|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
|Developer(s)||Google Inc. and community.|
|Stable release||1.2.14 / March 1, 2014|
|Size||100 KiB production
724 KiB development
AngularJS is built around the belief that declarative programming should be used for building user interfaces and wiring software components, while imperative programming is excellent for expressing business logic. The framework adapts and extends traditional HTML to better serve dynamic content through two-way data-binding that allows for the automatic synchronization of models and views. As a result, AngularJS deemphasizes DOM manipulation and improves testability.
- Decouple DOM manipulation from application logic. This improves the testability of the code.
- Regard application testing as equal in importance to application writing. Testing difficulty is dramatically affected by the way the code is structured.
- Decouple the client side of an application from the server side. This allows development work to progress in parallel, and allows for reuse of both sides.
- Guide developers through the entire journey of building an application: from designing the UI, through writing the business logic, to testing.
Angular follows the MVC pattern of software engineering and encourages loose coupling between presentation, data, and logic components. Using dependency injection, Angular brings traditional server-side services, such as view-dependent controllers, to client-side web applications. Consequently, much of the burden on the backend is reduced, leading to much lighter web applications.
- Create a new Injector
- Compile service - The Compile service is like compiling in C or C++. It walks the DOM and locates all the directives such as "ng-app".
- Link phase - The link phase attaches all the directives to scope.
AngularJS directives allow the developer to specify custom and reusable HTML tags that moderate the behavior of certain elements.
- Declares an element as a root element of the application allowing behavior to be modified through custom HTML tags.
- Automatically changes the text of an HTML element to the value of a given expression.
- Similar to ng-bind, but allows two-way data binding between the view and the scope.
- Allows class attributes to be dynamically loaded.
- Instantiate an element once per item from a collection.
- ng-show & ng-hide
- Conditionally show or hide an element, depending on the value of a boolean expression. Show and hide is achieved by setting the CSS display style.
- Conditionally instantiate one template from a set of choices, depending on the value of a selection expression.
- The base directive responsible for handling routes that resolve JSON before rendering templates driven by specified controllers.
- Basic if statement directive which allow to show the following element if the conditions are true. When the condition is false, the element is removed from the DOM. When true, a clone of the compiled element is re-inserted.
Two-way data binding
AngularJS' two-way data binding is its most notable feature and reduces the amount of code written by relieving the server backend from templating responsibilities. Instead, templates are rendered in plain HTML according to data contained in a scope defined in the model. The
$scope service in Angular detects changes to the model section and modifies HTML expressions in the view via a controller. Likewise, any alterations to the view are reflected in the model. This circumvents the need to actively manipulate the DOM and encourages bootstrapping and rapid prototyping of web applications. AngularJS detects changes in models by comparing the values with stored earlier values in a process of dirty-checking, unlike Ember.js and Backbone.js which trigger listeners when the model values are changed.
In July 2012, the Angular team built a plugin for the Google Chrome browser called Batarang, that improves the debugging experience for web applications built with Angular. The extension aims to allow for easy detection of performance bottlenecks and offers a GUI for debugging applications. The extension is not compatible with recent releases of Angular.
Legacy browser support
AngularJS was originally developed in 2009 by Miško Hevery and Adam Abrons as the software behind an online JSON storage service, that would have been priced by the megabyte, for easy-to-make applications for the enterprise. This venture was located at the web domain "GetAngular.com", and had a few subscribers, before the two decided to abandon the business idea and release Angular as an open-source library.
Releases 1.0.x and 1.2.x are the stable versions, whereas 1.1.x contained breaking changes between minor releases (i.e. 1.1.x – 1.1.y).
