Kirkuk Governorate (Arabic: كركوك Karkūk, Kurdish: Kerkûk, Syriac: ܟܪܟ ܣܠܘܟKarḵ Sloḵ, Turkish: Kerkük) (or Kirkuk Province) is a province in northern Iraq. The province has an area of 9,679 square kilometres (3,737 sq mi). In 2011 the estimated population was 1,395,614 people. The provincial capital is the city of Kirkuk. It is divided into four districts.
From 1976 to 2006, it was named At-Ta'mim Province which means "Nationalisation Province" and refers to the national ownership of the regional oil and natural gas reserves. Prior to 1976 it had been named Kirkuk Province. In 2006 the name "Kirkuk Province" was restored.
Due to the Arabization policies of the Ba'ath party the number of Arabs in official censuses increased by fivefolds within 40 years, however the most reliable data indicative of the ethnic breakdown of the province are those of the 1957 census. The number of Kurds remained relatively constant from 1957 until 1977, decrease in their numbers coincides with the Arabization process in the 1990s. The Turkmens were seriously affected by the Ba'ath policies as their percentage fell from 21% to 7% in 40 years. Starting from 1977 all Christians (Assyrians) were registered as Arabs
From the end of the Gulf War to 1999, about 250,000 Kurds were deported from the province.