishing the divinity of Christ by assessing the historical and legal evidences for the resurrection. Much of this work has influenced popular apologists like Josh McDowell, Don Stewart, Francis J. Beckwith, Ross Clifford, Terry Miethe, Gary Habermas, Craig Parton, Rod Rosenbladt, Loren Wilkinson, Kerry McRoberts and Elliot Miller. He is an advocate of evidentialist apologetics, offering a distinctly Christian philosophy of history in his books The Shape of the Past and Where Is History Going?
Montgomery's interests in the occult has also yielded his studies on early Rosicrucianism (Cross and Crucible), demonic phenomena (Demon Possession), and analytic considerations of the occult as a spiritual search for truth (Principalities and Powers). In the 1980s he spent eight years as a Sunday evening radio broadcaster in California, and from 1988–92 a television presenter of "Christianity on Trial".
In his legal career Montgomery has, in addition to teaching law, practiced law in California, been admitted to the English bar as a barrister, is also licensed in France, taken higher degrees in ecclesiastical law at Cardiff University, and served as Director of Studies for the International Institute of Human Rights, Strasbourg (1979–81). He has written on legal-moral problems such as cryonics, stem-cell research, euthanasia, abortion and divorce, as well as arguing for a transcendental perspective in international human rights and jurisprudence. He has successfully represented clients in religious liberty cases before the Court of Appeals (1986) in Athens, Greece, and the European Court of Human Rights, Strasbourg (1997 and 2001).
Montgomery is author of over 235 works, including over one hundred scholarly journal articles and more than fifty books in eight languages. He regards his Tractatus Logico-Theologicus as the most comprehensive presentation of his theology and apologetic method. Articles and essays have appeared in periodicals such as Bibliotheca Sacra, Christian Century, Concordia Theological Quarterly, Ecclesiastical Law Journal, Eternity, Fides et Historia, Interpretation, Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation, Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Law and Justice, Library Quarterly, Modern Reformation, Muslim World, New Oxford Review, Religion in Life, Religious Education, Simon Greenleaf Law Review.
- John Warwick Montgomery manuscript collection established at Syracuse University Library, 1970, but this archive has now been transferred to Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary.
- John Warwick Montgomery, The Altizer-Montgomery Dialogue (Chicago: InterVarsity Press, 1967).
- Christ Our Advocate: Studies in Polemical Theology, Jurisprudence and Canon Law (Bonn, Germany: Verlag für Kultur und Wissenschaft/Culture and Science Publishers, 2002). ISBN 3-932829-40-9
- (ed.) Christianity for the Tough-Minded (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1973). ISBN 0-87123-079-8
- and C. E. B. Cranfield & David Kilgour, Christians in the Public Square: Law, Gospel & Public Policy (Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Institute for Law, Theology and Public Policy, 1996). ISBN 1-896363-05-9
- Chytraeus on Sacrifice: A Reformation Treatise in Biblical Theology (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1962). ISBN 0-570-03747-6
- Crisis in Lutheran Theology, 2 Vols., 2nd edition (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1973).
- Cross and Crucible: Johann Valentin Andreae (1586–1654) Phoenix of the Theologians (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1974). ISBN 90-247-5054-7
- Damned Through the Church (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1970). ISBN 0-87123-090-9
- (ed.) Demon Possession (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1975). ISBN 0-87123-102-6
- Ecumenicity, Evangelicals and Rome (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1969).
- (ed.) Evidence for Faith: Deciding the God Question (Dallas: Probe Ministries, 1991). ISBN 0-945241-15-1
- Faith Founded On Fact: Essays in Evidential Apologetics (Nashville & New York: Thomas Nelson, 1978). ISBN 0-8407-5641-0
- Giant in Chains: China Today and Tomorrow (Milton Keynes, UK: Word, 1994). ISBN 0-85009-550-6
- (ed). God's Inerrant Word (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1974). ISBN 0-87123-179-4
- Heraldic Aspects of the German Reformation (Bonn, Germany: Verlag für Kultur und Wissenschaft/Culture and Science Publishers, 2003). ISBN 3-932829-83-2
- History, Law and Christianity (Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Institute for Law, Theology and Public Policy, 2003). A revised and expanded version of History and Christianity (Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1971).
- How Do We Know There Is A God? (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1973). ISBN 0-87123-221-9
- Human Rights and Human Dignity (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986). ISBN 0-310-28571-2
- In Defense of Martin Luther (Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing, 1970).
- (ed). International Scholars Directory (Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, 1975).
- The 'Is God Dead?' Controversy (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1966).
- (ed). Jurisprudence: A Book of Readings (Strasbourg: International Scholarly Publishers, 1974).
- The Law Above the Law (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, Minnesota, 1975). ISBN 0-87123-329-0
- Law and Gospel: A Study in Jurisprudence (Oak Park, Illinois: Christian Legal Society, 1978).
- "The Marxist Approach to Human Rights: Analysis and Critique" in The Simon Greenleaf Law Review 3 (1983–84).
