List of military equipment of the Canadian Army during the Second World War

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At the beginning of the Second World war, Canada did not have an extensive manufacturing industry besides car manufacturing. Furthermore, it was only partially independent from the United Kingdom (Britain). Therefore, most of Canadian weapons and equipment during war was imported from either Britain or USA.

Knives and bayonets[edit]

Model Blade length From: Comments
Fairbairn-Sykes fighting knife 1941 18 cm -
Ross bayonet 1905  ? tend to fall off from rifle after firing
Lee Enfield bayonet 1907  ? replacement for Ross bayonet, used until 1943
No. 4 rifle bayonet 1943  ? -

Small arms[edit]

Pistols (manual and semi-automatic)[edit]

Type Base model Maker Rounds Cartridge From: Produced Weight Comment
Colt Model 1911 Colt Model 1911 various 7 .45 ACP (11.43×23mm) 1914 2700000 1.1 kg semi-automatic
Smith & Wesson Triple Lock 2nd model Smith & Wesson Triple Lock Smith & Wesson 6 .44 Special (10.9×29mm) 1917  ? 1.08 kg revolver, low-cost version
Browning Hi-Power (Pistol No 2 Mk 1) Browning Hi-Power John Inglis and Company 13 9×19mm Parabellum 1944 1000000 1.08 kg semi-automatic, Belgian blueprints
S&W Victory Model (S&W Military&Police) Smith & Wesson Model 10 Smith & Wesson 6 .38-200 (9.2x19.7mm) 1942 570000 0.91 kg revolver
Webley .455 Mk VI Webley Revolver Webley and Scott 6 .455 Webley (11.5×19.6mm) 1915  ? 1.1 kg revolver, obsolete, secondary sidearm
Enfield No. 2 Mk 1 Enfield Revolver Royal Small Arms Factory, Albion Motors, others 6 .38-200 (9.2x19.7mm) 1932  ? 0.765 kg revolver, secondary sidearm
Colt Police Positive Colt New Police Revolver Colt's Manufacturing Company 6 .38 S&W (9.2x19.7mm) 1907  ? 0.74 kg revolver, secondary sidearm

Automatic pistols and submachine guns[edit]

Type Base model Maker Rounds Cartridge From: Produced Weight Comment
Thompson submachine gun M1 Thompson submachine gun Savage Arms and others 30 .45 ACP (11.43×23mm) 1942 1500000 4.9 kg
Sten Mk II - Mk III Sten Long Branch Arsenal 32 9x19mm Parabellum 1941 3700000 3.2 kg low-cost
M50 Reising M50 Reising H & R Firearms 20 .30 Carbine (7.62x32.76mm) 1941 100000 3.1 kg bad reliability in field

Rifles[edit]

(see canadiansoldiers.com site for detailed data)

Type Base model Maker Rounds Cartridge From: Produced Weight Comment
SMLE Mk. III (Number 1 Mk. III) Lee-Enfield various 10 .303 British Mk VII(7.9x56.4mm) 1916  ? 4 kg had grenade discharger
SMLE Number 4 Mk. I* Lee-Enfield various 10 .303 British Mk VII(7.9x56.4mm) 1943  ? 4 kg main Canadian rifle of WWII
Pattern 14 Enfield Lee-Enfield Winchester, Remington 5 .303 British Mk VII(7.9x56.4mm) 1914 1235298 4.25 kg training only
M1917 Enfield Lee-Enfield Springfield Armory, others 6 .30-06 Springfield (7.62×63mm) 1917 2193429 4.17 kg limited use in Canadian homeland

Grenades and grenade launchers[edit]

This list is grossly incomplete, listing a small fraction of approximately 30 grenade varieties used by Canadians during WWII.

Grenade Launcher Introduced Type Weight, g comments
Mills bomb a.k.a. 36M rod discharger for SMLE 1915 fragmentation 765 most common hand grenade during WWII, dangerous&unreliable if launched from rifle
No 68 AT Grenade cup discharger for SMLE 1940 HEAT 894 52mm RHA penetration
No. 69 grenade No 1942 high-explosive 383 bakelite case
No. 73 grenade No 1940 high-explosive 2000 51mm RHA penetration, used mostly for demolition
No. 74 Sticky bomb No 1940 HESH ~900 low-cost
No. 75 AT Hawkins Mine No 1942 high-explosive 1020 most common Canadian AT weapon & demolition charge during WWII
No. 82 Gammon No 1943 universal 1140 soft body

Recoilless rifles[edit]

