Jean Renoir

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Jean Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir - Jean en tant que Chasseur.jpg
Born (1894-09-15)15 September 1894
Paris, France
Died 12 February 1979(1979-02-12) (aged 84)
Beverly Hills, California, United States
Occupation Actor, director, screenwriter, producer, author
Years active 1924–1978
Spouse(s) Catherine Hessling (1920–1930)
Dido Freire (1944–1979)

Jean Renoir (French: [ʁənwaʁ]; 15 September 1894 – 12 February 1979) was a French film director, screenwriter, actor, producer and author. As a film director and actor, he made more than forty films from the silent era to the end of the 1960s. His films Grand Illusion (1937) and The Rules of the Game (1939) are often cited by critics as among the greatest films ever made. As an author, he wrote the definitive biography of his father, the painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Renoir, My Father (1962). Jean Renoir was ranked by the BFI's Sight & Sound poll of critics as the fourth greatest director of all time.[1]

Early life and career[edit]

The young Renoir with Gabrielle Renard in a painting by Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

Renoir was born in the Montmartre district of Paris, France. He was the second son of Aline (née Charigot) and the French painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir. His elder brother was Pierre Renoir, a French stage and film actor, while his younger brother Claude Renoir (1901–69) produced some of his films. Renoir was also the uncle of Claude Renoir (1913–1993), the son of Pierre, a cinematographer who worked with Renoir on several of his films.

As a child, Renoir moved to the south of France with his family. He and the rest of the Renoir family were the subjects of many of his father's paintings. His father's financial success ensured that the young Renoir was educated at fashionable boarding schools, from which, as he later wrote, he continually ran away.[2]

At the outbreak of World War I, Renoir was serving in the French cavalry. Later, after receiving a bullet in his leg, he served as a reconnaissance pilot.[3] His leg injury left him with a permanent limp, but allowed him to discover the cinema, where he used to recuperate with his leg elevated while watching the films of Charlie Chaplin, D. W. Griffith and others.[4][5] After the war, Renoir followed his father's suggestion and tried his hand at making ceramics, but he soon set that aside to make films, inspired, in particular, by Erich von Stroheim's work.[6][7]

Pottery created by the young Jean Renoir circa 1915 before his career as a film maker.

In 1924, Renoir directed the first of his nine silent films, most of which starred his first wife, Catherine Hessling, who was also his father's last model.[8] At this stage his films did not produce a return, and Renoir gradually sold paintings inherited from his father to finance them.[9]

International success in the 1930s[edit]

During the 1930s Renoir enjoyed great success as a filmmaker. In 1931 he directed his first sound films, On purge bébé (Baby's Laxative)[10] and La Chienne (The Bitch).[11] The following year he made Boudu Saved From Drowning (Boudu sauvé des eaux), a farcical sendup of the pretensions of a middle-class bookseller and his family, who meet with comic, and ultimately disastrous, results when they attempt to reform a vagrant played by Michel Simon.[12]

By the middle of the decade Renoir was associated with the Popular Front, and several of his films, such as The Crime of Monsieur Lange (Le Crime de Monsieur Lange, 1935), Life Belongs to Us (1936) and La Marseillaise (1938), reflect the movement's politics.[13][14]

In 1937 he made one of his best known films, Grand Illusion (La Grande Illusion), starring Erich von Stroheim and Jean Gabin. A film on the theme of brotherhood about a series of escape attempts by French POWs during World War I, it was enormously successful but was also banned in Germany, and later in Italy after having won the "Best Artistic Ensemble" award at the Venice Film Festival.[15] It was the first foreign language film to receive a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Picture. This was followed by another cinematic success: The Human Beast (La Bête Humaine) (1938), a film noir tragedy based on the novel by Émile Zola and starring Simone Simon and Jean Gabin.[16]

