International Harvester

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For the song by Craig Morgan, see International Harvester (song). For the Swedish progg band, see Träd, Gräs & Stenar.
International Harvester Company
Industry Agricultural, Automotive
Successors Navistar International Corporation
Founded Chicago, Illinois (1902)
Headquarters Warrenville, Illinois (Present Location)
Products Farm Machinery, Vocational Trucks, Household Appliances, Passenger Vehicles, Construction and Industrial Equipment
1939 Advertisement for International "Jungle Yacht" Tractor-trailer, for a luxury tour of central Africa.[1]
Advertisement for 1940 International Tanker Truck

The International Harvester Company (abbreviated first IHC and later IH) now Navistar International Corporation, was a United States agricultural machinery, construction equipment, vehicle, commercial truck, and household and commercial products manufacturer. In 1902, J. P. Morgan merged the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms, to form International Harvester. International Harvester sold off its agricultural division in 1985 and renamed itself Navistar International Corporation in 1986. The Case IH brand began when the IH agricultural division merged into J.I. Case.

History[edit]

Cyrus Hall McCormick patented an early mechanical reaper

Founding of the company[edit]

The roots of International Harvester run to the 1830s, when Cyrus Hall McCormick, an inventor from Virginia, finalized his version of a horse-drawn reaper, which he field-demonstrated throughout 1831, and for which he received a patent in 1834. Together with his brother Leander J. McCormick (1819–1900), McCormick moved to Chicago in 1847 and started the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. The McCormick reaper sold well, partially as a result of savvy and innovative business practices. Their products came onto the market just as the development of railroads offered wide distribution to distant market areas. He developed marketing and sales techniques, developing a vast network of trained salesmen able to demonstrate operation of the machines in the field.

McCormick died in 1885, with his company passing to his son, Cyrus McCormick, Jr. In 1902 the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms (Milwaukee; Plano; and Warder, Bushnell, and Glessner—manufacturers of Champion brand) merged to create the International Harvester Company. In 1919, the Parlin and Orendorff factory in Canton, Illinois was a leader in the plow manufacturing industry. International Harvester purchased the factory calling it the Canton Works; it continued production for many decades.

An International Harvester tractor built in 1920
1954 R-110 series pickup

The golden years of IH[edit]

In 1926 IH's Farmall Works began production in a new plant in Rock Island, Illinois, built solely to produce the new Farmall tractor. By 1930, the 100,000th Farmall was produced. IH next set their sights on introducing a true 'general-purpose' tractor designed to satisfy the needs of the average US family farmer. The resulting 'letter' series of Raymond Loewy-designed Farmall tractors in 1939 proved a huge success, and IH enjoyed a sales lead in tractors and related equipment that continued through much of the 1940s and 1950s, despite stiff competition from Ford, John Deere and other tractor manufacturers.

IH ranked 33rd among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts.[2] In 1946 IH acquired a defense plant in Louisville, Kentucky, which was enlarged, expanded, and re-equipped for production of the Farmall A, B, and the new 340 tractors. Then in 1948 IH acquired the Metropolitan Body Company of Bridgeport, CT.[3] This was the manufacturing facility for the bodies of the commercially successful Metro line of forward control vans and trucks from 1938 until roughly 1964.

In 1974, the 5 millionth IHC tractor was produced at the Rock Island Farmall plant.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, despite good sales, IH's profit margins remained slim. The continual adding of unrelated business lines created a somewhat unwieldy corporate organization, and the company found it difficult to focus on a primary business, be it agricultural equipment, construction equipment, or truck production. An overly conservative management, combined with a rigid policy of in-house promotions tended to stifle new management strategies as well as technical innovation. Products with increasingly ancient technology continued in production year after year despite their marginal addition to sales. Worse, IH now not only faced a threat of stiff competition in each of its main corporate businesses, but also had to contend with greatly increased production costs, primarily due to labor and government-imposed environmental and safety regulations.[4]

Downfall[edit]

In 1979 IH named a new CEO, who was determined to improve profit margins and drastically cut a ballooning cost structure. Unprofitable model lines were terminated, and factory production curtailed. By the end of the year, IH profits were at their highest in 10 years, but cash reserves were still too low. Union members became increasingly irate over production cutbacks and other cost-cutting measures. In the spring and summer of 1979, IH began short-term planning for a strike that seemed inevitable. Then on November 1, IH announced figures showing that president and chairman Archie McCardell received a $1.8 million (in 1979 values) bonus. McCardell sought overtime, work rule, and other changes from the UAW, which led to a strike on November 2, 1979.[5]

Soon after, the economy turned unfavorable, and IH faced a financial crisis. The strike lasted approximately six months. When it ended, IH had lost almost $600 million (in 1979 value; over $2 billion today).[6]

By 1981 the company's finances were at their lowest point ever. The strike, accompanied by the economy and internal corporate problems, had placed IH in a hole that had only a slim way out.[7] Things only got worse until 1984, when the bitter end came.