Bazooka M1

Flamethrowers[edit]

Flamethrower, Portable, No 2 "Ack-Pack"

Machine guns[edit]

Infantry and dual-purpose machine guns[edit]

Type Production Fire rate, RPM Effective range Cartridge From: Produced Weight Comment
Bren Mk1 Inglis
Long Branch, Toronto
510 600 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) 1939 599000 10.35 kg replacement for Lewis gun
Lewis gun M1917 550 800 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) 1917  ? 13 kg occasional AA gun, limited production during WWII
Vickers machine gun 475 2000 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) 1912  ? 23 kg basis for aircraft guns
M2 Browning machine gun M2HB 550 1800 .50 BMG (12.7×99mm) 1921 3000000 23 kg used until present (2014)
M1919A4 500 1400 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) 1919 5000000 14 kg basis for aircraft guns
M1941 Johnson machine gun 600 550 .30-06 Springfield (7.8×63.3mmR) 1941 9500 5.9 kg commandos weapon

Vehicle and aircraft machine guns[edit]

Artillery[edit]

Infantry mortars[edit]

Model Caliber Max. range From Produced Weight, kg fire rate, RPM Comment
2 inch Mortar 50.8mm 460 1937  ? 4.8 8 elevated by hand
M19 mortar 60mm 1790 1942  ? 9.3 8 received after M19 was rejected by US military
3 inch Mortar Mk. II 81.2mm 1463 1931  ? 50.8 15 crew of 3
M2 4.2 inch mortar 106.7mm 4023 1943  ? 151 5 prepared for chemical bombs delivery, never used

Heavy mortars & rocket launchers[edit]

Land Mattress C-21 UCM -

Field artillery[edit]

Model Caliber Max. range From Produced Weight, kg fire rate, RPM Comment
QF 18 pounder 83.8mm 5966 1904 10469 1282 4 obsolete at start of WWII
QF 25 pounder 87.6mm 12253 1940 13000 1633 7 main Canadian WWII field gun/howitzer
BL 4.5 inch Medium Field Gun 114mm 18000 1938  ? 6190 2.5 built in UK by Canadian companies
BL 5.5 inch Medium Gun 140mm 16550 1941  ? 5900 2 received from UK
BL 60 pounder 127mm 15500 1905 1756 4400 2 in Canadian service until start of WWII


Anti-tank guns[edit]

Model Caliber Penetration 1 Penetration 2 Muzzle speed Max. range From Produced Weight, kg fire rate, RPM Comment
QF 2-pdr 40mm 37mm@457m 27mm@914m 792 1000 1936 12000 814 22
QF 6-pdr 57mm 88mm@100m - 884 1600 1941  ? 1140  ? produced in both UK and Canada
QF 17-pdr 76.2mm 130mm@500m 119mm@1000m 880 1800 1942  ? 3050  ? -

Anti-tank weapons (besides anti-tank guns)[edit]

Bangalore torpedo (not a grenade or anti-tank)

Anti-aircraft weapons[edit]

Model Caliber Eff. alt. From Produced Weight, kg fire rate, RPM Comment
QF 3.7-inch AA gun Mk1 94mm 7300 1941  ? 9317 15
Bofors 40 mm gun L/60 40mm 4100 1932 2250 1981 120 still in service (2014)
Polsten-Oerlikon gun 20mm 1000 1944 57 4000 450 low-cost

Vehicles[edit]

Canada have produced a wide variety of combat vehicles during WWII domestically, but all primary fighting vehicles there imported because of manufacturing quality concerns.

Tankettes[edit]

Carden Loyd Mk IV tankette - not used in combat

Tanks[edit]

