Maria Beatrice of Savoy
|Maria Beatrice of Savoy|
|Portrait by Adeodata Malatesta|
|Consort||14 July 1814 – 15 September 1840|
|Spouse||Francis IV, Duke of Modena|
|Maria Theresa, Countess of Chambord
Francis V, Duke of Modena
Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor
Maria Beatrix, Countess of Montizón
|Maria Beatrice Vittoria Giuseppina di Savoia|
|Father||Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia|
|Mother||Maria Theresa of Austria-Este|
6 December 1792|
|Died||15 September 1840
Castello del Catajo, Italy
Maria Beatrice of Savoy (Maria Beatrice Vittoria Giuseppina; 6 December 1792 – 15 September 1840) was a Princess of Savoy and Duchess of Modena by marriage. She was also the Jacobite Pretender from 1824 until her death.
Her maternal grandparents were Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este. Ferdinand was the third son of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa of Austria. Maria Beatrice was the eldest daughter of Ercole III d'Este and Maria Theresa, Princess of Carrara.
In December 1798, Maria Beatrice left Turin with her parents and uncles due to French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. They fled to Parma, then Florence. They finally settled at Sardinia, the last dominion held by Kingdom of Sardinia, for refuge. Maria Beatrice spent most of her time at Cagliari in later 13 years.
On 20 June 1812, Maria Beatrice married her maternal uncle Francis, Archduke of Austria-Este; the couple received a special dispensation for their marriage from Pope Pius VII. Maria Beatrice's husband became Francis IV, Duke of Modena, Reggio, and Mirandola on 14 July 1814, making Maria Beatrice Duchess of Modena. They were parents to four children:
- Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria-Este (14 July 1817 – 25 March 1886), married Henri, Count of Chambord.
- Francis V, Duke of Modena (1 June 1819 – 20 November 1875), married Princess Adelgunde of Bavaria.
- Ferdinand Karl Viktor, Archduke of Austria-Este (20 July 1821 – 15 December 1849), married Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria (daughter of Archduke Josef Anton of Austria and his third wife Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg).
- Maria Beatrix, Archduchess of Austria-Este (13 February 1824 – 18 March 1906), married Juan, Count of Montizón.
The couple left Sardinia on 15 July 1813 for Zakynthos Island, and then sailed to Trieste off the east shore of Adriatic Sea, finally reached Vienna by land. On the invasion of Joachim Murat during The Hundred Days, they fled Modena until 15 May 1815.
Jacobite recognition 
Upon the death of the abdicated King Charles Emmanuel IV on 6 October 1819, King Victor Emmanuel, father of Maria Beatrice, became the Jacobite heir, and Jacobites recognized her as "Princess Mary of England, Scotland, France and Ireland"; with the death of her father on 10 January 1824, Maria Beatrice became recognized by Jacobites as "Mary III, Queen of England, France and Ireland" (those who did not recognize Mary Stuart as "Queen Mary II of England" recognized Maria Beatrice as "Mary II") and as "Mary II, Queen of Scotland". The regnal numbers in England are a reference to her descent, as well as that of her uncle and father, from Henrietta 'Minette' Stuart, Duchess of Orleans, youngest daughter of Charles I of England. After the death of the last of the Jacobite 'Pretenders', Henrietta's line-through her younger daughter (Anne-Marie of Orleans, wife of Victor Amadeus II of Savoy) became the sole legitimate line of descent of Charles I, and therefore superior to the Hanoverian claim which was based on descent from Charles I's sister Elizabeth. Maria Beatrice never actively pursued her British claims.
Due to the outbreak of a revolution Maria Beatrice had to fled Modena again with her family on 5 February 1831, but with Austrian military help her family was able to return in the year.
Maria Beatrice was a Lady of the (Austrian) Order of the Starry Cross.
Titles, styles, honours and arms 
Titles and styles 
- 6 December 1792 – 20 June 1812 Her Royal Highness Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy
- 20 June 1812 – 14 July 1814 Her Imperial and Royal Highnes Archduchess Maria Beatrice of Austria-Este
- 14 July 1814 – 15 September 1840 Her Imperial and Royal Highness the Duchess of Modena
- Jacobite: Her Majesty The Queen of England, Scotland, Ireland, and France
Maria Beatrice of SavoyBorn: 6 December 1792 Died: 15 September 1840
|Titles in pretence|