International Harvester, following long negotiations, agreed to sell its agricultural products division to Tenneco, Inc. on November 26, 1984. Tenneco had a subsidiary, J.I. Case, that manufactured tractors, but lacked the full line of farm implements that IH produced (combines, cotton pickers, tillage equipment etc.)

Following the merger, tractor production at Harvester's Rock Island, Illinois Farmall Works ceased in May 1985. Production of the new Case IH tractors moved to the J.I. Case Tractor Works in Racine, Wisconsin. Production of IH Axial-Flow combines continued at the East Moline, Illinois combine factory. Harvester's Memphis Works in Memphis, Tennessee was closed and cotton picker production was moved.

The truck and engine divisions remained, and in 1986 Harvester changed the corporate name to Navistar International Corporation (Harvester had sold the International Harvester name and the IH symbol to Tenneco Inc. as part of the sale of its agricultural products division). Navistar International Corporation continues to manufacture medium- and heavy-duty trucks, school buses, and engines under the International brand name.[6]

Divisions and products[edit]

International 660 in rural Saskatchewan

Agriculture[edit]

The International Harvester Agricultural Division was 2nd to the Truck Division but was the best-known IH subsidiary. When IH sold the agricultural products division to Tenneco in 1985, the International Harvester name and "IH" logo, went with it.

One of the early products (besides the harvesting equipment that McCormick and Deering had been making prior to the merger) from the newly created International Harvester Company was the Traction Truck: a truck frame manufactured by Morton Traction Truck Company (later bought by IHC) with an IHC engine installed.

From 1902, when IH was formed, to the early 1920s, the McCormick and Deering dealerships kept their original brands unique, with Mogul tractors sold at McCormick dealers, and Titan tractors at Deering dealerships, due to the still present competitiveness of the former rivals.

The early tractors[edit]

1911 one-cylinder 25 hp (19 kW) Type C Mogul
1937 McCormick-Deering tractor on display at the Cole Land Transportation Museum in Bangor, Maine

IH produced a range of large gasoline-powered farm tractors under the Mogul and Titan brands. Sold by McCormick dealers, the Type C Mogul was little more than a stationary engine on a tractor chassis, fitted with friction drive (one speed forward, one reverse).[8] Between 1911 and 1914, 862 Moguls were built.[8] These tractors had varied success but the trend going into the mid-1910s was "small" and "cheap".

The first important tractors from IH were the model 10-20 and 15-30. Introduced in 1915, the tractors (which were smaller than their predecessors) were primarily used as traction engines to pull plows and for belt work on threshing machines. The 10-20 and 15-30 both had separate, but similar, Mogul and Titan versions.

Around this time, IHC purchased a number of smaller companies to incorporate their products into the IH dealer arsenal. Parlin & Orendorff aka P&O Plow and Chattanooga Plow were purchased in 1919. Other brand names they incorporated include, but are not limited to, Keystone, D.M. Osborne, Kemp, Meadows, Sterling, Weber, Plano and Champion.

In 1924 IH introduced the Farmall tractor, a smaller general-purpose tractor, to fend off competition from the Ford Motor Company's Fordson tractors. The Farmall was a leader in the emerging row-crop tractor category.

1954 IH Farmall Super C

Following the introduction of the Farmall, IH introduced several similar looking "F Series" models that offered improvements over the original design (the original model became known as the "Regular").

In 1932 IH produced their first diesel engine, in the McCormick-Deering TD-40 crawler. This engine started on gasoline, then switched over to diesel fuel. Diesel engines of this era were difficult to start in cold weather, and using gasoline allowed the engine to start easily and thoroughly warm up before making the switch to diesel in all weather conditions. In 1935 this engine was put in the International Harvester WD-40, becoming the first diesel tractor on wheels in North America[9] (the world's first diesel tractor was the German Benz-Sendling BS 6, introduced in 1922).

The letter and standard series[edit]

A McCormick Farmall tractor.

For model year 1939, industrial designer Raymond Loewy was hired to design a new line of tractors. The sleek look, combined with other new features, created what is known as the Farmall "letter series" (A, B, BN, C, H and M) and the McCormick-Deering "standard series" (W-4, W-6 and W-9). 1941 saw the introduction of the model "MD" the first rowcrop diesel powered tractor, it would be over a decade before IH's biggest competitor (John Deere) would introduce a diesel option on their rowcrop tractors. The letter series tractors were updated to the "super" series in 1953 (with the exception of the A, which became a "super" in 1947, and the B and BN, which were discontinued in 1948) and received several improvements. Many of these tractors (especially the largest: the H, M and W models) are still in operation on farms today. Especially desirable are the diesel-powered MD, WD-6 and WD-9. These tractors carried forward the unique gasoline start diesel concept of the WD-40.

The letter and standard series of tractors was produced until 1954, and was a defining product in IH history.

