|This article relies on references to primary sources. (May 2012)|
|Developer(s)||The Joomla Project Team|
|Initial release||17 August 2005|
|Stable release||2.5.22 (LTS) / 12 June 2014|
|Preview release||3.3.1 / 11 June 2014|
|Size||7.6 MB (compressed) 20.9 MB (uncompressed)|
|Type||Content management framework, Content management system|
|License||GNU General Public License|
Joomla is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) for publishing web content. It is built on a model–view–controller web application framework that can be used independently of the CMS.
Joomla is written in PHP, uses object-oriented programming (OOP) techniques (since version 1.5) and software design patterns, stores data in a MySQL, MS SQL (since version 2.5), or PostgreSQL (since version 3.0) database, and includes features such as page caching, RSS feeds, printable versions of pages, news flashes, blogs, polls, search, and support for language internationalization.
As of February 2014[update], Joomla has been downloaded over 50 million times. Over 7,700 free and commercial extensions are available from the official Joomla! Extension Directory, and more are available from other sources. It is estimated to be the second most used content management system on the Internet after WordPress.
Joomla was the result of a fork of Mambo on August 17, 2005. At that time, the Mambo name was a trademark of Miro International Pvt. Ltd., who formed a non-profit foundation with the stated purpose of funding the project and protecting it from lawsuits. The Joomla development team claimed that many of the provisions of the foundation structure violated previous agreements made by the elected Mambo Steering Committee, lacked the necessary consultation with key stakeholders and included provisions that violated core open source values.
Joomla developers created a website called OpenSourceMatters.org (OSM) to distribute information the software community. Project leader Andrew Eddie wrote a letter that appeared on the announcements section of the public forum at mamboserver.com. Over one thousand people joined OpenSourceMatters.org within a day, most posting words of encouragement and support. The website received the Slashdot effect as a result. Miro CEO Peter Lamont responded publicly to the development team in an article titled "The Mambo Open Source Controversy — 20 Questions With Miro". This event created controversy within the free software community about the definition of open source. Forums of other open-source projects were active with postings about the actions of both sides.
In the two weeks following Eddie's announcement, teams were re-organized and the community continued to grow. Eben Moglen and the Software Freedom Law Center (SFLC) assisted the Joomla core team beginning in August 2005, as indicated by Moglen's blog entry from that date and a related OSM announcement. The SFLC continue to provide legal guidance to the Joomla project.
On August 18, Andrew Eddie called for community input to suggest a name for the project. The core team reserved the right for the final naming decision, and chose a name not suggested by the community. On September 22, the new name, Joomla!, was announced. It is the anglicised spelling of the Swahili word jumla meaning all together or as a whole which also has a similar meaning in at least Arabic and Urdu. On September 26, the development team called for logo submissions from the community and invited the community to vote on the logo; the team announced the community's decision on September 29. On October 2, brand guidelines, a brand manual, and a set of logo resources were published.
On October 27, 2008, PACKT Publishing announced that Johan Janssens was the Most Valued Person (MVP), for his work as one of the lead developers of the 1.5 Joomla Framework and Architecture. In 2009 Johan Janssens received the Most Valued Person award for his role as Joomla architect and development coordinators.
|Version||Release date||Supported until|
Joomla 1.0 was released on September 22, 2005 as a rebranded release of Mambo 126.96.36.199 that combined other bug and moderate-level security fixes.
Joomla 1.5 was released on January 22, 2008, and the latest release of this version was 1.5.26 on March 27, 2012. This version was the first to attain long-term support (LTS); such versions are released each three major or minor releases and supported until three months after the next LTS version is released. April 2012 marks the official end-of-life of Joomla 1.5; with Joomla 3.0 released, support for Joomla 1.5 faded away in April 2013.
Joomla 2.5 was released on January 24, 2012, six months after 1.7.0. This version is a long term support (LTS) release. Originally this release was to be 1.8.0, however the developers announced August 9 that they would rename it to fit into a new version number scheme in which every LTS release is an X.5 release. This version was the first to run on other databases besides MySQL. Support version is extended until the end of 2014.
Joomla 3.0 was released on September 27, 2012. Originally, it was supposed to be released in July 2012; however, the January/July release schedule was uncomfortable for volunteers, and the schedule was changed to September/March releases. On December 24, 2012, it was decided to add one more version (3.2) to the 3.x series to improve the development life cycle and extend the support of LTS versions. This will also be applied to the 4.x series.
Joomla 3.1 was released on April 24, 2013. Release 3.1 includes several new features including tagging.
Joomla 3.2 was released on November 6, 2013. Release 3.2 highlighting Content Versioning.
Many web hosts have control panels for automatic installation of Joomla. On Windows, Joomla can be installed using the Microsoft Web Platform Installer, which automatically detects and installs dependencies, such as PHP or MySQL.
Many web sites provide information on installing and maintaining Joomla sites.
Joomla extensions extend the functionality of Joomla websites. Five types of extensions may be distinguished: components, modules, plugins, templates, and languages. Each of these extensions handles a specific function.
- Components are the largest and most complex extensions. Most components have two parts: a site part and an administrator part. Every time a Joomla page loads, one component is called to render the main page body. Components produce the major portion of a page because a component is driven by a menu item.
- Plugins are advanced extensions and are, in essence, event handlers. In the execution of any part of Joomla, a module or a component, an event may be triggered. When an event is triggered, plugins that are registered to handle that event execute. For example, a plugin could be used to block user-submitted articles and filter text.
- Templates describe the main design of a Joomla website. While the CMS manages the website content, templates determine the style or look and feel and layout of a site.
- Modules render pages in Joomla. They are linked to Joomla components to display new content or images. Joomla modules look like boxes, such as the search or login module. However, they don’t require html in Joomla to work.
- Languages are very simple extensions that can either be used as a core part or as an extension. Language and font information can also be used for PDF or PSD to Joomla conversions.
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