Model From Armor max.
(mm)
Primary armament Secondary armament Weight
( t)
Power
(kW)
Range
(km)
#
Produced[note 1]
Crew Comments
Stuart tank 1941 51 37mm Gun M3 L/24 3×.30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG 14.7 190 119 25000 4 imported
Churchill tank Mk 1 1941 102 QF 2-pdr 2 × 7.92 mm Besa machine gun 38.5 261 90 7368 4 given to Canada for Dieppe Raid
Churchill Oke 1942 102 QF-2pdr
Ronson flamethrower
2 × 7.92 mm Besa machine gun 38.5 261 90 3 4 all destroyed in Dieppe Raid
Centaur IV 1944 76 Ordnance QF 95 mm howitzer 2x7.92mm Besa machine gun 28 450 270 114 5 support tank
Sherman I, III, V 1942 76 75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6 1x12.7mm Browning M2HB and 2×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 30.3 298 193  ? 5 Lend-Lease
Sherman Firefly IC & VC 1943 89 QF 17-pdr 12.7mm Browning M2HB and 7.8mm Browning M1919A4 33 298 193 2,150 4 American chassis with British gun
Sherman V DD 1942 76 75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6 1x12.7mm Browning M2HB and 2×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 30.3 298 193  ? 5 M4 with flotation screen and propeller
Ram Badger flame tank 1941 87 QF 6-pdr Wasp II flamethrower and 2x7.62mm machine guns 29 298 232  ? 5 later versions had flamethrower replacing main gun
Sherman Badger flame tank 1942 76 75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6 Wasp IIC flamethrower and 2×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 30.3 298 193  ? 5 replacement for Ram Badger flame tank
Grizzly I 1943 75 75 mm M3 L/40 gun 2×.30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG 29.91 298 193 188 5 Canadian-built modified M4 Sherman, chassis used for Sexton self-propelled gun
M10 Wolverine 1942 57 76.2 mm Gun M7 1x12.7mm Browning M2HB 29.6 276 300 6706 5 tank destroyer
Achilles 1944 57.2 QF 17-pdr (76mm) 1x12.7mm Browning M2HB 29.6 276 300 1,100 5 tank destroyer M10 with British gun
Archer 1943 60 QF 17-pdr (76mm) 1x .303 Bren LMG 15 145 230 655 4 tank destroyer
Light Tank Mk VIA 1936 14 Vickers .50 machine gun (12.7mm) 1x .303 Vickers machine gun 4.93 67 210 1,682 3 not used in combat
Ram tank I and II 1941 87 QF 6-pdr 3x7.62mm machine guns 29 298 232 2000 5 In field conversions saw combat in Europe, based on M3 hull
Valentine Mk.VI 1941 65 QF 2-pdr (40mm) 1×.30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG 16.5 104 130 1420 3 Canadian-built, provided to USSR
Matilda II infantry tank 1937 78 QF 2-pdr (40mm) 1x7.92 mm Besa machine gun 25 72 257 2987 4 not used in combat
M3 Lee/Grant 1941 51 75mm M2/M3 gun (2-4)×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 27 300 193 6258  ? not used in combat

Self-propelled guns[edit]

Tank-based[edit]

Name Chassis Gun Developed Manufactured Role
Sexton M3 Lee QF 25-pdr (87.6 mm) Mk II 1942 2150 self-propelled gun
M7 Priest M3 Lee M101 howitzer (105mm) 1942 4443 self-propelled gun
Crusader III, AA Mk.I Crusader Bofors 40 mm gun 1944  ? self-propelled AA gun
Mk.II/III Crusader 2xOerlikon 20mm gun 1944  ? self-propelled AA gun
Skink anti-aircraft tank M4 Sherman 4xPolsten (20mm) 1944 3 self-propelled AA gun

Other[edit]

M3 75mm Gun Motor Carriage - M3 Half-track equipped with the M1A1 75 mm gun

Armored cars[edit]

Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Daimler Dingo  United Kingdom
Daimler Mk. I Armoured Car  United Kingdom
Humber Mk. I Scout Car  United Kingdom
Humber Mk. IV Armoured Car  United Kingdom
M3 Scout Car  United States
Morris Light Reconnaissance Car  United Kingdom
Staghound Armoured Car  United States
Fox Armoured Car  Canada Humber Armoured Car design modified for Canadian production
Otter Light Reconnaissance Car  Canada Similar to Humber Light Reconnaissance Car
Lynx Scout Car  Canada Similar to Dingo

Engineering and command[edit]

Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Ram ARV Mk I and II  Canada
Valentine Bridgelayer  United Kingdom
Sherman V ARV  United States

Tractors & prime movers[edit]

Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Kangaroo (armoured personnel carrier)  Canada
Loyd Carrier  United Kingdom
Wasp  United Kingdom A Universal Carrier with flame-thrower equipment
T-16 Carrier  United States Lend-Lease based upon Universal Carrier, used to tow artillery
Windsor Carrier  Canada variation of Universal Carrier
M3A1 Half-track Various,  United States
Truck, 15-cwt, Half-track International Harvester,  United States
M5 Half-track International Harvester,  United States similar to M3 produced for Lend-Lease
M9A1 Half-track International Harvester,  United States Variant of M5
M14 Half-track International Harvester,  United States M3 Half-track with anti-aircraft turret
M5 "Recce"  United States A turretless M5 light tank used for reconnaissance

Miscellaneous vehicles[edit]