In 1947, the smallest tractor in the Farmall line was introduced, the Cub. With a 60 cu. in. four-cylinder engine and a 69-inch wheelbase, the Cub was aimed at small farms such as truck farms, horse farms, and other small acreages that had previously continued to rely on horse-drawn equipment. Like the various John Deere L/LA/LI models, one of the "mechanization-resistant" markets it hoped to penetrate was the small, poor, one-mule family farms of the rural American Deep South. But the Cub also sold to owners of larger farms who required a second tractor. Production of the Cub commenced at the newly acquired Farmall Works-Louisville plant (formerly the wartime Curtiss-Wright Aircraft factory in Louisville, Kentucky) which was expanded, remodeled and re-equipped. Selling for $545.00 in 1947, the Cub proved extremely popular, and the original design continued in production without significant alteration until 1979.

For 1955 in IH tractors, the numbered "hundred-series" was offered. Although given slightly different looks and few new features, they were still updates to the models introduced in 1939. The only new tractor in the 1955 lineup is the 300 Utility. In 1957 IH gave the tractor lineup another update by increasing power in some models, adding a new 230 Utility model, and adding new white paint to the grill and sides, and giving new number designations. This improved sales at the time, but IH's inability to change and update was already showing.[10]

60 Series recall[edit]

In July 1958, IH launched a major campaign to introduce a new line of tractors to revitalize slumping sales. At the Hinsdale, Illinois Testing Farm, IH entertained over 12,000 dealers from over 25 countries. IH showed off their new "60" series of tractors: including the big, first-of-its-kind, six-cylinder 460 and 560 tractors. But the joy of the new line of tractors was short lived. One of the first events that would eventually lead to the downfall of IH presented itself in 1959. In June of that year, IH recalled the 460, 560, and 660 tractors: final drive components had failed. IH, who wanted to be the first big-power manufacturer, had failed to drastically update the final drives on the new six-cylinder tractors. These final drives were essentially unchanged from 1939 and would fail rapidly under the stress of the more powerful 60-series engines. IH's competitors took advantage of the recall, and IH would lose customers in the ensuing months,[10] with many customers moving to John Deere's New Generation of Power tractors introduced in 1960.

1960s[edit]

Throughout the 1960s IH introduced new tractors and new sales techniques. As producing tractors was the lifeblood of the company, IH would have to remain competitive in this field. They both succeeded and failed at this goal. But farming was about to change, and IH and its competitors were in for a bumpy ride. In 1963 IH introduced the 73 hp (54 kW) 706 and 95 hp (71 kW) 806 tractors. in 1964 IH made its 4 millionth tractor, an 806. In 1965 IH introduced its first 100 hp (75 kW) two-wheel-drive tractor, the 1206. Another option became available in 1965 for the 706, 806 and the new 1206: a factory-installed cab (made by Stopler Allen Co.). This cab is often called the "Ice Cream Box" cab due to its shape. The cab could be equipped with a fan and heater. By 1967, over 100,000 models 706, 806 and 1206 were built.The 276 International harvester was also built at this period of time becoming popular for smaller farms with tighter lanes and fields due to mobility and weight making the 276 a popular seller boosting International harvester's slim profits.

1967 saw the introduction of the "56" series tractors as replacements for the successful and popular "06" series. These new "56s" were bigger and more powerful than the "06s". The new models included the 65 hp (48 kW) 656, 76 hp (57 kW) 756, the 101 hp (75 kW) 856 and the 116 hp (87 kW) 1256. The "ice cream box" cab was still an option. In 1969 IH introduced the 1456 Turbo at 131 hp (98 kW). Also that year, the 91 hp (68 kW) 826 was introduced with the option of gearshift or hydrostatic transmissions. The "ice cream box" cab was dropped and replaced with the new "custom" cab made by Exel Industries, which could be equipped with factory air-conditioning, heat and an AM radio. Another milestone for IH was the 1970 introduction of the 1026 Hydro which was basically a hydrostatic version of the 1256, at that time the most powerful hydrostatic transmission tractor made in the US at 114 hp (85 kW).

1970s[edit]

In 1971 IH introduced the 66 series line. The new models included the 78 hp (58 kW) 766, the 101 hp (75 kW) 966, the 125 hp (93 kW) 1066 turbo, the 145 hp (108 kW) 1466 Turbo, and the 145 hp (108 kW) 1468 V-8. The 130 hp (97 kW) 4166 4WD was also introduced. The 966 and 1066 were available with Hydro or gearshift transmissions and the choice of two-post ROPs or two different cabs, the "custom" and the "deluxe". Both could be equipped with A/C, heat, and AM-FM radios.

In 1972 the 666 replaced the long-running 656, the 150 hp (110 kW) 1568 V8 replaced the 1468, and the 160 hp (120 kW) 1566 and the 163 hp (122 kW) 4366 4WD were introduced. Also later that year, four-post ROPs replaced two-post; The "custom" cab was dropped and the "deluxe" cab was now painted red instead of white. Due to horsepower confusions the 966 and 1066 Hydro models were restriped; the Hydro 100 and the 666 Hydro became the Hydro 70. On February 1, 1974 at 9:00 am, the 5 millionth tractor came off the assembly line at the Farmall Plant in Illinois. IH was the first tractor manufacturer to accomplish this.[10] Also in 1973, IH officially dropped the "Farmall" name from its tractor. This ended an era that began with the first Farmall "Regular" back in 1924.

