Leonard Carmichael (November 9, 1898 – September 16, 1973) was a U.S. educator and psychologist. In addition, he became the seventh secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1953.
Early life and education 
Carmichael, the son of a physician and a teacher, was born in 1898, in Germantown, Pennsylvania. He received his BS degree from Tufts University in 1921, and his PhD from Harvard University in 1924. He was a brother in the Theta Delta Chi fraternity during his time at Tufts. He became an instructor at Princeton University's Department of Psychology in 1924 and was appointed to assistant professor in 1926. For fourteen years, Carmichael taught at Brown University, focusing on an experimental psychology with primates. After being part of the Brown University faculty from 1927 to 1936, he left for the Univ. of Rochester. He was appointed president of Tufts University in 1938, serving until his departure for the Smithsonian in 1953.
Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Carmichael served as the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution from 1953 to 1964. He was the first Secretary to be hired from outside the Institution, rather than promoted from within. During Carmichael’s tenure, the National Portrait Gallery was created, and the Patent Office Building was acquired for the American Art and Portrait Galleries. New wings were added to the National Museum of Natural History, Hope Diamond was donated by Harry Winston, and the Fénykövi elephant was unveiled in the rotunda of the Natural History Museum. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory was revitalized and moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1957, when Sputnik was launched, the observatory was the only US lab capable of tracking the Soviet satellite. After the death of a visitor at the National Zoological Park, Carmichael sought additional funding for major improvements to meet safety regulations. The Friends of the National Zoo was created and a Master Plan for zoo improvement was formulated and initiated.
Later life and legacy 
He became vice-president for research and exploration at the National Geographic after leaving the Smithsonian. In 1972 Carmichael was awarded the Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences. Tufts University’s community service organization, the Leonard Carmichael Society; Carmichael Hall, a dormitory and dining hall on the Tufts campus; and the lunar crater Carmichael are all named in his honor.
Carmichael is sometimes mentioned in connection with the MKULTRA project. He died on September 16, 1973.
This article contains public domain text from the Smithsonian Institution Archives.
External links 
Further reading