A long take or oner is an uninterrupted shot in a film which lasts much longer than the conventional editing pace either of the film itself or of films in general, usually lasting several minutes. It can be used for dramatic and narrative effect if done properly, and in moving shots is often accomplished through the use of a dolly or Steadicam. Long takes of a sequence filmed in one shot without any editing are rare in films.
The term "long take" is used because it avoids the ambiguous meanings of "long shot", which can refer to the framing of a shot, and "long cut", which can refer to either a whole version of a film or the general editing pacing of the film. However, these two terms are sometimes used interchangeably with "long take".
When filming Rope (1948), Alfred Hitchcock intended for the film to have the effect of one long continuous take, but the cameras available could hold no more than 1000 feet of 35 mm film. As a result, each take used up to a whole roll of film and lasts up to 10 minutes. Many takes end with a dolly shot to a featureless surface (such as the back of a character's jacket), with the following take beginning at the same point by zooming out. The entire film consists of only 11 shots. (For a complete analysis of Hitchcock's hidden and conventional cuts in Rope, see David Bordwell's text "Poetics of Cinema", 2008).
Andy Warhol and collaborating avant-garde filmmaker, Jonas Mekas, shot the 485-minute-long experimental film, Empire (1964), on 10 rolls of film using an Auricon camera via 16mm film which allowed longer takes than its 35 mm counterpart. "The camera took a 1,200ft roll of film that would shoot for roughly 33 minutes."
The length of a take was originally limited to how much film a camera could hold, but the advent of digital video has considerably lengthened the maximum length of a take. A handful of theatrically released feature films, such as Timecode, Russian Ark, PVC-1 and La casa muda are filmed in one single take; others are composed entirely from a series of long takes, while many more may be well known for one or two specific long takes within otherwise more conventionally edited films. In 2012, art collective The Hut Project produced "The Look of Performance", a digital film shot in a single 360º take lasting 3 hours, 33 minutes and 8 seconds. The film was shot at 50 frames per second, meaning the final exhibited work lasts 7 hours, 6 minutes and 17 seconds.
The long take is rarely used in television, because of its complexity and high mastery required. TV series such as police procedural The Bill used it in their first decade to achieve a documentary style effect but this soon became onerous. One other exception is The X-Files episode Triangle (season 6, episode 3), directed (and written) by the series creator Chris Carter. The 44 minutes of episode are filmed in four 11 minute-long takes chained, as if the whole episode was filmed in one single shot.
A sequence shot involves both a long take and sophisticated camera movement; it is sometimes called by the French term plan-séquence. The use of the sequence shot allows for realistic and dramatically significant background and middle ground activity. Actors range about the set transacting their business while the camera shifts focus from one plane of depth to another and back again. Significant off-frame action is often followed with a moving camera, characteristically through a series of pans within a single continuous shot. An example of this is the first scene in the jury room of 12 Angry Men, where the jurors are getting settled into the room.
Another notable example occurs near the beginning of Antonioni's The Passenger, when Jack Nicholson exchanges passport photos while we hear a tape recording of an earlier conversation with a now dead man, and then the camera pans (no cut) to that earlier scene.
Average shot length
Films can be quantitatively analyzed using the "ASL" (average shot length), a statistical measurement which divides the total length of the film by the number of shots. For example, Béla Tarr's film Werckmeister Harmonies is 149 minutes, and made up of 39 shots. Thus its ASL is 229.2 seconds.
The ASL is a relatively recent metric, devised by film scholar Barry Salt in the 1970s as a method of statistically analyzing the editorial patterns both within films and across groupings of them. Noted practitioners of ASL studies include David Bordwell and Yuri Tsivian. Tsivian used the ASL as a tool for analysis of D. W. Griffith's Intolerance (ASL 5.9 seconds) in a 2005 article. Tsivian helped launch a website called Cinemetrics, where visitors can measure, record, and read ASL statistics.