The 230 hp (170 kW) 4568 V8 4WD was introduced in 1975. In 1976 the entire tractor line got a new paint job and decal pattern. No longer were the side panels all white with chrome and black decals: they were now all red with a black striped sticker. This was done to clear inventory for the forthcoming "Pro Ag Line".

In September 1976 IH released their 86 series "Pro Ag Line". The models included the 80 hp (60 kW) 786, the 90 hp (67 kW) 886, the 101 hp (75 kW) 986, the 104 hp (78 kW) 186 Hydro, the 135 hp (101 kW) 1086, the 146 hp (109 kW) 1486 and the 161 hp (120 kW) 1586. These new tractors had a new cab dubbed the "Control Center" that came standard with A/C, heat, and several radio/CB options. The driver sat well ahead of the rear axle and the fuel tank was mounted behind the cab over the rear axle. This increased balance and ride. Also in 1976, the 62 hp (46 kW) 686 along with the "86" series four-wheel-drives were introduced, including the 4186, 4586, and 4786.

In 1977 International Harvester introduced the first Axial-Flow rotary combine. This machine, produced at East Moline, Illinois, was the first generation of over 30 years of Axial-Flow combines.

In 1979 IH introduced two all-new tractors: the 3388 and 3588, known as the 2+2 4wd line. These tractors were the result of taking two 1086 rear ends and hooking them together with a transfer case. A year later, the 3788 was introduced. Despite the fact these tractors performed well in the field, they never sold well.

1980s[edit]

As the 1980s began, IH was ready to climb from its own depression and become a leader once more. IH would face a stable economy, yet it would face an unknown fate. In September 1981, IH announced at a dealership meeting the new "50 Series" of tractors, which included the 136 hp (101 kW) 5088, the 162 hp (121 kW) 5288 and the 187 hp (139 kW) 5488. IH also released the "30 series", which included the 81 hp (60 kW) 3088, the 90 hp (67 kW) 3288 the 112 hp (84 kW) 3488Hydro and the 113 hp (84 kW) 3688. These new tractors would prove once again that IH had the innovation to come out on top. Designed and styled by IH industrial designer Gregg Montgomery, whose firm (Montgomery Design International) later designed the Case IH "Magnum" series tractors, the new stylish design of the "50 Series and 30 series would change the look of tractors from that time forward. IH spent over $29 million to develop this new series, and the result was the last great lineup of tractors from International Harvester.

There were many technology-related innovations in the new series. A computer monitoring system ("Sentry") was developed, and IH became the first manufacturer to add a computer to a farm tractor. Other innovations included a "z" shift pattern, an 18-speed synchronized transmission, a forward air flow cooling system which sucked air from above the hood and blew it out the front grille, "Power Priority" 3-pump hydraulic system, color-coded hydraulic lines and controls, and a new rear-hitch system. The 50 Series had an unprecedented three-year or 2,500-hour engine and drive-train warranty, which would later become an industry standard. Although no new sales records were set, IH sold a respectable amount of these tractors during its short production time. IH also released the "60 series 2+2s" and planned on making the "Super70 series" 2+2s but only a handful of these exist today. On May 14, 1985 the last IH tractor rolled off the factory line, a 5488 FWA.

IH was well into the development of a new line of tractors that would revolutionize the ways of farming when the sale of the agricultural products division was announced. Many of these new features would find their way into the new series of MAGNUM tractors introduced by Case IH in 1987.[10]

Brand names of the Ag division[edit]

McCormick Deering Tractor

IH over the years used a number of brand names to market their tractor and harvesting products:

  • International (1902–1985)
  • Titan (1910–1924)
  • Mogul (1911–1924)
  • McCormick–Deering (1923–1947)
  • McCormick (1947–1958)
  • Farmall (1924–1973)
  • Fairway (1924–1938)
  • Electrall (1954–1956)

Other agricultural products[edit]

Along with the prominent tractor division, IH also sold several different types of farm-related equipment, such as balers, cultivators, combines (self-propelled and pull behind), combine heads, corn shellers, cotton pickers, manure spreaders, hay rakes, crop dusters, disk harrows, elevators, feed grinders, hammer mills, hay conditioners, milking machines, planters, mills, discs, plows and various miscellaneous equipment.[11]

Also produced were twine, stationary engines, loaders, and wagons.[11]

Electrall[edit]

The Electrall system was introduced in 1954; it was a short-lived attempt to market electrically operated farm equipment and accessories. The system, co-developed with General Electric, consisted of a 208V three phase alternating current generator connected with electric cables to the device to be powered. The generator could even power a household. A 10 kW Electrall generator was an option on the Farmall 400 tractor,[12] and there also was a 12.5 kW PTO-driven version. The possible applications of Electrall power were many, but few made it to market. IH marketing materials showed a haybaler being Electrall powered. One of the more novel applications of the Electrall was a device to electrocute insects in the field at night (basically like a modern-day bug zapper, but on a larger scale).[13]

Vehicles[edit]

Light duty trucks[edit]

1911 International Harvester Auto Wagon
1927 International one-ton stakebed
1954 R-110 series pickup
1957 A-series pickup
1961-1962 IHC C-120 Travelette
1979 International Scout SSV Concept.