In 1939, now able to co-finance his own films,[17] Renoir made The Rules of the Game (La Règle du Jeu), a satire on contemporary French society with an ensemble cast.[18] Renoir himself played the character Octave, a sort of master of ceremonies in the film.[19] His greatest commercial failure,[20] the film was met with derision by Parisian audiences at its premiere and was extensively reedited, but without success.[21] A few weeks after the outbreak of World War II, the film was banned. The ban was lifted briefly in 1940, but after the fall of France it was banned again.[22] Subsequently the original negative of the film was destroyed in an Allied bombing raid.[22] It was not until the 1950s that French film enthusiasts Jean Gaborit and Jacques Durand, with Renoir's cooperation, were able to reconstruct a near-complete print of the film.[23][24] Since the 1960s, The Rules of the Game has frequently appeared near the top of critics' polls of the best films ever made.[25][26]

Hollywood years[edit]

A week after the disastrous premiere of The Rules of the Game, in July 1939, Renoir went to Rome with Karl Koch and Dido Freire, subsequently his second wife, to work on the script for a film version of Tosca.[27][28] This he abandoned to return to France in August 1939, to make himself available for military service.[29] At the age of 45, he became a lieutenant in the French Army Film Service, and was sent back to Italy, to teach film at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia in Rome, and resume work on Tosca.[27][30][31] The French government hoped this cultural exchange would help maintain friendly relations with Italy, which had not yet entered the war.[27][30][32] As war approached, however, he returned to France[27][33] and then, after Germany invaded France in May 1940, he fled to the United States with Dido.[34][35]

In Hollywood, Renoir had difficulty finding projects that suited him.[36] In 1943, he co-produced and directed an anti-Nazi film set in France, This Land Is Mine, starring Maureen O'Hara and Charles Laughton.[37][38] Two years later, he made The Southerner, a film about Texas sharecroppers that is often regarded as his best American film and one for which he was nominated for an Academy Award for Directing.[39][40][41]

In 1945 he made Diary of a Chambermaid, an adaptation of the Octave Mirbeau novel, Le Journal d'une femme de chambre, starring Paulette Goddard and Burgess Meredith.[42][43] The Woman on the Beach (1947) starring Joan Bennett and Robert Ryan was heavily reshot and reedited after it fared poorly among preview audiences in California.[44] Both films were poorly received and were the last films Renoir made in America.[45][46][47] At this time, Renoir became a naturalized citizen of the United States.[48]

A transatlantic life[edit]

In 1949 Renoir traveled to India and made The River, his first color film.[49] Based on the novel of the same name by Rumer Godden, the film is both a meditation on human beings' relationship with nature and a coming of age story of three young girls in colonial India.[50] The film won the International Prize at the Venice Film Festival in 1951.[51]

After returning to work in Europe, Renoir made a trilogy of Technicolor musical comedies on the subjects of theater, politics and commerce:[52] Le Carrosse d'or (The Golden Coach) (1953) with Anna Magnani,[53] French Cancan (1955)[54] with Jean Gabin and María Félix and Eléna et les hommes (Elena and Her Men, 1956)[55] with Ingrid Bergman and Jean Marais. During the same period, Renoir produced in Paris the Clifford Odets play, The Big Knife, and wrote and produced in Paris for Leslie Caron his own play, Orvet.[56][57]

Renoir's next films were made in 1959 using techniques Renoir adapted from live television at the time.[58] Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (Picnic on the Grass), starring Paul Meurisse and Catherine Rouvel, was filmed on the grounds of Pierre-Auguste Renoir's home in Cagnes-sur-Mer, and Le Testament du docteur Cordelier (The Testament of Doctor Cordelier), starring Jean-Louis Barrault, was made in the streets of Paris and its suburbs.[59][60]

In 1962 Renoir made what was to be his penultimate film, Le Caporal épinglé (The Elusive Corporal) with Jean-Pierre Cassel and Claude Brasseur.[61] Set among French POWs during their internment in labor camps by the Nazis during World War II, the film explores the twin human needs for freedom, on the one hand, and emotional and economic security, on the other.[62][63]

