Nandi–Markweta languages

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Kalenjin
Kalenjin
Ethnicity: Kalenjin people, some Dorobo
Geographic
distribution:
East African Rift
Linguistic classification: Nilo-Saharan?
ISO 639-3: kln
Glottolog: cent2293  (Central Kalenjin)[1]
mark1255  (Markweta)[2]
mosi1247  (Mosiro)[3]

The Kalenjin language is a macrolanguage spoken in Kenya, which comprises nine dialects of varying mutual intelligibility of the Kalenjin branch of the Nilotic language family. The total number of speakers of all dialects, according to Ethnologue 18 (2015), is 4,823,400. [4]

The name Kalenjin comes from a Nandi expression meaning "I say (to you)", and it gained prominence in the late 1940s and the early 1950s, when several Kalenjin-speaking peoples united under it. This ethnic consolidation created a major ethnic group in Kenya, and also involved a standardization of the Kenyan Kalenjin dialects. Outside of Kenya, the name Kalenjin has been extended to related languages such as Okiek of Tanzania and the Elgon languages of Uganda, which is why the term Nandi (i.e. the name of one of the principal dialects) is sometimes used in the linguistic literature to refer to the languages of the Kenyan Kalenjin peoples. However, the dialect with the highest number of speakers is Kipsigis - and not Nandi, as it is often believed.

Varieties[edit]

The nine dialects that comprise the macrolanguage Kalenjin, according to Ethnologue 18 (2015) are Kipsigis, Nandi, Keiyo, Terik, Tugen, Markweeta, Sabaot, Okiek, and Pökoot.[5]

  • Kipsigis: Kipsigis is the dialect with the most speakers (1,916,000 as of 2009). It is spoken primarily in Bomet, Kericho, Nakuru , and Narok counties.[6] Taaitta Toweett's (1979) A Study of Kalenjin Linguistics is based on the author's native Kipsigis dialect.
  • Nandi: Nandi is the second dialect in terms of number of speakers (949,000 as of 2009), and is spoken in the Nandi and Uasin Gishu counties, as well as in some villages north of Kisumu town in Kisumu County.[7] It is the first Kalenjin dialect for which a grammar was written, back in 1909 (Hollis 1909), and it is still the dialect that has been studied the most by linguists.
  • Tugen:
  • Terik:
  • Markweeta:
  • Okiek:
  • Sabaot:

The Lord's Prayer in Kalenjin[edit]

Kwandanyo ne mi kipsengwet,
Ingotililit kaineng'ung.
Ingonyo bounateng'ung.
Ingoyaak eng' ng'ony mageng'ung',
Ko u ye kiyaei eng' kipsengwet.
Konech rani amitwogikyok che bo ra.
Ak inyoiywech kaat lelutikyok,
ko u ye kinyochini kaat che lelwech.
Amemutech ole mi yomset,
ago soruech eng' ne ya.
Amu neng'ung' bounatet, ak kamuktaet, ak torornatet, agoi koigeny.
Amen.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Central Kalenjin". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Markweta". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Mosiro". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/kln
  5. ^ http://www-01.sil.org/iso639-3/documentation.asp?id=kln&_ga=GA1.2.1006111293.1437594115
  6. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/sgc
  7. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/niq/18
  8. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/language/eyo
  • Rottland, Franz (1982) Die Südnilotischen Sprachen: Beschreibung, Vergelichung und Rekonstruktion (Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik vol. 7). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.

External links[edit]