Directors known for long takes
- James Benning
- Chantal Akerman
- Robert Altman
- John Asher
- Paul Thomas Anderson
- Wes Anderson
- Theodoros Angelopoulos see Theo Angelopoulos: interviews edited by Dan Fainaru, Univ. Press of Mississippi, 2001, p. 72
- Michelangelo Antonioni
- Alfonso Cuarón
- Brian De Palma
- Carl Theodor Dreyer in his sound films
- Bruno Dumont
- Jean-Luc Godard 'Weekend'
- Michael Haneke
- Alfred Hitchcock
- Werner Herzog
- Hou Hsiao-Hsien
- Miklós Jancsó
- Woody Allen
- Mikhail Kalatozov
- Stanley Kubrick
- David Lean
- Sergio Leone
- Steve McQueen
- Tsai Ming-Liang
- Kenji Mizoguchi (see description of Mizoguchi's long take mastery in David Thomson's Biographical Dictionary of Film)
- Max Ophüls
- Ruben Östlund
- Yasujirō Ozu
- Otto Preminger
- Jean Renoir
- Jacques Rivette
- Martin Scorsese
- M. Night Shyamalan
- Alexander Sokurov
- Andrei Tarkovsky
- Béla Tarr
- Rob Tregenza
- François Truffaut 'Les Quatre Cents Coups'
- Apichatpong Weerasethakul
- Orson Welles
- Joss Whedon
- Joe Wright
- Jia Zhangke
- Henderson, Brian (1976). "The Long Take". In Bill Nichols. Movies and methods: an anthology 1. ISBN 978-0-520-03151-7.
- Miller, D. A. "Anal Rope" in Inside/Out: Lesbian Theories, Gay Theories, pp. 119–172. Routledge, 1991. ISBN 0-415-90237-1
- Cripps, Charlotte (2006-10-10). "Preview: Warhol, The Film-Maker: 'Empire, 1964', Coskun Fine Art, London". The Independent (London).
- The Hut Project. "The Look of Performance".
- "TV Tropes: The Oner".
- "RogerEbert.com : Great Movies: Werckmeister Harmonies". Rogerebert.suntimes.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Yuri Tsivian, in The Griffith Project: Vol. 9: Films Produced in 1916–1918, Paolo Cherchi Usai (ed.), text at Cinemetrics.
- "Chantal Akerman". Filmref.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Coyle, Jake (2007-12-29). "'Atonement' brings the long tracking shot back into focus". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-12-29.
- "Carl Theodor Dreyer". Filmref.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Hughes, Darren. "Senses of Cinema: Bruno Dumont's Bodies". Archive.sensesofcinema.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Frey, Mattias. "Michael Haneke". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Hou Hsiao-Hsien: Long Take and Neorealism[dead link]
- Derek Malcolm (2003-08-14). "Silent Witness". London: Film.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Billson, Anne (2011-09-15). "Take it or leave it: the long shot". The Guardian (London).
- Rafferty, Terrence (2008-09-14). "David Lean, Perfectionist of Madness". The New York Times.
- Steve McQueen's long shot in 'Hunger' is paying off, Los Angeles Times, March 22, 2009.
- Hughes, Darren. "Tsai Ming-Liang". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- "Camera Movement and the Long Take". Filmreference.com. 1902-05-06. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- http://www.luxprize.eu/news/focus-play-director-ruben-%C3%B6stlund. Missing or empty
- Fujiwara, Chris. "Senses of Cinema: Otto Preminger". Archive.sensesofcinema.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Colliding with history in La Bete Humaine: Reading Renoir's Cinecriture[dead link]
- Lim, Dennis (2006-06-04). "An Elusive All-Day Film and the Bug-Eyed Few Who Have Seen It". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- "The Sixth Sense". Chicago Sun-Times.
- Halligan, Benjamin (2001-09-11). "The Remaining Second World: Sokurov and Russian Ark | Senses of Cinema". Archive.sensesofcinema.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Cain, Maximilian Le. "Andrei Tarkovsky". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- "Strictly Film School: Béla Tarr". Filmref.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- "Rob Tregenza Interview". Cinemaparallel.com. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Brunner, Vera. "Phantoms of Liberty: Apichatpong Weerasethakul edited by James Quandt". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- "Steadicam Shot".
- Lee, Kevin. "Jia Zhangke". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Cinemetrics – a statistical analysis of shot length
- Top 15 Long Takes at List Universe
- 25 Great Long Takes at Daily Film Dose
- Essay on the history and use of long takes in music videos