- (ed.) Myth, Allegory and Gospel (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellwoship, 1974). ISBN 0-87123-358-4
- Principalities and Powers (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1973). ISBN 0-87123-470-X
- The Quest for Noah's Ark 2nd edition (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1974). ISBN 0-87123-477-7
- The Repression of Evangelism in Greece: European Litigation vis-à-vis a Closed Religious Establishment (Lanham, New York & Oxford: University Press of America, 2001). ISBN 0-7618-1956-8
- A Seventeenth-Century View of European Libraries: Lomeier's De bibliothecis, Chapter X (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1962).
- The Shape of the Past (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1962; rev. ed. 1975). ISBN 0-87123-535-8
- The Shaping of America (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1976). ISBN 0-87123-227-8
- The Slaughter of the Innocents (Westchester, Illinois: Crossway Books, 1981). ISBN 0-89107-216-0
- Situation Ethics: True or False (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1972). ISBN 0-87123-525-0
- The Suicide of Christian Theology (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1970). ISBN 0-87123-521-8
- The Transcendent Holmes (Ashcroft, British Columbia: Calabash Press, 2000). ISBN 1-55310-013-1
- Tractatus Logico-Theologicus (Bonn, Germany: Verlag für Kultur und Wissenschaft/Culture and Science Publishers, 2003). ISBN 3-932829-80-8
- Where is History Going? (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1969).
Critical Independent Sources
- Kenneth D. Boa and Robert M. Bowman, Jr. Faith Has Its Reasons: An Integrative Approach to Defending Christianity (NAV Press, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 2001). ISBN 1-57683-143-4
- "John Warwick Montgomery's Apologetic" Special Issue of Global Journal of Classical Theology Volume 3, number 1 2002 ISSN 1521-6055
- Ross Clifford, John Warwick Montgomery's Legal Apologetic: An Apologetic for all Seasons (Verlag für Kultur und Wissenschaft [Culture and Science Publishers], Bonn, Germany, 2004). ISBN 3-938116-00-5
- William Dembski and Thomas Schirrmacher, eds. Tough-Minded Christianity: Honoring the Legacy of John Warwick Montgomery, Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8054-4783-5
- David R. Liefeld, "Lutheran Orthodoxy and Evangelical Ecumenicity in the Writings of John Warwick Montgomery," Westminster Theological Journal 50 (1988) pp. 103–126. ISSN 0043-4388
- Liviu, Damian, "John Warwick Montgomery: şi necesitatea istoriei în susţinerea adevărului teologic; Tratat de epistemologie teologică evidenţialistă" (thesis defended at the Baptist Theological Faculty, University of Bucharest, Romania, June, 2007).
- James Lutzweiler, "The Papers, Pulse, Person, Pictures, and Porpoise of John Warwick Montgomery (Special Collections Interest Group)," American Theological Library Association 2006 Proceedings, 68-70.
- "JWM home". Retrieved 2011-07-04.
- Halbrook, David (July 31, 2007). "Renowned Apologist John Warwick Montgomery Joins PHC Faculty". Patrick Henry College. Retrieved 2007-08-04.
- Tanfield Chambers, London, England J. W. Montgomery's Barrister Profile at Tanfield Chambers Montgomery has recently moved chambers to Ten Old Square, Lincoln's Inn Chambers of Leolin Price CBE QC
- William Dembski and Thomas Schirrmacher eds. Tough-Minded Christianity: Honoring the Legacy of John Warwick Montgomery, Nashville, Tennessee: B & H Publishing Group, 2008. ISBN 978-0-8054-4783-5
- Lynne Williams, Appointments of Chairs, Times Higher Education, 16 June 1995, UK Montgomery's Chair Appointment to University of Bedfordshire
- Editorial Board, Global Journal of Classical Theology
- "Debrett's People of Today" Montgomery's profile at Debrett's Biographical Reference of Leading Figures
- Journal Spécial des Sociétés - annonces légales et formalités, Paris, France, N° 164 à 166 – Dimanche 13 à mardi 15 juin 2010 http://www.viel.com/upPdf.php?id=00486
- Marquis Who's Who biographies updated 30 May 2011: Who's Who in Finance and Business, 31st Edition; Who's Who in the World, 8th through 27th Editions; Who's Who in American Law, 4th through 14th, 16th Editions; Who's Who in America, 44th through 47th, 51st through 65th Editions. Lexis Nexus access date 06 Aug 2011.
- Carla Rivera, "A Flair for Controversy" Los Angeles Times, Jan 11, 1989, California, Local section. Article Available Here to academics/subscribers
- MPACT Dissertations Information Academic Resource Info on Montgomery's Doctoral Dissertation from University of Chicago UNC School of Information and Library Science, and Indiana University School of Library and Information Science.
- Cardiff Law School J. W. Montgomery's Alumni Profile
- Cornell Daily Sun, vol. 68, Issue 181, 06 June 1952, p. 10, baccalaureate candidate announcements.
- Rudolf Hirsch, Review of A Seventeenth-Century View of European Libraries, Library Quarterly 33 (1963): 23-224.
- James R. Moore, "John Warwick Montgomery" in Christianity for the Tough-Minded, Montgomery ed. Minneapolis: Bethany, 1974, 291.
