Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, New Mexico
|Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, New Mexico|
Location of Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, New Mexico
|• Total||4.4 sq mi (11.3 km2)|
|• Land||4.4 sq mi (11.3 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||4,987 ft (1,520 m)|
|• Density||1,386/sq mi (535.0/km2)|
|Time zone||Mountain (MST) (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC-6)|
|ZIP codes||87107, 87114|
|GNIS feature ID||0918239|
Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, known locally simply as "Los Ranchos," is a village in Bernalillo County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 6,024 at the 2010 Census. Part of the Albuquerque Metropolitan Statistical Area, Los Ranchos is located on the east side of the Rio Grande, adjacent to the unincorporated North Valley area. Los Ranchos is surrounded on three sides by the larger city of Albuquerque, and its location astride busy transportation routes has been a source of friction with its larger neighbor, as Los Ranchos' efforts to maintain its rural character conflicts with Albuquerque's desire to enhance transportation. Like the North Valley and Corrales, Los Ranchos is an expensive, mostly rural area with widely spaced large houses and dense vegetation.
Signs of human activity in this area date back to as early as 10,000 B.C. The introduction of cultivated maize from Mexico in 1,000 B.C. marked a major turning point in the settlement of the region, causing the traditionally nomadic tribes of the area to adopt a more agricultural way of life. The first pueblos in the area appeared between 1 and 600 A.D., established by the Tiwas (called Tigua by the Spaniards), and by 1,200 AD there were already 14 major sites along the Rio Grande from Algodones to Isleta, the Chamisal Site in present-day Los Ranchos being among the largest of these communities.
Hernando de Alvarado was reported as being one of the first Europeans to lay eyes on the middle Rio Grande Valley in September of 1540 as the leader of a small convoy sent out by Coronado. He described the area as a "broad valley planted with fields of maize and dotted with cottonwood groves. There are twelve pueblos, whose houses are built of mud and are two stories high." The first colonizing expedition into New Mexico was led by Juan de Oñate in 1598, who left the Tiwan province under the spiritual care of Fray Juan Claros.
During the 17th century, the number of Native Americans dropped drastically due to diseases brought by the European settlers, such as measles and smallpox, and by the 1640s the Tiwa population was concentrated into four major pueblos: Isleta, Sandia, Puaray and Alameda. Subsequent abuse of cheap indigenous labor by the Spanish during this time caused relations to deteriorate between the Native Americans and their European colonizers, leading to a revolt of the pueblos north of Isleta in 1680 and the massacre of many Spanish settlers (see "Pueblo Revolt").
When they returned to the valley in 1692, the Spanish found that much of the land, haciendas and pueblos had been abandoned after the revolt and were able to resettle the area. From 1780 until 1875 the Rio Grande Valley was subject to frequent raids by both the Apache and the Navajo tribes, compelling the settlers to build a series of plazas there, which were much more defensible to these attacks. The second largest of these plazas was the Plaza de Señor San José de los Ranchos, with 176 residents from 40 different households. By 1814 the population had increased to 65 households and 331 people. The Los Ranchos area was especially prone to flooding: during the 19th century floods were often the cause of serious property damage and turned much of the land alkaline and untillable.
Late 19th century and early 20th century development
Many of the settling families sold their land to Anglo settlers and speculators after the railroad reached Albuquerque in 1880. In the face of growing demand for more housing, small subdivisions, land holdings and large country estates began to appear along Rio Grande Boulevard, new roads were constructed and existing ones were paved or removed. During the 20th century, a half-mile-long section of the Guadalupe Trail starting just south of Chamisal Road and extending north to Ranchitos Road became known as the new Los Ranchos.
"The 1930's marked a time when Albuquerque families began moving to the North Valley in greater numbers, some buying and restoring abandoned adobe homes, others proceeding to build large new houses." United States Representatives Albert Simms and his wife Ruth Hanna McCormick were among these families and built two houses designed by Santa Fe architect John Gaw Meem on the site of the current-day Los Poblanos Ranch. The valley continued to be home to many farms and ranches, and dairies were run by both Anglo and Spanish families alike. After World War II there was a new flood of settlers to Albuquerque, and the number of able-bodied men to work the land had thinned. Housing developments began to pop up on any available land around the Valley. Rob Lee Meadows was built on the site of the old Los Ranchos plaza, and the farmlands belonging to the Robert Dietz family were turned into the rows of houses of Dietz Farms.
Founding and incorporation
This sudden influx of newcomers and development after the war caused the people of Los Ranchos to feel threatened, and after a vote the village of Los Ranchos de Albuquerque was incorporated on December 29, 1958. People involved in incorporating the village included William Kitsch, Frederick O'Hara, Sam Hartnett, Paul Gillespie and Robert Nordhaus. This area contained the least developed section of the valley and included many of the larger homes and remaining open space. Restrictions on lot size and use have kept this area less built up and more verdant than other parts of the North Valley.
Today Los Ranchos has been able to preserve much of its original rural agricultural nature and is one of the most desirable places of residence in the entire Albuquerque area.
Los Ranchos de Albuquerque is located at (35.161644, -106.646432).
As of the census of 2000, there were 5,092 people, 1,997 households, and 1,431 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,247.3 people per square mile (481.9/km²). There were 2,107 housing units at an average density of 516.1 per square mile (199.4/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 81.60% White, 0.49% African American, 1.55% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 12.14% from other races, and 3.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 37.41% of the population.
There were 1,997 households out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.4% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.3% were non-families. 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the village the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 33.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $60,500, and the median income for a family was $77,150. Males had a median income of $51,797 versus $31,757 for females. The per capita income for the village was $40,883. About 6.6% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.
- "Los Ranchos de Albuquerque Master Plan". Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Campbell, Howard (2006): Tribal Synthesis: Piros, Mansos, and Tiwas through History.
- Sargeant, Kathryn and Mary Davis (1986): Shining River Precious Land: An Oral History of Albuquerque's North Valley. Albuquerque: The Albuquerque Museum.
- Sargeant, Kathryn and Mary Davis (1986)
- Los Ranchos de Albuquerque Master Plan: "Historic and Cultural Resources." Retrieved 09 April, 2012.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Los Ranchos de Albuquerque village, New Mexico". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.