In 1962, Renoir published a loving memoir of his father, Renoir, My Father, in which he described the profound influence his father had on him and his work.[64] As funds for his film projects were becoming harder to obtain, Renoir continued to write screenplays and then wrote a novel, The Notebooks of Captain Georges, published in 1966.[65][66] Captain Georges is the nostalgic account of a wealthy young man's sentimental education and love for a peasant girl, a theme also explored earlier in his films Diary of a Chambermaid and Picnic on the Grass.[67]

Last years[edit]

Renoir made his last film in 1969, Le Petit théâtre de Jean Renoir (The Little Theatre of Jean Renoir).[68] The film is a series of four short films made in a variety of styles and is, in many ways, one of his most challenging, avant-garde and unconventional works.[69][70]

Thereafter, unable to find financing for his films and in declining health, Renoir spent the last years of his life receiving friends at his home in Beverly Hills and writing novels and his memoirs.[71]

In 1973 Renoir was preparing a production of his stage play Carola with Leslie Caron and Mel Ferrer when he fell ill and was unable to direct. The producer Norman Lloyd, a friend and actor in The Southerner, took over the direction of the play, which was broadcast in the series program Hollywood Television Theater on WNET, Channel 13, New York on February 3, 1973.[72]

In his memoirs My Life and My Films (1974) Renoir wrote of the influence exercised upon him by his cousin, Gabrielle Renard, the woman seen in the portrait by his father above. Shortly before his birth, she came to live with the Renoir family, and helped raise the young boy.[73] She introduced him to the Guignol puppet shows in the Montmartre of his childhood: "She taught me to see the face behind the mask and the fraud behind the flourishes", he wrote. "She taught me to detest the cliché."[74] He concluded his memoirs with the words he had often spoken as a child, "Wait for me, Gabrielle."[75]

In 1975 he received a lifetime Academy Award for his contribution to the motion picture industry and that same year a retrospective of his work was shown at the National Film Theatre in London.[76] Also in 1975, the government of France elevated him to the rank of commander in the Légion d'honneur.[77]

Jean Renoir died in Beverly Hills, California on February 12, 1979. His body was returned to France and buried beside his family in the cemetery at Essoyes, Aube, France.[78] He was survived by his son Alain and three grandchildren, John, Peter and Anne.

Legacy[edit]

On his death, fellow director and friend Orson Welles wrote an article for the Los Angeles Times, "Jean Renoir: The Greatest of all Directors".[79] Renoir's son Alain Renoir (1921-2008), was a professor of English and comparative literature at the University of California at Berkeley and a scholar of medieval English literature.

Jean Renoir has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6212 Hollywood Blvd.[80] Several of his ceramics were collected by Albert Barnes and can be found on display beneath his father's paintings at the Barnes Foundation in Philadelphia.[81]

Renoir's Films have influenced many directors including Satyajit Ray,[82] Éric Rohmer,[83] Luchino Visconti,[84] Jean-Marie Straub and Danièle Huillet,[85] Peter Bogdanovich,[86] François Truffaut,[87] Robert Altman,[88] Errol Morris[89] and Mike Leigh.[90]

Filmography[edit]

Selected writings[edit]

  • 1955: Orvet, Paris: Gallimard, play.
  • 1962: Renoir, Paris: Hachette (Renoir, My Father), biography.
  • 1966: Les Cahiers du Capitaine Georges, Paris: Gallimard (The Notebooks of Captain Georges), novel.
  • 1974: Ma Vie et mes Films, Paris: Flammarion (My Life and My Films), autobiography.
  • 1974: Écrits 1926-1971 (Claude Gauteur, ed.), Paris: Pierre Belfond, writings.
  • 1976: Carola, in "L'Avant-Scène du Théâtre" no. 597, November 1, 1976, screenplay.
  • 1978: Le Coeur à l'aise, Paris: Flammarion, novel.
  • 1978 Julienne et son amour; suivi d'En avant Rosalie!, Paris: Henri Veyrier, screenplays.
  • 1979: Jean Renoir: Entretiens et propos (Jean Narboni, ed.), Paris: Éditions de l'étoile/Cahiers du Cinéma, interviews and remarks.
  • 1979: Le crime de l'Anglais, Paris: Flammarion, novel.
  • 1980: Geneviève, Paris: Flammarion, novel.
  • 1981: Œuvres de cinéma inédités (Claude Gauteur, ed.), Paris: Gallimard, synopses and treatments.
  • 1984: Lettres d'Amérique (Dido Renoir & Alexander Sesonske, eds.), Paris: Presses de la Renaissance ISBN 2-85616-287-8, correspondence.
  • 1989: Renoir on Renoir: Interviews, Essays, and Remarks (Carol Volk, tr.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • 1994: Jean Renoir: Letters (David Thompson and Lorraine LoBianco, eds.), London: Faber & Faber, correspondence.