- See Ross Clifford, Leading Lawyers' Case for the Resurrection, Edmonton: Canadian Institute for Law, Theology & Public Policy, 1996, 30. Craig J. Hazen, "Ever Hearing but Never Understanding": A Response to Mark Hutchins's Critique of John Warwick Montgomery's Historical Apologetics" in Tough-Minded Christianity, Dembski & Schirrmacher eds. 22. Also refer to Montgomery, History and Christianity, Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1979, 5.
- Philip Johnson, "To Every Occultist an Answer: Assessing John Warwick Montgomery's Apologetic Critique of the Occult," in Tough-Minded Christianity, Dembski & Schirrmacher eds., 176.
- Montgomery's Christianity Today Articles are referenced in Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, Vol. 28, p. 766; Vol. 29, p. 782; Vol. 31, p. 752; Vol. 32, p. 768; Vol. 33, p. 700; Vol. 34, p. 713; Vol. 35 p. 710; Vol. 36 p. 718; Vol. 37, p. 732; Vol. 38, p. 883; Vol. 38, p. 897; Vol. 40, p. 986; Vol. 41, p. 1057; Vol. 42, p.1017, H. W. Wilson Co., New York, 1968–83.
- L. Russ Bush, "Preventing Theological Suicide: John Warwick Montgomery's Quest in the 1970s," in Tough-Minded Christianity, Dembski & Schirrmacher eds., 113–124. David R. Liefeld, "Lutheran Orthodoxy and Evangelical Ecumenicity in the Writings of John Warwick Montgomery," Westminster Theological Journal 50 (1988): 110–111. Kurt E. Marquart, Anatomy of An Explosion: A Theological Analysis of the Missouri Synod Conflict, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1978, 117.
- Tough-minded Christianity: Honoring the Legacy of John Warwick Montgomery edited by William A. Dembski, Thomas Schirrmacher, p.1
- Dr. John Warwick Montgomery debated Madalyn Murray O'Hair on live Chicago radio broadcast, 1967.
- Dr. John Warwick Montgomery debated Joseph Fletcher, at San Diego State University, February 11, 1971.
- Dr. John Warwick Montgomery debated Mark Plummer, in Sydney, Australia, February 14, 1986.
- Dr. John Warwick Montgomery debated Dr. George A. Wells, in London, England, February 10, 1993.
- Primary source recordings of, and information about the actual Montgomery debates Canadian Institute for Law, Theology and Public Policy These debates are discussed in Dallas K. Miller, "The Role of Public Debate in Apologetics" in Tough-Minded Christianity, Dembski & Schirrmacher eds., 452–477.
- Montgomery's Current Barrister Profile at Ten Old Square, Lincoln's Inn Chambers of Leolin Price CBE QC 
- Profile listing for Paris law firm of Noual Hadjaje Duval
- Ross Clifford, John Warwick Montgomery's Legal Apologetic: An Apologetic for all Seasons, Bonn: Verlag fur Kultur und Wissenschaft, 2004, 40–46. Kenneth D. Boa & Robert M. Bowman, Faith Has Its Reasons: An Integrative Approach to Defending Christianity, Colorado Springs: NAV Press, 2001, 167–169.
- Gary Habermas,"Evidential Apologetic Methodology: The Montgomery-Bahnsen Debate", p. 426ff, in Dembski & Schirrmacher eds. Tough-Minded Christianity, 426ff. Boa & Bowman, Faith Has Its Reasons, 194–196.
- Johnson, "To Every Occultist an Answer" Tough-Minded Christianity, Dembski & Schirrmacher, 168–190.
- TV episodes listed by Will Moore, "Bibliography" (Videotapes 1988–1992) in Tough-Minded Christianity, Dembski & Schirrmacher, 730–733
- Havers' Companion to the Bar Montgomery's profile in Havers'
- Cardiff Law School J.W. Montgomery's Alumni Profile
- Case of Larissis & others v Greece European Commission and Court of Human Rights 140/1996/759-761/958
- Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia & others v Moldova ECHR 45701/1999 (judgment 13.12.01)
- Terry Carter, "Fighting on foreign soil, religious right groups prepare for European legal battles" American Bar Association Journal, June 1998, Vol.84, p.32.
- Staff Writer, "Un american pe frontul romano-rus" Romanian Global News, Bucuesti, Romania, Friday, 23 March 2007. Extensive interview in Romanian with Dr. John Warwick Montgomery on the case of Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia & others v Moldova ECHR 45701/1999, and receiving the Patriarchal medal.Romanian Global News
- WorldCat Identities academic resource, accessed 05 Aug 2011:Montgomery's WorldCat Profile
- "Modern Reformation - Author Biography". Retrieved 2011-07-04.
- Montgomery's articles in these various journals are listed by Will Moore, "Bibliography" in Tough-Minded Christianity, Dembski & Schirrmacher eds, 704–734.
- Montgomery's books and the tapes of his numerous debates, lectures, and several university courses are available in the western hemisphere from the Canadian Institute for Law, Theology and Public Policy