|Mar 8, 2014||1.3.0-beta.1||retractable-eyebrow (unstable)|
|Mar 1, 2014||1.2.14||feisty-cryokinesis (stable)|
|Feb 14, 2014||1.2.13||romantic-transclusion (stable)|
|Feb 7, 2014||1.2.12||cauliflower-eradication (stable)|
|Feb 3, 2014||1.2.11||cryptocurrency-hyperdeflation (stable)|
|Jan 24, 2014||1.2.10||augmented-serendipity (stable)|
|Jan 15, 2014||1.2.9||enchanted-articulacy (stable)|
|Jan 10, 2014||1.2.8||interdimensional-cartography (stable)|
|Jan 3, 2014||1.2.7||emoji-clairvoyance (stable)|
|Dec 19, 2013||1.2.6||taco-salsafication (stable)|
|Dec 13, 2013||1.2.5||singularity-expansion (stable)|
|Dec 6, 2013||1.2.4||wormhole-blaster (stable)|
|Nov 27, 2013||1.2.3||unicorn-zapper (stable)|
|Nov 22, 2013||1.2.2||consciousness-inertia (stable)|
|Nov 14, 2013||1.2.1||underscore-empathy (stable)|
|Nov 8, 2013||1.2.0||timely-delivery (stable)|
|Oct 15, 2013||1.2.0rc3||ferocious-twitch (unstable)|
|Sep 4, 2013||1.2.0rc2||barehand-atomsplitting (unstable)|
|Aug 22, 2013||1.0.8||bubble-burst (stable)|
|Aug 13, 2013||1.2.0rc1||spooky-giraffe (unstable)|
|May 22, 2013||1.0.7||monochromatic-rainbow (stable)|
|May 22, 2013||1.1.5||triangle-squarification (unstable)|
|Apr 4, 2013||1.0.6||universal-irreversibility (stable)|
|Apr 3, 2013||1.1.4||quantum-manipulation (unstable)|
|Feb 22, 2013||1.1.3||radioactive-gargle|
|Feb 20, 2013||1.0.5||flatulent-propulsion|
|Jan 22, 2013||1.1.2||tofu-animation|
|Jan 22, 2013||1.0.4||bewildering-hair|
|Nov 26, 2012||1.1.1||pathological-kerning|
|Nov 26, 2012||1.0.3||bouncy-thunder|
|Aug 31, 2012||1.1.0||increase-gravatas|
|Aug 31, 2012||1.0.2||debilitating-awesomeness|
|Jun 25, 2012||1.0.1||thorium-shielding|
|Jun 13, 2012||1.0.0||temporal-domination (stable)|
|Jun 12, 2012||1.0.0rc12||regression-extermination|
|Jun 10, 2012||1.0.0rc11||promise-resolution|
|May 23, 2012||1.0.0rc10||tesseract-giftwrapping|
|May 14, 2012||1.0.0rc9||eggplant-teleportation|
|May 6, 2012||1.0.0rc8||blooming-touch|
|Apr 30, 2012||1.0.0rc7||rc-generation|
|Apr 20, 2012||1.0.0rc6||runny-nose|
|Apr 12, 2012||1.0.0rc5||reality-distortion|
|Apr 5, 2012||1.0.0rc4||insomnia-induction|
|Mar 29, 2012||1.0.0rc3||barefoot-telepathy|
|Mar 20, 2012||1.0.0rc2||silence-absorption|
|Mar 13, 2012||1.0.0rc1||moiré-vision|
|Jan 17, 2012||0.10.6||bubblewrap-cape|
|Nov 8, 2011||0.10.5||steel-fist|
|Oct 22, 2011||0.10.4||human-torch|
|Oct 13, 2011||0.10.3||shattering-heartbeat|
|Oct 8, 2011||0.10.2||sneaky-seagull|
|Sep 9, 2011||0.10.1||inexorable-juggernaut|
|Sep 2, 2011||0.10.0||chicken-hands|
|Aug 20, 2011||0.9.19||canine-psychokinesis|
|Jul 29, 2011||0.9.18||jiggling-armfat|
|Jun 30, 2011||0.9.17||vegetable-reanimation|
|Jun 7, 2011||0.9.16||weather-control|
|April 11, 2011||0.9.15||lethal-stutter|
|April 1, 2011||0.9.14||key-maker|
|Mar 13, 2011||0.9.13||curdling-stare|
|Mar 3, 2011||0.9.12||thought-implanter|
|Feb 8, 2011||0.9.11||snow-maker|
|Jan 26, 2011||0.9.10||flea-whisperer|
|Jan 13, 2011||0.9.9||time-shift|
|Dec 23, 2010||0.9.8||astral-projection|
|Dec 10, 2010||0.9.7||sonic-scream|
|Dec 6, 2010||0.9.6||night-vision|
|Nov 25, 2010||0.9.5||turkey-blast|
|Nov 18, 2010||0.9.4||total-recall|
|Nov 10, 2010||0.9.3||cold-resistance|
|Nov 3, 2010||0.9.2||faunal-mimicry|
|Oct 26, 2010||0.9.1||repulsion-field|
|Oct 20, 2010||0.9.0||dragon-breath|
Comparisons to Backbone.js
- The most prominent feature that separates the two libraries is in the way models and views are synchronized. Whereas AngularJS supports two way data-binding, Backbone.js relies heavily on boilerplate code to harmonize its models and views.
- Backbone.js communicates well with RESTful backends. A very simple use of REST APIs is also available with AngularJS using the $resource service. AngularJS also provide a $http service which is more flexible, connecting to remote servers either through a browser's
XMLHttpRequestobject or via
- AngularJS templating uses a combination of customizable HTML tags and expressions. Backbone.js uses different templating engines such as Mustache.
- "What Is Angular?". Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Writing Directives". angularjs.org. November 28, 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- "5 Awesome AngularJS Features". Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Misko Hevery. "Databinding in angularjs". Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- Batarang homepage
- "AngularJS 1.0 -> 1.2 Roadmap". blog.angularjs.org. July 26, 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
- "AngularJS Code Names".
- "Backbonejs vs Angularjs: Demystifying the myths". Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Kozlowski, Pawel; Darwin, Peter Bacon (August 23, 2013). Mastering Web Application Development with AngularJS (1st ed.). Packt Publishing. p. 372. ISBN 978-1782161820.
- Official website
- AngularJS Modules Repository
- Built with AngularJS
- AngularJS at Google Groups
- AngularJS at Google+
- Batarang Chrome plugin
- NG-CONF 2014 Videos and Slides