Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Voiceless postalveolar affricate)
Jump to: navigation, search
Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
t͡ʃ
t͜ʃ
t̠ʲʃ
IPA number 103 134
Encoding
Entity (decimal) t​͡​ʃ
Unicode (hex) U+0074 U+0361 U+0283
X-SAMPA tS or t_r_jS
Kirshenbaum tS
Sound

The voiceless palato-alveolar affricate or domed postalveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with t͡ʃ, t͜ʃ or (formerly the ligature ʧ), or in broad transcription with c. It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".

Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar stop /k/ (as in English, Slavic languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental stop by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel.

Some scholars use the symbol /t͡ʃ/ to transcribe the laminal variant of the voiceless retroflex affricate. In such cases, the voiceless palato-alveolar affricate is transcribed /t͡ʃʲ/.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe кӀалэ [t͡ʃaːla] 'boy' Some dialects contrast labialized and non-labialized forms.
Albanian çelur [t͡ʃɛluɾ] 'open'
Aleut Atkan dialect chamĝul [t͡ʃɑmʁul] 'to wash'
Amharic አንቺ [ant͡ʃi] 'you' f. sg.
Arabic[1] Central Palestinian مكتبة [ˈmat͡ʃt̪abɐ] 'library' Corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Jordanian كتاب [t͡ʃiˈt̪aːb] 'book'
Iraqi
Armenian Eastern[2] ճնճղուկ About this sound [t͡ʃənt͡ʃʁuk]  'sparrow'
Azeri Əkinçi [ækint͡ʃi] 'the ploughman'
Bengali চশমা [t͡ʃɔʃma] 'spectacles' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Basque txalupa [t͡ʃalupa] 'boat'
Bulgarian чучулига [t͡ʃut͡ʃliɡa] 'lark'
Choctaw hakchioma [hakt͡ʃioma] 'tobacco'
Coptic Bohairic dialect ϭⲟϩ [t͡ʃoh] 'touch'
Czech morče [ˈmo̞rt͡ʃɛ] 'guinea pig' See Czech phonology
English bleach [ˈbliːt͡ʃ] 'bleach' See English phonology
Esperanto ĉar [t͡ʃar] 'because' See Esperanto phonology
Faroese tjørn [t͡ʃœɹn] 'lake'
French caoutchouc [kaut͡ʃu] 'rubber' Relatively rare; occurs mostly in loanwords. See French phonology
Galician cheio [ˈt͡ʃejo] 'full' Galician-Portuguese /t͡ʃ/ is conserved in Galician and merged with /ʃ/ in Portuguese.
Georgian[3] იხი [t͡ʃixi] 'impasse'
German Standard[4] Tschinelle [t͡ʃʷiˈnɛlə] 'cymbal' Laminal or apico-laminal[4] and strongly labialized.[4] See German phonology
Greek Cypriot τζ̌αι [t͡ʃe̞] 'and' Contrasts with /t͡ʃʰː/ and prenasalised [d͡ʒ].
Hebrew תשובה [t͡ʃuˈva] 'answer' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani चाय/چاۓ [t͡ʃɑːj] 'tea' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Haitian Creole match [mat͡ʃ] 'sports match'
Hungarian gyümölcs [ˈɟymølt͡ʃleː] 'juice' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5] ciao [ˈt͡ʃaːo] 'ciao' See Italian phonology
K'iche' K'iche' [kʼiˈt͡ʃeʔ] 'K'iche'' Contrasts with ejective form
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Macedonian чека [t͡ʃɛka] 'wait' See Macedonian phonology
Malay cuci [t͡ʃut͡ʃi] 'wash'
Maltese bliċ [blit͡ʃ] 'bleach'
Marathi हा [t͡ʃəhɑː] 'tea' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian kjøkken [t͡ʃøkːen] 'kitchen' Only in some dialects. See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[7] [t͡ʃaɾo] 'needle'
Nakhish (Chechen-Ingush) Ча̄рх [t͡ʃaːrχ] 'mechanic'
Occitan chuc [ˈt͡ʃyk] 'juice' See Occitan phonology
Persian چوب [t͡ʃʰuːb] 'wood' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna ciemny [ˈt͡ʃɛmn̪ɘ] 'dark' /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ merge into [t͡ʃ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /t͡ʃ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiceless retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
Portuguese Most Brazilian
dialects[9]
presente [pɾeˈzẽt͡ʃi] 'present' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects tchau [ˈt͡ʃaw] 'bye' Occurs only in recent loanwords
Punjabi ਚੰਗਾ [t͡ʃəŋgɑː] 'good'
Romanian cer [t͡ʃe̞r] 'sky' See Romanian phonology
Rotuman[10] joni [ˈt͡ʃɔni] 'to flee'
Scottish Gaelic slàinte [ˈslaːnt͡ʃə] 'health' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian Some speakers čokoláda / чоколада [t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈɫǎ̠ːd̪a̠] 'chocolate' In varieties that distinguish /t͡ʃ/ from /t͡ɕ/ it may be laminal retroflex instead. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnian Ловћен / Lovćen [ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ʃe̞n] 'Lovćen' Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /t͡ʃ/ and /t͡ɕ/, either to [t͡ʃ] or to laminal [ʈ͡ʂ].
Croatian
Silesian Gmina Istebna[11] [example needed] These dialects merge /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ into [t͡ʃ].
Jablunkov[11]
Spanish[12] chocolate [t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈlät̪e̞] 'chocolate' See Spanish phonology
Swahili jicho [ʄit͡ʃo] 'eye'
Swedish Finland tjugo [t͡ʃʉːɡʉ] 'twenty'
Some rural Swedish dialects kärlek [t͡ʃæːɭeːk] 'love'
Tlingit jinkaat [ˈt͡ʃiŋkʰaːtʰ] 'ten'
Turkish uçak [ut͡ʃäk] 'airplane' See Turkish phonology
Ubykh [t͡ʃəbʒəja] 'pepper' See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian чотири [t͡ʃo̞ˈtɪrɪ] 'four' See Ukrainian phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'ik nacaq [ˈnat͡ʃaq] 'parka hood'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[13] chane [t͡ʃanɘ]

Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Catalan, and Thai have a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/; this is technically postalveolar but it is less precise to use /t͡ʃ/.

Notes[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Blevins, Juliette (1994), "The Bimoraic Foot in Rotuman Phonology and Morphology", Oceanic Linguistics 33 (2): 491–516, doi:10.2307/3623138, JSTOR 3623138 
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, ISBN 83-7384-063-X 
  • Dubisz, Stanisław; Karaś, Halina; Kolis, Nijola (1995), Dialekty i gwary polskie, Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, ISBN 83-2140989-X 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, ISBN 978-3411040667 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press