Chevrolet C8 CMP
Chevrolet C8 CMP rear quarter view
Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Willys Jeep  United States
Morris C8  United Kingdom
AEC Matador  United Kingdom
Diamond T 4-Ton lorry  United Kingdom
F-8 Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-15 Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-15 Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-30 Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-60S, F-60L, F-60H, F-60T Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
F-GT Ford,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C-8, C-8A Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C-15, C-15A Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C15TA Armoured Truck Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C-30, C-60S, C-60L, C-60X Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
C-GT Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck
Field Artillery Tractor Chevrolet,  Canada Canadian Military Pattern truck

Aircraft[edit]

Fighters[edit]

Name Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
Number used
Armstrong Whitworth Siskin UK fighter 1926–1940 12
Hawker Hurricane UK/Canada fighter 1939–1948 502
Grumman Goblin US/Canada fighter 1940–1942 15
North American NA-44 US fighter/utility 1940–1944 1
Supermarine Spitfire UK fighter 1940–1950 8
Curtiss Kittyhawk US fighter 1941–1946 134
Curtiss Warhawk US fighter 1942–1943 9
Hawker Sea Hurricane UK fighter 1942–1943 1
Curtiss Tomahawk US fighter 1943–1946 4
de Havilland Mosquito UK/Canada bomber/fighter-bomber 1943–1951 444
Gloster Meteor UK fighter 1945–1955 4

Attack aircraft[edit]

Name Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
Blackburn Shark Mk.II & III UK torpedo bomber 1936–1944 26
Bristol Beaufort UK torpedo bomber/strike/minelayer 1941–1944 15
Brewster Bermuda US dive bomber 1943–1946 3
Fairey Swordfish Mk.II & III UK torpedo bomber 1943–1947 105
Fairey Albacore UK torpedo bomber 1943–1949 6

Bombers[edit]

Name 1968 CF
designator
Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
Lockheed Hudson n/a US bomber 1939–1948 247
Hawker Hart n/a UK bomber 1937–1943 3
Douglas Digby n/a US bomber 1939–1946 20
Fairey Battle n/a UK bomber/trainer/target tug 1939–1946 740
Bristol Fairchild Bolingbroke n/a Canada bomber/trainer 1939–1947 626
Handley Page Harrow n/a UK bomber/transport 1940–1941 2
Northrop Nomad n/a US light bomber 1940–1945 32
Avro Anson n/a UK/Canada medium bomber/trainer 1940–1947 4413
Handley Page Hampden n/a UK bomber 1941–1944 96
Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV n/a UK medium bomber/gunnery trainer 1941–1945 1
Douglas Boston n/a US bomber 1941–1945 3
Avro Lancaster n/a UK/Canada heavy bomber 1944–1965 229
Martin Baltimore n/a US bomber 1942–1942 1
North American Mitchell n/a US bomber 1942–1963 164
Boeing Fortress Mk.II n/a US long-range patrol bomber 1943–1946 6
Handley Page Halifax n/a UK heavy bomber 1944–1947

Reconnaissance aircraft[edit]

Name 1968 CF
designator
Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
Canadian Vickers Vedette n/a Canada patrol flying boat 1925–1941 44
Canadian Vickers Vancouver n/a Canada patrol flying boat 1929–1940 6
Armstrong Whitworth Atlas n/a UK spotting/liaison 1927–1942 16
Westland Wapiti n/a UK spotting/liaison 1930–1944 25
Hawker Audax n/a UK spotting/liaison 1933–1943 6
Supermarine Stranraer n/a Canada patrol seaplane 1938–1946 40
Westland Lysander n/a UK/Canada spotting/liaison/target tug 1939–1946 329
Consolidated Catalina/Canso n/a US/Canada maritime patrol seaplane 1941–1962 254
Lockheed Ventura n/a US maritime patrol/target tug 1942–1947 28
Supermarine Walrus n/a UK fleet spotter/utility amphibian 1943–1947 8
Consolidated Liberator n/a US maritime patrol 1943–1948 14

Trainers[edit]