IH is often remembered as a maker of relatively successful and innovative "light" lines of vehicles, competing directly against the Big 3. The most common were pickup trucks. IH made light trucks from 1907 to 1975, beginning with the Model A Auto Wagon (sometimes called the "Auto Buggy").[14] Production commenced in February 1907 at IH's McCormick Works in Chicago, although production was moved to Akron, Ohio in October that year.[14] Powered by a horizontally opposed aircooled twin of around 15 hp (11 kW), it was a right hand drive model popular in rural areas for high ground clearance on the poor roads typical of the era. It featured a rear seat convertible to a carrier bed.[15] The Auto Wagon was renamed the Motor Truck in 1910, and was a forerunner to the successful modern pickup truck. They were called IHC until 1914, when the 'International' name was first applied.[14] The final light line truck was made on May 5, 1975.

IH also had early success with the "Auto Buggy", which started production in February 1907. In the mid-1940s, International released their K and KB series trucks, which were more simplistic than other trucks released in that era. This was followed by the L Series in 1949, which was replaced by the R Series in 1952, followed by the S line in 1955. In 1957, to celebrate IH's golden anniversary as a truck manufacturer, this was replaced by the new A line. 'A' stands for anniversary. With light modifications to its appearance but more serious changes under the shell (and a number of new names), this design continued in production until replaced by the 1100D in late 1969, which looked very similar to the Scout.[16]

Corresponding with the truck "letter lines" was the Metro line of step (delivery) vans. Starting in 1938 and manufactured through 1975, the Metro series was produced and updated with each iteration of IH's truck lines. There were also special use variants such as the Metro Coach (a bus version with windows and passenger seats) and Metro front-end section and chassis for full commercial customization. Additional variants were based on the medium duty engine and chassis lines.[17]

One of the company's light-duty vehicles was the Travelall, which was similar in concept to the Chevrolet Suburban. The Travelette was a crew cab, available in 2 or 4 wheel drive. A 3-door version was available starting in 1957, and a 4-door version was available starting in 1961. The 1961 Travelette 4-door (crewcab) was the first 6-passenger, 4-door truck of its time. The Scout, first introduced in 1961,[14] is a small two-door SUV, similar to a Jeep. In 1972 the Scout became the Scout II, and in 1974 Dana 44 axles, power steering and power disk brakes became standard. After the Light Line pickups and Travelall were discontinued in 1975, the Scout Traveler and Terra became available, both with a longer wheelbase than a standard Scout II.

IH would abandon sales of passenger vehicles in 1980 to concentrate on commercial trucks and school buses. Today the pickups, Travelalls, and Scouts are minor cult orphaned vehicles. All were also available as rugged four-wheel drive off-road vehicles.

The Scout and Light Truck parts business was sold to Scout/Light Line Distributors, Inc. in 1991.

Medium/heavy duty[edit]

IH was an early manufacturer of medium/heavy duty trucks. Although based upon truck chassis, IH also became the leading manufacturer of the chassis portion of body-on-chassis conventional (type C) school buses. In 1962 IH offered the International Harvester Loadstar which became the premier medium-duty truck. In 1978 IH offered the International Harvester S-Series, which replaced the Loadstar in 1979.

With the truck and engine divisions remaining following the 1985 sale of the agricultural division, International Harvester Company changed their corporate name to Navistar International in 1986. Today Navistar International's subsidiary, International Truck and Engine Corporation, manufactures and markets trucks and engines under the International brand name.

The Power Stroke diesel engine, which is a trade name of Ford Motor Company, is manufactured by International Truck and Engine Corporation in Indianapolis, Ind., for use in Ford heavy-duty trucks, vans and SUVs.

Military[edit]

IH manufactured light, medium, and heavy vehicles for military use. Examples include a Metro van sold to the Czechoslovakian Army in 1938, as M5 Tractors and 2.5-ton M-5H-6 trucks for the US Navy & Marines in 1942,[18] and approximately 3,500 2.5 ton M-5-6-318 cargo trucks provided mostly to Soviet Union and China.[19]

Motorhomes[edit]

In the 1970s, motorhomes were manufactured using IHC engines and bare chassis. Most of the bodies were constructed of fiberglass.

Overseas subsidiaries[edit]

Australia[edit]

Utility[edit]

Australian Army designs[edit]

International Harvester Australia, a subsidiary of the US Manufacturer, had a long relationship with the Australian Army with the US designed AS series trucks in the early 1950s. The AS164 2X4 used as a tractor unit[20] and the 2X4 AS161 used as a trayback troop transport[21]

The association between International Harvester Australia and the Australian Army developed and in conjunction with the Army Design Establishment of the Australian Commonwealth Department of Supply, designed and constructed a range of trucks for the Australian Army. With body loosely based upon the design of cab 13 of the Canadian Military Pattern truck the first prototype built in 1959 was the International Truck Cargo 2½ Ton General Service, Australian No.1 Mk1.[22] which was followed by the Mk2 prototype. A variant with a mid mounted 20,000 pound winch, resulted in the first production model,[23] the Mk3 entering service in 1963 – just in time for Australia's entry into the Vietnam War.

