Lorryia formosa

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Lorryia formosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Trombidiformes
Family: Tydeidae
Genus: Lorryia
Species: L. formosa
Binomial name
Lorryia formosa
Cooreman, 1958
Synonyms

Tydeus formosus André, 1980

Lorryia formosa, commonly known as the yellow mite or the citrus yellow mite,[1] is a species of acariform mite. They are in the subfamily Tydeinae of the family Tydeidae. Commonly found on the foliage of citrus trees around the world, Lorryia formosa also associates with a variety of other plant types. The life cycle includes six discrete stages of development, and the lifespan averages about 37 days. The females of the species use an asexual form of reproduction where the growth and development of embryos occurs without fertilization by a male, a process called thelytoky.

Taxonomy[edit]

Lorryia formosa, originally found in Morocco, was first described by Cooreman in 1958.[2] In his 1980 revision of the family Tydeidae, H.M. André synonymized the genus Lorryia with Tydeus, and Lorryia formosa became Tydeus formosus.[3] André based his revision on the similarities of the chaetotaxy, especially on the legs, but ignored body ornamentation, which is a major character used by other authors. In 1998, Kazmierski revised the Tydeinae subfamily, this time using ornamentation and other features, and reestablished the genus Lorryia.[4]

Description[edit]

In Lorryia formosa, like all Acariformes mites, the capitulum is the head segment and the idiosoma is the body segment. The idiosoma is further subdivided into the propodosoma, metapodosoma, and opisthosoma. The Tydeinae subfamily, to which Lorryia formosa belongs, is characterized by having three pairs of lyrifissures (grooves that encircle the surface of an appendage) and a pair of primitive eyes (oculi) which commonly occur laterally on the propodosoma, the middle body segment to which the first two pairs of legs are attached. The genital region includes a progenital aperture flanked by setae. Specimens are generally less than 250 µm long.[5]

Life cycle[edit]

Scanning electron micrography of L. formosa, front view of the capitulum

Life cycles of Lorryia formosa are characterized by six distinct developmental stages: egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph, tritonymph, and adult. The average lifetime is 37 days, of which 60% is considered adulthood.[6] The females of the species use an asexual form of reproduction where the growth and development of embryos occurs without fertilization by a male; this type of parthogenesis, where females are produced from unfertilized eggs, is called thelytoky.[6] It is not known whether the intracellular endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia is responsible for the alteration in reproductive capability.[6] Wolbachia, a genus of inherited bacteria common in insects, are known to alter the sex ratio in arthropods and mites.[7] The sex ratio is also greatly influenced by the host plant: one study found that on citrus, 30% of the population were males, compared to 62% males when reared on grapefruit.[8] Reared on rubber trees, the percentage of males in the population drops to very low,[9][10] or nothing.[6]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

Lorryia formosa has been found associated with chayote squash (Sechium edule), citrus, dahlia, pear, papaya, mango, Cola acuminata, and the parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia) in Brazil.[11] In Portugal, it has been collected from Prunus domestica, P. persica, P. armeniaca, apple (Malus domestica), bell peppers (Capsicum annuum).[12] It has also been reported from Hibiscus species collected in Guadeloupe, French Antilles.[13] L. formosa is also found on citrus plants throughout the world. For example, it has been found in the Mediterranean region, as well as Algeria, Italy, Libya, Morocco, Portugal and Spain.[14][15] It is common and widespread on Florida citrus.[16] Lorryia formosa is the only species of Tydeinae thought to be a pest of citrus.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lorryia formosa Cooremann". USDA Systematic Entomology Laboratory. 2001. Retrieved 2010-11-26. 
  2. ^ Cooreman J. (1958). "Notes et observations sur les acariens. VII- Photia graeca n. sp. (Acaridiae, Canestriniidae) et Lorryia formosa n. sp. (Stomatostigmata, Tydeidae)". Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique Entomologie (in French) 34: 1–10. 
  3. ^ André HM. (1980). "A generic revision of the family Tydeidae (Acari: Actinedida). IV. Generic descriptions, keys and conclusions". Bulletin et Annales de la Societe Royale Belge d'Entomologie 116 (4/6): 103–68. 
  4. ^ Kazmierski A. (1998). "Tydeinae of the world: generic relationships, new and redescribed taxa and keys to all species. A revision of the subfamilies Pretydeinae and Tydeinae (Acari: Actinedida: Tydeidae) – part IV". Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 41: 283–455. 
  5. ^ Proctor HC, Walter DE. (1999). Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. Sydney, Australia: UNSW Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-86840-529-9. 
  6. ^ a b c d Hernandes FA, Feres RJ, Nomura F. (2006). "Biological cycle of Lorryia formosa (Acari, Tydeidae) on rubber tree leaves: a case of thelytoky". Experimental and Applied Acarology 38 (4): 237–42. doi:10.1007/s10493-006-0014-2. PMID 16612667. 
  7. ^ Werren JH, Baldo L, Clark ME. (2008). "Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology". Nature Reviews Microbiology 6 (10): 741–51. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1969. PMID 18794912. 
  8. ^ Badii MH, Flores AE, Ponce G, Landeros J, Quiroz H. (2001). "Does the Lorryia formosa Cooreman (Acari: Prostigmata: Tydeidae) population visit or reside on citrus foliage?". Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Acarology. Collingwood, Vic.: CSIRO Pub. pp. 413–18. ISBN 0-643-06658-6. 
  9. ^ Ferla NJ, de Moraes GJ. (2002). "Ácaros (Arachnida, Acari) da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg) no Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil". Revista Brasileira de Zoologia (in Spanish) 19 (3): 867–888. doi:10.1590/S0101-81752002000300025. 
  10. ^ Feres RJF, Rossa-Feres DC, Daud RD, Santos RS. (2002). "Diversidade de ácaros (Acari, Arachnida) em seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil". Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19: 373–378. 
  11. ^ Flechtmann CHW. (1973). "Lorryia formosa Cooreman, 1958 – um ácaro dos citros pouco conhecido no Brasil". Ciencia ê Cultura 25: 1179–81. 
  12. ^ Carmona MM. (1970). "Contribução para o conhecimento dos ácaros das plantas cultivadas em Portugal". V. Agronomia Lusitana (in Portuguese) 31: 137–83. 
  13. ^ Flechtmann CHW, Kreiter S, Etienne J, De Moraes GJ. (1999). "Plant mites (Acari) of the French Antilles. 2. Tarsonemidae and Tydeidae (Prostigmata)". Acarologia 40 (2): 145–46. 
  14. ^ Vacante V, Nucifora A. (1984–85). "Gli Acari degli agrumi in Italia. I. Specie rinvenute e chiave per il riconoscimento degli ordini, dei sottordini e delle famiglie". Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (in Italian) 18: 115–66. 
  15. ^ Vacante V, Nucifora A, Tropea G. (1988). "Citrus mites in the Mediterranean area". In Goren R, Mendel K. Proceedings of the 6th International Citrus Congress. Tel Aviv. pp. 1325–34. 
  16. ^ Aguilar H, Childers CC. (2000). "Tydeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) on Florida citrus". In Aguilar H, Childers CC. International Society of Citriculture: IX International Citrus Congress; 2000 Dec 3-7; Orlando. International Society of Citriculture. pp. 751–53. 
  17. ^ Ueckermann EA, Grout TG. (2007). "Tydeoid mites (Acari: Tydeidae, Edbakerellidae, Iolinidae) occurring on Citrus in southern Africa". Journal of Natural History 41 (37–40): 2351–78. doi:10.1080/00222930701589921. 

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