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A number of species cause red tides, including Karenia brevis off the coast of Florida and Karenia mikimotoi which was first described in Japan, but is now found in the Atlantic ocean as well, probably spread by ballast water.
- "Karenia". Algaebase.
- Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø (2000). "Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates". Phycologia 39 (4): 302–317. doi:10.2216/i0031-8884-39-4-302.1.
- "Karenia mikimotoi". Algaebase.
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