A 5 Ton 6X6 version was to follow with 3 major variants the Truck Cargo 5 Ton with winch F1[24] which replaced the Mk3 in Vietnam service.

The F2 a tipper version[25] that replaced the International Harvester AB160 "teaspoon Tipper"[26] in both Vietnam and Borneo theatres of operations.

The F5 wrecker[27] with a lack of 4X4 2 1/2 ton trucks available because of the Vietnam War, the Mk3 was supplemented with further 4X4 production with the updated Mk4 version[28] which shared the cab with the 6X6 variants Production of The Australian No.1. range of trucks were produced until 1973. The Mk3, Mk4, F1, F2 and F5 saw service until the late 1980s.[29][30]

ACCO[edit]

International ACCO

The Australian-designed and built International ACCO was first produced in 1972. The ACCO is a cab over engine type truck and has been offered in 4x2, 4x4, 6x2, 6x4 and 8x4 configuration. Engines used have been Cummins, Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel or GMC with Road-Ranger or Allison transmissions and Rockwell differentials. The ACCO range were built to order, serving private operators, fire departments, military services and municipal departments across Australia and New Zealand. The ACCO became the most popular product of International Harvester in Australia. The ACCO continues to be manufactured to date, under the ownership of Iveco.[31]

Brazilian subsidiary[edit]

"International Harvester Máquinas S.A." was established with Brazilian government support as part of a project to develop a vehicle industry there. Their first product was the International S-184 heavy truck.[32] In 1966 Chrysler purchased International's Brazilian plant.[33]

U.S. Truck series since 1960[edit]

Loadstar (1962-1979)[edit]

IHC Loadstar as an airport fire truck in Greece.
1968 International Harvester Loadstar bus at the Egged Museum, of Holon, Israel.

The first generation Loadstar was primarily used for local delivery, including school buses and fire engines. It was also used extensively in the agricultural and construction industries. It was widely recognizable by its grey grill and "butterfly" hood, but some late models had one piece tilting hoods. Most had a medium-duty 4x2 chassis, but some 6x4 heavy-duty models were built. This series was replaced by the S-Series in the 1970s.

Models 1600, 1650, 1700, 1750, 1800, 1850, 2050

Powertrain

Gasoline

IHC V-304 V8

  • IHC V-345 V8
  • IHC V-461 V8
  • IHC V-549 V8
Diesel
  • IHC DV-462 V8
  • IHC DV-550 V8
  • IHC DV-550B V8
    • IHC D-150/170/190 V8
    • IHC DT466 I6
  • Caterpillar 1160 V8
  • Caterpillar 3208 V8
  • Detroit Diesel 6V53N V6

Navistar 7000 series (2005-)[edit]

The Navistar 7000 series is a line of military heavy lift vehicles based on Navistar International's WorkStar truck chassis, and produced by Navistar Defense. The truck is available in a variety of wheel (4×2, 4×4, 6×4, and 6×6) and engine configurations.[34]

In 2005, the US Army ordered 2900 7,000-MV for the Afghan National Army and Iraqi Ministry of Defense and an additional order of 7,000 was added in 2008.[34]

The Canadian Forces Canadian Army had adopted the Navistar Defence LLC Medium Logistics truck. The vehicle fulfills the MSVS MilCOTS (Militarized Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) requirement. As of mid-2011, the MSVS SMP (Standard Military Pattern) vehicle has not been chosen. By June 2010, 1,300 Navistar units have replaced part of the MLVW fleet.[35] The civilian designation of the 7000-MV is Navistar 7400 SFA 6×6.

In July 2012 the order for 1500 MSVS SMP trucks was cancelled and being re-evaluated.[36]

Operators

S series (1977-2001)[edit]

The International Harvester S-Series was a medium and heavy-duty truck line. In April 1977, at the New Orleans Superdome, the all-new S-series medium-duty trucks were introduced.[39] as a replacement for the International Harvester Fleetstar. In 1979, other versions of the S-Series were introduced to succeed the Loadstar-series. Like the Loadstar, the S-Series were straight trucks commonly used for local delivery; the versions replacing the Fleetstar were semi-tractors or severe-service straight trucks. Additionally, the S-Series (and its replacement, the 3800) proved popular in the school bus industry. The S-Series was the last product line designed from the ground up by International Harvester themselves; it was produced in its original form until the end of the 1980s. Production of the S-Series ended in 2001.[40] The six-wheeled versions of the "S" were called F-series.[41]

In 1987, to reflect the corporate change from International Harvester to Navistar International, the S-Series received new badging. The IHC logo seen on the steering wheel was replaced by the Navistar diamond logo. On the outside, the International name was moved from the top to the bottom of the grille. Instead of matching the grille color, all S-Series trucks wore a red International badge.

Navistar International 4900 dump truck

In a 1989 facelift most of the components were carried over into an updated line of medium duty trucks (the straight trucks were re-branded International 4000 Series, while the tractors became the International 8000 Series) with a redesigned hood and interior in 1989. These products underwent interior updates in 1992 and 1995, remaining in production until the end of the 2001 model year.

