Marcia (mother of Trajan)

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Marcia (about 33-before 100) was an ancient Roman noblewoman and the mother of the emperor Trajan.

Family[edit]

Marcia came from a noble and politically influential family, the plebs gens Marcia,[1] which claimed to be descended from the Roman King Ancus Marcius. Marcia was a daughter of the Roman Senator Quintus Marcius Barea Sura and Antonia Furnilla.[2] Quintus Marcius Barea Sura was a friend to future Roman Emperor Vespasian. Her sister Marcia Furnilla was the second wife of future Roman Emperor Titus. Marcia was a maternal aunt to Furnilla’s and Titus’ daughter Julia Flavia or Flavia Julia Titi.

Marcia’s paternal uncle was the Roman Senator Quintus Marcius Barea Soranus, while her paternal cousin was the noble woman Marcia Servilia Sorana. Marcia’s paternal grandfather was Quintus Marcius Barea, who was Suffect Consul in 26 and was twice Proconsul of the Africa Province, while her maternal grandfather could have been Aulus Antonius Rufus, a Suffect Consul either in 44 or 45.[3] The family of Marcia was connected to the opponents of Roman Emperor Nero. In 65 after the failure of the Pisonian conspiracy, her family was disfavored by Nero.

Life[edit]

Marcia was born and raised in Rome. During the reign of Roman Emperor Claudius (41-54), Marcia married a Spanish Roman general and senator called Marcus Ulpius Traianus. Traianus originally came from Italica (near modern Seville, Spain) in the Roman Province of Hispania Baetica. After Marcia married Traianus, for a time they lived in Italica.

Marcia bore Traianus two children:

  • A daughter - Ulpia Marciana (48-112/114), who inherited her second name from her mother’s paternal ancestry. Marciana married Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinus, who was a wealthy senator and became Praetor. Marciana bore Patruinus a daughter called Salonina Matidia, who was born in 68.
  • A son - Marcus Ulpius Traianus, or known as Trajan (53-117). Trajan became and served as a Roman Emperor from 98 until his death in 117. He married a woman called Pompeia Plotina.

Marcia owned clay-bearing estates called the Figlinae Marcianae, which was located in North Italy. When Marcia died, Trajan inherited these estates from his mother. It is unknown if Marcia lived long enough to see Trajan become Emperor.

Legacy[edit]

Around 100, her son Trajan founded a colony in North Africa which was called Colonia Marciana Ulpia Traiana Thamugadi (modern Timgad, Algeria). Her son named this town in honor of her, her late husband and her daughter. The colony’s name is also a tribute in honoring her family.

Nerva–Antonine family tree[edit]

  • (1) = 1st spouse
  • (2) = 2nd spouse (not shown)
  • (3) = 3rd spouse
  • Darker purple indicates Emperor of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty; lighter purple indicates designated imperial heir of said dynasty who never reigned
  • dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships
  • small caps = posthumously deified (Augusti, Augustae, or other)


Q. Marcius Barea Soranus Q. Marcius Barea Sura Antonia Furnilla M. Cocceius Nerva Sergia Plautilla P. Aelius Hadrianus
Titus
(r. 79-81)
Marcia Furnilla Marcia Trajanus Pater Nerva
(r. 96–98)
Ulpia Aelius Hadrianus Marullinus
Julia Flavia Marciana G. Salonius Matidius Trajan
(r. 98–117)
Plotina P. Acilius Attianus P. Aelius Afer Paulina Major L. Julius Ursus Servianus
Lucius Mindius
(2)
Libo Rupilius Frugi
(3)
Matidia L. Vibius Sabinus
(1)
Antinous Hadrian (r. 117–138) Paulina
Minor
Matidia Minor Suetonius Sabina
M.
Annius Verus
G. Fuscus Salinator I Julia Serviana Paulina
Rupilia Faustina Boionia Procilla G. Arrius Antoninus
L. Caesennius Paetus L. Ceionius Commodus Appia Severa G. Fuscus Salinator II
Arria Antonia Arria Fadilla T. Aurelius Fulvus
L. Caesennius Antoninus Lucius
Commodus
Fundania Plautia Ignota Plautia G. Avidius
Nigrinus
Antoninus Pius
(r. 138–161)
M. Annius Verus Domitia Lucilla Fundania M. Annius Libo FAUSTINA Lucius Aelius
Caesar
Avidia Plautia
Cornificia MARCUS AURELIUS
(r. 161–180)
FAUSTINA Minor G. Avidius Cassius Aurelia Fadilla LUCIUS VERUS
(r. 161–169)
(1)
Ceionia Fabia Plautius Quintillus Q. Servilius Pudens Ceionia Plautia
Cornificia Minor M. Petronius Sura COMMODUS
(r. 177–192)
Fadilla M. Annius Verus Caesar T. Claudius Pompeianus (2) Lucilla M. Plautius Quintillus Junius Licinius Balbus Servilia Ceionia
Petronius Antoninus L. Aurelius Agaclytus
(2)
Aurelia Sabina L. Antistius Burrus
(1)
Plautius Quintillus Plautia Servilla G. Furius Sabinus Timesitheus Antonia Gordiana Junius Licinius Balbus
Furia Sabina Tranquillina GORDIAN III
(r. 238-244)

Sources[edit]

References[edit]