Shilluk language

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Not to be confused with Sillok language.
Shilluk (Chollo)
Dhøg Cøllø
Pronunciation Zɔg ʃɔllɔ
Native to South Sudan & Sudan
Region Upper Nile State & White Nile State (Ogïgg)
Ethnicity Shilluk people (Cøllø) or Sudanese
Native speakers
unknown (175,000 cited 1982)[1]
Latin
Official status
Official language in
Shilluk Kingdom
Language codes
ISO 639-3 shk
Glottolog shil1265[2]

Shilluk or Dhøg Cøllø[3] is a Nilotic language spoken by the Shilluk people of South Sudan and Sudan. It is closely related to Luo and other Nilotic peoples' languages. There are twenty nine (29) alphabetic characters in Dhøg Cøllø; ten (10) vowels and 19 consonants.

Dhøg Cøllø Samples[edit]

Dhøg Cøllø Alphabets[edit]

New Dhøg Cøllø Alphabetical Orders[edit]

Uppercase Lowercase Example Uppercase Lowercase Example
A a Agagø Ä ä Älø
B b Bulø C c Cängø
D d Dagø DH dh Dhøgø
E e Erø Ë ë Ëërø
G g Gwelø I i Idhø
Ï ï Ïdhdh J j Jaldwøngø
K k Këëlø L l Lebø
M m Malø N n Namø
NG ng Ngerø NH nh Nhuunhø
NY ny Nyäälø Ø ø Ødø
Ö ö Ölø O o Olidhø
P p Palø R r Rëëjø
T t Tulø TH th Thølø
U u Wu W w Wangø
Y y Yadhø

Phonetics, Symbols and Pronunciations[edit]

Symbol Written Language (Formal) Pronunciation Short Form Informal Usage
ɑ aga ɑgɑg agag agak
ʌ ä ʌl äl äl
e lell (plural of leelø) lel lel lel
ə pë pəm pëm pëm
i idhø iz idh Ithø/ith
ïdhdh (plural of idhø) z ïdh ïthi/ïdhi
ɔ ø ɔd ød øt/øtø
ɔː thøø θɔː ... ...
o theö θuol thwöl ...
pöö pr pöör ...
ɒ tho θɒm thom ...
ʊ ludhø lʊz ludh luthø/luth
muujø muː muuj muucø/muuc
u ku kul kul ...
nhuudhø nz nhudh nhuth/nhuthø
nj nywögø njuoːg nywög nywökø/nywök
b bulø bʊl bul ...
cängø зŋk cäng ...
g gaag gɑːg gaag gaak/gaakø
p pälø pʌl päl ...
ŋ nyingø njiŋ nying ...
ʃ cingø ʃ cing ...
… etc. …

Grammar[edit]

In Dhøg Cøllø, Grammar is mostly considered important in translations of other languages into Dhøg Cøllø and among or when communicating with fluent speakers, writers, listeners, and readers.

Example of a Simple and Complete Sentence in Dhøg Cøllø is this: Men ba rëëjø. According to the words orders in part of legal and well organized speech, Men ba rëëjø simply means "This is a fish" in English.

Similar to English or other Latin based languages and Nilotic languages, Dhøg Cøllø does follow grammar rules and words orders to construct a complete sentence like SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT in simple sentence construction. Example: Dhaanhø ba läyø thyewø. Dhaanhø (subject) + ba (verb) + läyø (objective phrase) + thyewø (adverbial phrase/degree). Dhaanhø = Human being; ba = is; läyø = animal; thyewø = too. Therefore, the whole sentence, "Dhaanhø ba läyø thyewø means "Human being is an animal too".

Articles including "a" and "the" in English are less valuable in Dhøg Cøllø.

The most significant thing to recall when writing, reading, speaking or listening Dhøg Cøllø is that Nouns or Noun phrases end with "ø". Singular or stand alone words end with "ø" and "ki" or "wala" is used instead of comma "," to join a group of words, sentences, phrases, etc. "geki" is also used as a last joining word or final clause. Sometimes, "Ka" is used in place of "ki" at the beginning of sentence as a continuation of dialogues or long paragraph to avoid a run-on-sentences and comma splice sentences in Dhøg Cøllø.[citation needed]