Models

Wayne Lifeguard school bus with International 3800 chassis (retired)
Navistar International bus in Mexico.
Trucks (International Harvester)
  • S-1600
  • S-1700
  • S-1800
  • S-1900
  • S-2000
  • S-2200 (short hood, wide cab)
  • S-2500 (long hood)
  • S-2600 (long hood, set back front axle)
Trucks (Navistar International)
  • 4600
  • 4700
  • 4900
  • 8100
  • 8200
Buses
  • 1853FC front-engine forward control
  • S-Series "Schoolmaster" conventional
  • 3400 cutaway cab
  • 3600 semi-forward control
  • 3700 conventional
  • 3800 conventional (replaced "Schoolmaster" with 3700)

Powertrain

Gasoline Engines
International Harvester
    • 345 cubic-inch V8 (1979–1986)
    • 392 cubic-inch V8 (1979–1986)
    • MV-404 6.6 liter V8 (1979–1981)
    • MV-446 7.3 liter V8 (1979–1981) (gasoline ancestor of the International Harvester IDI engine)
Diesel Engines
V8
  • International Harvester 9.0 L (551 cu in) V8 (1979-1987)
  • D-150/170/190 (September 1978-December 1979)
  • 9.0L (January 1980-1987)
  • International Harvester IDI 6.9 L (420 cu in) (1983-1987)
  • International Harvester IDI 7.3 L (444 cu in) (1986-1989)
  • Caterpillar 3208 10.4 L (636 cu in) (1979-1981)
Inline-6
  • International Harvester DT360 5.9 L (360 cu in) (1987-1989)
  • International Harvester DT466 7.6 L (466 cu in) (1979-1989)
  • Cummins M11

TranStar 8000 series (1989-)[edit]

The International 8000 Series, also known as the International TranStar line, is a regional-haul tractor. It is available in two variants.[when?] They differ in engines, drivetrains, and axle configurations.[citation needed]

International TranStar 8600 with a special single-seat body for carrying long pipes

The 8500 is powered by an International HT 570 310 hp (230 kW)/1,050 lbf·ft (1,420 N·m) with either a Fuller - 10 speed manual, Spicer - 7 speed manual, or Allison - 5 Speed / 6 speed automatic[citation needed] With a wheelbase from 128 to 201 in (3.3 to 5.1 m), its front axle capacity is 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) or 12,000 lb (5,400 kg). Rear single axle has a capacity of 23,000 pounds (10,000 kg) Rear tandem axle has a capacity of 40,000 lb (18,000 kg) Both axles are either Meritor or Dana Spicer and are available with a driver-controlled locking differential. Applications include beverage, city tractor, and regional haul.[42]

The heavier-duty 8600 model is powered by either a Caterpillar or Cummins diesel. With a wheelbase from 128 to 315 inches (3.25 to 8.00 m), Its front axle is either a Meritor with a capacity of 10,000 lb (4,500 kg), 12,000 lb (5,400 kg), or 13,200 lb (6,000 kg) or a Dana Spicer with a capacity of 10,000 lb (4,500 kg), 12,000 lb (5,400 kg), 13,200 lb (6,000 kg), or 14,000 lb (6,400 kg). Rear single axle capacity is 23,000 lb (10,000 kg). Rear tandem axle capacity is 40,000 lb (18,000 kg). Both axles are either Meritor or Dana Spicer and are available with a driver-controlled locking differential. Applications include beverage, city tractor, liquid or dry bulk, and regional haul. [43]

Home[edit]

IH dealer in Texas, showing trucks, tractors and refrigeration equipment

Lawn and garden[edit]

IH branched out into the home lawn and garden business in the 1960s with its line of Cub Cadet equipment, which included riding and walk-behind lawn mowers and snow blowers. Also produced were compost shredders, rotary tillers, Cadet garden tractors, and power washers.

The Cub Cadet line was sold to MTD Products in 1981.[44]

Home appliances[edit]

Although best known for farm equipment, IH produced home appliances for farmers and non-farmers alike. This included refrigeration equipment such as refrigerators, air conditioners and freezers. IH had a refrigeration division of its own, as did other vehicle manufacturers of the time: Ford had Philco, Chrysler had Airtemp, General Motors had Frigidaire, Nash-Kelvinator Corporation (and then American Motors) had Kelvinator, Studebaker had the Franklin Appliance Company, Crosley had Crosley.

The IH appliance division had originally been developed to manufacture commercial-grade items to farmers, most of whom had just received electricity by way of the many electrification projects in the U.S. before and after World War II. Among the offerings were milk coolers and walk-in freezers for produce and meat. Later on, IH courted the farmer's wife with kitchen refrigerators available in the latest designer styles. The IH spokeswoman for these products was Irma Harding, a factory trademark. These products were introduced in 1947 and sold for less than 10 years. The refrigeration division was sold to Whirlpool Corporation in 1955. Since the time of production was short, IH appliances are rare today.[11][45]

Other products[edit]

Weapons[edit]

In early 1951, the United States Army through the Springfield Armory contracted International Harvester to produce M1 Garand rifles, and from 1953 to 1956 produced 337,623 rifles in total, according to the Army Ordnance Department.