Awards[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Critics’ Top Ten Directors", Sight & Sound poll [2002]
  2. ^ Renoir, Jean. Renoir My Father, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1962, pp. 417-419; 425-429
  3. ^ Durgnat, Raymond. Jean Renoir, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974, pp. 27-28
  4. ^ Renoir, Jean. My Life and My Films, New York: Atheneum, 1974, pp. 40-43
  5. ^ Renoir My Father, pp. 417-19.
  6. ^ My Life and My Films, pp. 47-48.
  7. ^ "Memories" by Jean Renoir, reprinted from Le Point, XVIII, December 1938 in Bazin, Andre. Jean Renoir, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973, pp. 151-152
  8. ^ Durgnat, p. 29. The name of the film was "Une Vie Sans Joie" or "Catherine".
  9. ^ My Life and My Films, pp. 81-85
  10. ^ Durgnat, p. 64
  11. ^ Durgnat, p. 68
  12. ^ Durgnat, pp. 85-87
  13. ^ My Life and My Films, pp. 124-127
  14. ^ Durgnat, pp. 108-131
  15. ^ Bazin, Andre. Jean Renoir, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973, pp. 56-66
  16. ^ Durgnat, pp. 172-184
  17. ^ Durgnat, p. 185.
  18. ^ Gilliatt, Penelope. Jean Renoir: Essays, Conversations, Reviews, New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1975, p. 59
  19. ^ Renoir, Jean. An Interview: Jean Renoir, Copenhagen: Green Integer Books, 1998, p. 67
  20. ^ Volk, Carol. Renoir on Renoir: Interviews, Essays and Remarks, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 236
  21. ^ Durgnat, pp. 189-190
  22. ^ a b Durgnant, 191
  23. ^ Faulkner, Christopher, Jean Renoir, a guide to references and resources, Boston, Massachusetts: G.K. Hall & Company, 1979, p. 34
  24. ^ Gilliatt, p. 60
  25. ^ [1]."BFI Sight & Sound Critics' Top Ten Poll". Sight & Sound. 2002. Last accessed: 7 June 2009.
  26. ^ [2]."Take One: The First Annual Village Voice Film Critics' Poll". The Village Voice. 1999. Archived from the original on 2007-08-26. [3]. Last accessed: 7 June 2009.
  27. ^ a b c d Durgnat, p. 213.
  28. ^ David Thompson and Lorraine LoBianco (ed.) Jean Renoir: Letters, London: Faber & Faber, 1994, p. 61
  29. ^ Jean Renoir: Letters, pp. 61, 64
  30. ^ a b My Life and My Films, pp. 175-176
  31. ^ Jean Renoir: Letters, pp. 62-65.
  32. ^ Thompson and LoBianco, p. 65
  33. ^ My Life and My Films, p. 177
  34. ^ Durgnat, p. 222.
  35. ^ Thompson and LoBianco, p. 87
  36. ^ Volk, pp. 10-30
  37. ^ Durgnat, pp. 234-236.
  38. ^ Thompson and LoBianco, p. 183
  39. ^ Durgnat, p. 244
  40. ^ Bazin, p. 103
  41. ^ [4]. The Academy Awards Database Website. Last accessed: 7 June 2009.
  42. ^ Thompson and LoBianco, pp. 165-169.
  43. ^ Durgnat, p. 252.
  44. ^ Durgnat, p. 261.
  45. ^ Durgnat, p. 259.
  46. ^ Volk, p. 24.
  47. ^ My Life and My Films, p. 247
  48. ^ Thompson and LoBianco, pp. 207, 270
  49. ^ Durgnat, pp. 273-274
  50. ^ Durgnat, pp. 273, 275-276
  51. ^ Durgnat, p. 284
  52. ^ Durgnat, p. 400
  53. ^ Durgnat, pp. 286-287
  54. ^ Durgnat, p. 301
  55. ^ Durgnat, p. 315.
  56. ^ Faulkner, pp. 33-34