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Preposition Determiner Tenses
Unlike in other Sudanese written language(s), Noun always end with “ø” in a Chollo language (Dhøg Cøllø) Like any single or stand alone word in Dhøg Cøllø, Verb in Dhøg Cøllø always end with “ø” – in any official written Dhøg Cøllø verbs. “ø” is always omitted and the supported word is always ended with “ø” in Dhøg Cøllø. If the adjective stand alone as supporting word in Dhøg Cøllø, “ø” is always kept at the end of the adjectives, as in the examples below. Like any word that support verb, noun or adjective and/or adjective in Dhøg Cøllø, “ø” is always omitted at the end of any supporting adverb as in words below. Are words like “yijø” “ki” “ya” “wijø” “tøgø” “oledhø” … Are words which end with or words like “-i“ “-e” “-a” “aca” “enø” “menø” “møgø” … As in many written languages, Dhøg Cøllø has simple, continue, phrases, clauses, word clauses, participle, sentences etc. as in examples below.
e.g.: Palø, Okwölø, Nyikaayø, Winyø, Byëëlø, Malø, … e.g.: Gwedø, Camø, Cyädhø, Jwanø, Kwøbø, Muulø, Madhø … e.g.: Carø, Rajø, Døøjø, Caarø, Døj Carø, Myëërø, Dwøngø, Dwøngø ki Døjø, Raajø ki men dwøngø, kwaarø, loojø, marø, omïlø, ocoolø, nyacøllø, nganø, nyänø, cyägø, … e.g.: 1) Cyäg ki namø 2). Ogødhi myëër carø ki men dwøngø. 3). Abängø ca kwinn ki kwin teegø. … e.g.: Yij ødø, Dhøg kalø, Wij namø, Thäng kiirø, … e.g.: ogødhi, mii, mee, thalle, bula, bule, kune, kun aca, kun cenee, … e.g.: SIMPLE TENSE: In Dhøg Cøllø, simple sentence = Subject + Verb + Object.

Present: Acolø a gwedø wänyø.

Past: Acolø a agwed wänyø.

Future: Acolø ogwed wänyø.

Sentence: A sentence in Dhøg Cøllø can always begin with a capital letter and a sentence has to be organized according to Dhøg Cøllø Words Orders. Example: Wïy Bølø nyi ca kedhdh be purr ki byell geki (Conjunction) dwarr ki läyy ki (Preposition) wagø ki wangnga abëëde e nuud ki käälø yi Jwøgø. Subjects or Noun phrases + Verbs or Verb phrases + Adverbial (adverbial phrases) + Objects (Objective phrase). In the example, Wïy Bølø (Subject/Noun phrase) + nyi ca kedhdh be purr (Verb/Verb phrase) + ki byell geki (Conjunction) dwarr ki läyy "ki" (Preposition) wagø ki wangnga abëëde (Adverbial/adverbial phrases) e nuud ki käälø yi Jwøgø (Object/Objective Phrase).

Pronoun (Case 1), Pronoun (Case 2), Preposition, Conjunction and Gerund (Ca)[edit]

Pronoun (Case 1) Pronoun (Case 2) Preposition Conjunction Gerund (Ca)
1st Persons:

Singular:

ya

Plural:

wa

2nd Persons:

Singular:

yïnø, gïnø, gï

Plural:

wunø, gïgø (gïgg)

3rd Persons:

Singular:

enø,

Plural:

genø, ge

1st Persons:

Singular:

yanø

Plural:

wønø

2nd Persons:

Singular:

yïnø, gïnø, gï

Plural:

wunø, gïgø (gïgg)

3rd Persons:

Singular:

enø

Plural:

genø, ge

yij, wïj, kell, ki, ya, tøg, gød, ya -, deng, oledh, bøl, kaam, yenga, yenge, twøng, …

Example:

1. Acølø ya kalø.

2. Abänø ya wij yadhø.

3. Dengø nuudø ki kallø.

4. Oyadhø bëëd a ki tøg namø.

ki, ge, geki, ka, de, ke, wala, padh, o, …

Example:

1. Acolø geki Bølø.

2. Wïy Bolø ba jal purø (jalpurø) o ba jal mayø (jalmayø).

3. Akwølø ba ngandwøngø, de Acwänyø ba othinhø.

ca cyädhdh, ca camm, ca thall, ca gwedd, ca ninn, ca tugg, ca nwayy, ca wörr, ca ngett, ca kwøbb …

Example:

1. Acolø ca gwedd.

2. Bolø ca rangng.

3. Wïy Bølø ca purr.

Pronouns (Case 3), Possessives[edit]

1st Person 2nd Persons 3rd Persons
Singular Case 1: mia

Case 2: ria

Case 3: gïnø, ri gïnø

Case 1: mii

Case 2: rii

Case 3: gïnø, ri gïnø

Cas1: mee, mi gønø

Case 2: ri gønø

Case 3: gïnø, ri gïnø

Plural Case 1: møø wønø

Case 2: ri wønø

Case 3: gïgg, ri gïgg

Case 1: møø wunø

Case 2: ri wunø

Case 3: gïgg, ri gïgg

Case 1: møø genø/gïgg

Case 2: ri genø

Case 3: gïgg, ri gïgg

To Be and Participles[edit]