HT-341[edit]

In 1959, International Harvester created a Jet-Turbine powered tractor called the International HT-341. It was donated to the Smithsonian Institution in 1967.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Crismon, Frederick W. (2002), International Trucks (2nd ed.), Minneapolis, MN: Victory WW2 Publishing, ISBN 0-9700567-2-9 
  1. ^ "Trailer Blazing through Africa", Popular Mechanics June 1941
  2. ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
  3. ^ "1948 International Harvester Annual Report". 1949. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  4. ^ "Navistar International: Information from". Answers.com. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  5. ^ Loomis, Carol J. "The Strike That Rained on Archie McCardell's Parade." Fortune. May 19, 1980; Friedman, Raymond A. "Interaction Norms as Carriers of Organizational Culture: A Study of Labor Negotiations at International Harvester". Journal of Contemporary Ethnography. 18:1 (April 1989); Zimmerman, Frederick M. The Turnaround Experience: Real-World Lessons in Revitalizing Corporations. New York: McGraw–Hill, 1991. ISBN 0-07-072899-2
  6. ^ a b Leffingwell, Randy (2005). Farmall Eight Decades of Innovation. St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-2136-1. 
  7. ^ Williams, Winston. "Long Strike Is Called Key McCardell Error." New York Times. May 4, 1982; "Workers End Six-Month Walkout." Associated Press. April 21, 1980
  8. ^ a b Placard at WDM.
  9. ^ "A History of John Deere Model R Tractors". Retrieved 2007-11-02. 
  10. ^ a b c d Updike, Kenneth (2000). International Harvester Tractors 1955–1985. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-0682-6. 
  11. ^ a b c Wendel, Charles (2004). 150 Years of International Harvester. Lola, WI: Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87349-928-X. 
  12. ^ The mid-mount Electrall unit installs on the Super M-TA, Super W-6TA, 400, 450 and 560 tractors equipped with the I-PTO option.
  13. ^ "Insect Electrocution". Ag and Food Newsletter 2 (14): 711. 1954-07-07. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  14. ^ a b c d "International Harvester History: Trucks". International Harvester. 1961. 
  15. ^ Placard at the Saskatchewan Western Development Museum, where the car was on display.
  16. ^ "Smithson International Truck Museum: Truck Collection". Rimbey, Alberta, Canada: Pas-ka-poo Historical Park. Retrieved 2011-08-26. 
  17. ^ Carlsom, B Mitchell. "The Timeless Metro". Red Power. Sept/Oct, Nov/Dec, Jan/Feb. 27 & 28: 34–36. 
  18. ^ International Harvester M-5H-6 (G-651)
  19. ^ IHC M-5-6x4-318, 2.5-ton, 6x4, Cargo truck
  20. ^ "The Army Inter Chapter - AR164". REMLR. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  21. ^ "The Army Inter Chapter - AS161". REMLR. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  22. ^ "The Army Inter - No.1, Mk.1". REMLR. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  23. ^ "The Army Inter - No.1, Mk.3". REMLR. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  24. ^ "The Army Inter - No.1, Mk.5, F1". REMLR. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  25. ^ "The Army Inter - No.1, Mk.5, F2". REMLR. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  26. ^ "The Army InterChapter - AB160 Teaspoon Tipper". REMLR. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  27. ^ "The Army Inter - No.1, Mk.5, F5". REMLR. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  28. ^ "The Army Inter - No.1, Mk.4". REMLR. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  29. ^ "Defence Materiel Organisation - On Target August 2006". Defence.gov.au. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  30. ^ "Australian Government, Department of Defence". Defence.gov.au. 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  31. ^ "ACCO turns 40". Iveco Australia. 
  32. ^ Shapiro, Helen (Winter 1991). "Determinants of Firm Entry into the Brazilian Automobile Manufacturing Industry, 1956-1968". The Business History Review 65 (4, The Automobile Industry): 879. doi:10.2307/3117267. 
  33. ^ Shapiro, p. 935
  34. ^ a b "Navistar International 7000 series". Military-Today.com. 
  35. ^ "MacKay announces 1,300 new military trucks". Winnipeg Sun. 2009-01-09. 
  36. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/story/2012/07/11/military-truck-purchase-halted.html
  37. ^ http://www.foto.bg/data/7345/medium/P3171151.JPG
  38. ^ Colombia; Marines receive Navistar 7000MV trucks - Dmilt.com, May 1, 2013
  39. ^ Crismon, p. 485
  40. ^ Crismon, p. 492
  41. ^ Crismon, p. 495
  42. ^ [1] International Trucks website- 8500
  43. ^ [2] International Trucks website- 8600
  44. ^ "Farmall Cub • View topic - Bought a 182 Cub Cadet". Farmallcub.com. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  45. ^ "Wisconsin Historical Society Frequently Asked Questions". Wisconsinhistory.org. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 

External links[edit]