  57. ^ My Life and My Films, pp. 274-275
  58. ^ Renoir, Jean. Ecrits 1926-1971, Paris: Pierre Belfond, 1974, pp. 286-289
  59. ^ My Life and My Films, p. 277
  60. ^ Ecrits 1926-1971, pp. 292-294
  61. ^ Bazin, p. 300-301
  62. ^ Durgnat, pp. 357-367.
  63. ^ Bazin, pp. 301-4
  64. ^ Durgnat, pp. 368-372
  65. ^ Durgnat, p. 373
  66. ^ Faulkner, pp. 37-38
  67. ^ Thompson and LoBianco, p. 455, 463
  68. ^ Bazin, p. 306
  69. ^ My Life and My Films, pp. 277-278.
  70. ^ Rohmer, Eric. Notes sur Le Petit théâtre de Jean Renoir in Cinema 79 No. 244, April 1979, pp. 20-24
  71. ^ Thompson and LoBianco, pp. 509-553
  72. ^ a b Faulkner, p. 40
  73. ^ My Life and My Films, p. 16
  74. ^ My Life and My Films, pp. 29, 282
  75. ^ My Life and My Films, p. 282
  76. ^ Faulkner, pp. 40-41
  77. ^ a b An Interview: Jean Renoir, p. 18
  78. ^ Thompson and LoBianco, p. 555
  79. ^ Welles, Orson. The Orson Welles Web Resource, 1979. Last accessed: January 4, 2008.
  80. ^ Walk of Fame directory at the official website
  81. ^ My Life and My Films, page 230.
  82. ^ "Encounter With Jean Renoir". satyajitray.org. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  83. ^ "The Human Comedies of Eric Rohmer". Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  84. ^ Jean Renoir: interviews. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  85. ^ Landscapes of Resistance: The German Films of Danièle Huillet and Jean-Marie Straub. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  86. ^ "Peter Bogdanovich Talks Roger Corman, Other Influences". yahoo.com. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  87. ^ "Truffaut’s Last Interview". newyorker.com. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  88. ^ "Robert Altman talks to Michael Billington". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  89. ^ "The Tawdry Gruesomeness of Reality, Errol Morrs". Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  90. ^ The Films of Mike Leigh. Retrieved May 14, 2013. 
  91. ^ a b Faulkner, page 16.
  92. ^ [5]. The National Board of Review Website. Last accessed: 3 March 2009.
  93. ^ Faulkner, page 18.
  94. ^ [6]. The National Board of Review Website. Last accessed: 3 March 2009.
  95. ^ [7]. The National Board of Review Website. Last accessed: 3 March 2009.
  96. ^ Faulkner, page 28.
  97. ^ [8]. The National Board of Review Website. Last accessed: 3 March 2009.
  98. ^ Faulkner, page 31.
  99. ^ [9]. The National Board of Review Website. Last accessed: 3 March 2009.
  100. ^ Faulkner, page 33.
  101. ^ Faulkner, page 34.
  102. ^ Faulkner, page 36.
  103. ^ a b Faulkner, page 37.
  104. ^ [10]. Official Site of Denmark's National Association of Film Critics (Filmedarbejderforeningen). Last accessed: 3 March 2009.
  105. ^ Faulkner, page 39.
  106. ^ [11]. The Academy Awards Database Website. Last accessed: 3 March 2009.

External links[edit]

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Groucho Marx
Academy Honorary Award
with Howard Hawks

1975
Succeeded by
Mary Pickford