Name 1968 CF
designator
Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
De Havilland Moth n/a UK trainer 1928–1948 89
Curtiss-Reid Rambler n/a Canada trainer/utility 1929–1954 9
Hawker Tomtit n/a UK trainer 1930–1943 2
Avro Tutor (Avro 621) n/a UK trainer 1931–1945 7
Fleet Fawn n/a Canada elementary trainer 1931–1947 51
Avro Prefect (Avro 626) n/a UK trainer 1937–1945 12
de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth n/a Canada trainer 1938–1948 1410
Airspeed Oxford n/a UK trainer (navigation, bombing & radio) 1939–1947 819
Fleet Finch n/a Canada elementary trainer 1939–1947 431
North American Harvard n/a US/Canada advanced trainer 1939–1968 2156
North American NA-26 n/a US trainer 1940–1942 1
de Havilland Menasco Moth n/a Canada trainer 1941–1947 136
Cessna Crane n/a US trainer 1941–1949 826
Fleet Fort n/a Canada intermediate/radio trainer 1941–1945 101
Hawker Hind n/a UK instructional airframe 1942–1943 4
Stearman Kaydet (Model 75) n/a US elementary trainer 1942–1943 301
General Aircraft Hotspur Mk.II n/a UK training glider 1942–1945 22
Fairchild Cornell n/a US elementary trainer 1942–1948 1555

Transports[edit]

Name 1968 CF
designator
Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
Consolidated Courier n/a US utility 1928–1941 3
Fairchild 71, 71B & 71C n/a US/Canada transport 1929–1942 23
Bellanca CH-300 Pacemaker n/a US transport 1929–1944 13
Fairchild 51 & 51A n/a US/Canada transport 1930–1946 9
de Havilland Puss Moth n/a UK transport 1931–1944 19
Fairchild Super 71 n/a Canada transport 1936–1940 2
Northrop Delta n/a Canada transport/patrol 1936–1945 20
Grumman Goose n/a US utility amphibian 1938–1956 31
Barkley-Grow T8P-1 n/a US transport 1939–1941 1
Lockheed Electra n/a US transport 1939–1946 15
Boeing 247D n/a US transport 1940–1942 8
de Havilland Dragonfly n/a UK transport 1940–1945 6
Fairchild Argus n/a US utility 1940–1945 2
Lockheed Electra Junior n/a US transport 1940–1945 10
Lockheed Model 212 n/a US transport 1940–1946 1
North American Yale n/a US intermediate/radio trainer 1940–1946 119
Stinson Voyager (Model 105) n/a US utility 1940–1946 25
Noorduyn Norseman n/a Canada utility transport 1940–1957 100
de Havilland Fox Moth n/a Canada transport 1941–1945 1
Beechcraft Expeditor CT-128 US utility/trainer 1941–1972 394
Waco AQC-6 n/a US utility 1942–1942 1
Fleet Freighter n/a Canada transport 1942–1944 2
Curtiss Seamew n/a US utility floatplane 1943–1944 82
Lockheed Lodestar n/a US transport 1943–1948 18
Douglas Dakota CC-129 US transport 1943–1990 169
Waco Hadrian Mk.II n/a US transport glider 1944–1949 32

Radars[edit]

  • Night Watchman (NW), 200-MHz, 1-kW prototype of SW radars (from 1940)
  • SW1C - surface-warning radar for merchant ships and frigates (from 1941)
  • SW2C - frequency changed to 215 MHz (1942)
  • SW3C - miniaturization to fit on torpedo boats, plan-position indicator (1943)
  • CD radar - coastal defense only (from 1942)
  • CDX radar - improvements and export to USSR (from 1943)
  • GL IIIC - mobile air search radar (from 1941)
  • Type 268 – 10 GHz submarine snorkel search radar (from 1944)
  • MEW/AS - 2.8 GHz, 300 kW submarine detection radar (from 1943)
  • MEW/HF - air search radar (from 1943)
  • 2 other unknown radar types used operationally
  • 18 radar types developed but never used

Cartridges and shells[edit]

Model/Type Period or Years in Use Manufacturer/Origins
.303 British  United Kingdom
.455 Webley  United Kingdom

Uniforms, Load Bearing and Protective Equipment[edit]

Uniforms[edit]

Model/Type Period or years in use Manufacturer/origins
Canadian Pattern and British Pattern
Khaki Drill
Battle Dress 1939-1967  United Kingdom
Denison smock Used by the Airborne  United Kingdom

Load bearing equipment[edit]

Model/Type Period or Years in Use Manufacturer/Origins
1937 Pattern Web Equipment  United Kingdom
1942 Battle Jerkin  United Kingdom

Head dress[edit]

Model/Type Period or Years in Use Manufacturer/Origins
Glengarry  United Kingdom
Tam o'shanter  United Kingdom
Field Service Cap  United Kingdom
Beret  United Kingdom
Brodie helmet  United Kingdom
Mk III Turtle helmet  United Kingdom

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Total manufacturered, not number used by Canadian forces

External links[edit]