To be (Plain Simple Present) Present Perfect Past Participle Future Perfect
ya kedhø. ya nyi kedhdh. ya bëëd ya akedhdh. ya ba men okedhdh.
ya jwanø. ya nyi jwann. ya bëëd ya ajwann. ya ba men ojwann.
yï jwanø. yï nyi jwann. yï bëëd yï ajwann. yï ba men ojwann.
ge/wø/wu/gïgg/gïn kedhø. ge, wø, wu, gïgg/gïn nyi kedhdh. Case1:

ge/wø/wu bëëd ge/wø/wu akedhdh.

Case 2:

gïgg/gïn bëëd a gïgg/gïn akedhdh.

Case 1:

ge/wø/wu/gïgg/gïn ba møg ge/wø/wu/gïgg/gïn okedhdh.

Case 2:

ge/wø/wu/gïgg/gïn obëëd ga/wø/wu/gïgg/gïn okedhdh.

kedhu, kedha, kedhe, kedhi nyi kedhu, nyi kedha, nyi kedhe, nyi kedhi wu/wa/ge/a bëëd wu/wa/ge/e akedhdh wu/wa/ge/a bëëd wu/wa/ge/e ba møg/men okedhdh

Vowels[edit]

Vowels: a ä e ë i ï ø ö o u
Phonetics: ɑ "a" ʌ "ä" ɛ "e" e "ë" ɪ "i" (ɪ),ɨ "ï" ɔ "ø" o "ö" ɒ "o" u, ʊ "u"
Monophthongs: ɑgɑ ä ke kë olidhø olïdhdh dhø dhöngø bo ku
Monophthongs: ɑː "aa" ʌː "ää" ɛː "ee" e "ëë" ɪː "ii" (ɪ)ː, ɨː "ïï" ɔː "øø" ɒː "oo" uː, ʊː "uu"
Monophthongs: abaa abʌː akee këë kii kïï pøø pöö boo puu
Diphthongs: uɑ "wa" uʌ "wä" uɛ "we" ue "wë" yɪ, "i, y" u(ɪ), uɨ "wï" uɔ "wø" uo "wöl" uɒ "wo" uʊ "uu"
Diphthongs: akwa d gwe k wiyø, wi ty, tyy jaldngø ok bwongø tuungø
Diphthongs: aɪ "ay" ʌɪ "äy" ɛɪ "ey" eɪ "ëy" ɪy "i, y" (ɪ)y, ɨy "ïy, ï" ɔɪ "øy" oɪ "öy" ɒɪ "oy" uɪ, ʊɪ "uy"
Diphthongs: yayø yäyø ateyø wëyø wi, wiy wiyø kwïyø, kwïy, kwï bøyy göyø aboyø yuyø

etc. ...

Consonants[edit]

Dental Velar Labial Palatal Alveolar
Nasal ny ng m nh n
Approximant j, y
Lateral w l
Rhotic r
Plosive th, dh g, k b, p c t, d

Tone, Writing and Reading Dhøg Cøllø[edit]

Simple & Awkward (Dhøg Cøllø) Sentence English (Awkward meaning) Correction (Dhøg Cøllo) English (meaning)
Acolø athal yi akeelø. ... Completed sentence but it is awkward. Ashol is cooked by akeelo (food). Akeelø athal yi Acolø. Akeelo is cooked by Ashol.
Bøyø ca lengng ki Colø. The net is fishing with Shol. Colø ca lengng ki bøyø.

Or Bøyø ca lengng yi Colø.

Shol is fishing with the net.

Or The net is being used (for fishing) by Shol.

In Dhøg Cøllø tone does make a great difference. Reading and speaking Dhøg Cøllø is as easy as tone can forecast and as simple as knowing idiom or slang of Dhøg Cøllø, but writing is as complicated as writing other languages. For example: Like many of today’s languages, tone in Dhøg Cøllø is based on who is directing it or who the tone is being directed to. It could be high, mid-high, mid, mid-low mid-fall, fall or low or it could be a change/exchange in vowel(s) or consonant(s) or direct of indirect speech.

Example:

1. pajø meni! = this city/town!

2. pajø meni. = this city/town.

3. pajø meni? = this city/town?

4. yïnø, yanø, mia, mii, ... = You, I, mine, yours, ...

