Macrophage colony-stimulating factor

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Colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage)
PBB Protein CSF1 image.jpg
PDB rendering based on 1hmc.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols CSF1 ; CSF-1; MCSF
External IDs OMIM120420 MGI1339753 HomoloGene7282 GeneCards: CSF1 Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CSF1 211839 s at tn.png
PBB GE CSF1 207082 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1435 12977
Ensembl ENSG00000184371 ENSMUSG00000014599
UniProt P09603 P07141
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000757 NM_001113529
RefSeq (protein) NP_000748 NP_001107001
Location (UCSC) Chr 1:
110.45 – 110.47 Mb
Chr 3:
107.74 – 107.76 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), is a secreted cytokine which influences hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into macrophages or other related cell types. Eukaryotic cells also produce M-CSF in order to combat intercellular viral infection. (See colony-stimulating factor.) M-CSF binds to the Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor. It may also be involved in development of the placenta.[1]


M-CSF is a cytokine. The active form of the protein is found extracellularly as a disulfide-linked homodimer, and is thought to be produced by proteolytic cleavage of membrane-bound precursors.[1]

Four transcript variants encoding three different isoforms have been found for this gene.[1]


M-CSF (or CSF-1) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of monocytes, macrophages, and bone marrow progenitor cells.[2] M-CSF affects macrophages and monocytes in several ways, including stimulating increased phagocytic and chemotactic activity, and increased tumour cell cytotoxicity.[3]

M-CSF released by osteoblasts (as a result of endocrine stimulation by parathyroid hormone) exerts paracrine effects on osteoclasts. M-CSF binds to receptors on osteoclasts inducing differentiation, and ultimately leading to increased plasma calcium levels—through the resorption (breakdown) of bone. Additionally, high levels of CSF-1 expression are observed in the endometrial epithelium of the pregnant uterus as well as high levels of its receptor CSF1R in the placental trophoblast. Studies have shown that activation of trophoblasitc CSF1R by local high levels of CSF-1 is essential for normal embryonic implantation and placental development. More recently, it was discovered that CSF-1 and its receptor CSF1R are implicated in the mammary gland during normal development and neoplastic growth.[4]

Clinical significance[edit]

Locally produced M-CSF in the vessel wall contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerosis.[5]


Macrophage colony-stimulating factor has been shown to interact with PIK3R2.[6]


  1. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: CSF1 colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage)". 
  2. ^ Stanley ER, Berg KL, Einstein DB, Lee PS, Pixley FJ, Wang Y, Yeung YG (January 1997). "Biology and action of colony--stimulating factor-1". Mol. Reprod. Dev. 46 (1): 4–10. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2795(199701)46:1<4::AID-MRD2>3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 8981357. 
  3. ^ Nemunaitis J (April 1993). "Macrophage function activating cytokines: potential clinical application". Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 14 (2): 153–71. doi:10.1016/1040-8428(93)90022-V. PMID 8357512. 
  4. ^ Sapi E (January 2004). "The role of CSF-1 in normal physiology of mammary gland and breast cancer: an update". Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) 229 (1): 1–11. PMID 14709771. 
  5. ^ Rajavashisth T, Qiao JH, Tripathi S, Tripathi J, Mishra N, Hua M, Wang XP, Loussararian A, Clinton S, Libby P, Lusis A (June 1998). "Heterozygous osteopetrotic (op) mutation reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor- deficient mice". J. Clin. Invest. 101 (12): 2702–10. doi:10.1172/JCI119891. PMC 508861. PMID 9637704. 
  6. ^ Gout I, Dhand R, Panayotou G, Fry MJ, Hiles I, Otsu M, Waterfield MD (December 1992). "Expression and characterization of the p85 subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex and a related p85 beta protein by using the baculovirus expression system". Biochem. J. 288 ( Pt 2): 395–405. PMC 1132024. PMID 1334406. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]