Tone is very common in Cøllø folklore, poems, songs, and other Cøllø literature sources.[citation needed]

Old Dhɔ Cɔlɔ Alphabets[edit]

Dhɔ Cɔlɔ Alphabetical Orders[edit]

UPPER CASE lowercase Example UPPERCASE lowercase Example
A a Akurɔ Ä ä Älɔ
Ɛ ɛ Ɛrɔ E e Edhi
I i Idhɔ Ï ï Ïdhdhi
Ɔ ɔ Ɔdɔ Ö ö Ölɔ
O o Olidhɔ U u Unɔ (Nimi Unidhyangɔ)
W w Waŋɔ Y y Yadhɔ
B b Bulɔ C c Cäŋɔ
D d Dyɛlɔ DH dh Dhyaŋɔ
G g Gaagɔ J j Jaldwɔŋɔ
K k Kalɔ L l Lɛɛlɔ
M m Majɔ N n Namɔ
Ŋ ŋ Ŋu (Ŋuurɔ) NH nh Nhuudhɔ
NY ny Nyaŋɔ P p Päärɔ
R r Reejɔ T t Tulɔ
TH th Thwölɔ

Numerals: Numerical Systems[edit]

Adapted Dhøg Cøllø Numerical Systems[edit]

Chollo has adapted the numerals of Arabic
Such as whole numbers or integers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ... −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...etc.
01, 02, 03, 05,05, 001, 002, 003, 004, 005, ... negative numbers such as ... −3, −2, −1, ...etc.
Bugønø(0), Akyelø (1), Aryewø (2), Adägø (3), Angwenø (4), Abïjø (5)
Years: '80, 1980 (alïbø ki miyy abïngwenø ki pyärr abïdägø); '00, 2000 (alïbb aryewø); '99, 1999 (alïbø ki miyy abïngwenø ki pyärr abïngwenø ki abïngwenø); 2011 [Alïbb aryewø ki (wädhdh genø da) pyäärø wïje (wïj gønø) da akyelø], ... etc.

Old Dhøg Cøllø Numerical Symbols[edit]

[citation needed]
0 Bugɔnɔ 0 Zero
I Akyɛlɔ 1 One
II Aryɛwɔ 2 Two
III Adägɔ 3 Three
IV Aŋwɛnɔ 4 Four
V Abïjɔ 5 Five
VI Abïkyɛlɔ 6 Six
VII Abïryɛwɔ 7 Seven
VIII Abïdägɔ 8 Eight
IV Abïŋwɛnɔ 9 Nine
X Pyärɔ 10 Ten
XI Pyärɔ wïj da akyɛlɔ 11 Eleven
XII Pyärɔ wïj da aryɛwɔ 12 Twelve
XIII Pyärɔ wïjɛ da Adägɔ 13 Thirteen
XIV Pyärɔ wïjɛ da aŋwɛnɔ 14 Fourteen
XV Pyärɔ wïjɛ da abïjɔ 15 Fifteen
XVI Pyärɔ wïj da abïkyɛlɔ 16 Sixteen
XVII Pyärɔ wïj da abïryɛwɔ 17 Seventeen
XVII Pyärɔ wïj da abïdägɔ 18 Eighteen
XIX Pyärɔ wïj da abïgwɛnɔ 19 Nineteen
XX Pyärri aryɛwɔ 20 Twenty
Г Pyärri Abïjɔ 50
XØIV Pyärri abïŋwɛn wädhi gɛn da abïŋwɛnɔ 99 ninety nine
Ø Miyɔ 100
ØØ Miy Aryɛwɔ 200
ØØØ Miy Adägɔ 300
ØZ Miy Aŋwɛnɔ 400
Z Miy abïjɔ 500
S Alïbɔ 1,000
SS Alïb aryɛwɔ 2,000
SSXIV Alïb aryɛw ki pyär wädhi gɛn da akyɛlɔ 2,014
SSS Alïb adägɔ 3,000
Alïb aŋwɛnɔ 4,000
Λ Alïb abïjɔ 5,000
S¢ØSXØIV Alïb abïŋwɛn ki miy abïŋwɛn ki pyärri abïŋwɛn wädhi gɛn da abïŋwɛnɔ 9,999
¢ Alïb pyärɔ 10,000
ЖH Alïb pyärri abïŋwɛnɔ 90,000
H Alïb miyɔ 100,000
Alïb miy abïŋwɛnɔ 900,000
SЮØS Alïb miy abïŋwɛn wädhi gɛn da miy abïŋwɛnɔ 900,900

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shilluk (Chollo) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Shilluk". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ "Chollo (Dhøg Cøllø)". openroad.net.au. Retrieved 26 March 2015.