Sinabung in 2013
|Elevation||2,460 m (8,071 ft)|
|Age of rock||Pleistocene|
|Volcanic arc/belt||Sunda Arc|
|Last eruption||2013 to 2014 (ongoing)|
Mount Sinabung (Indonesian: Gunung Sinabung, also Dolok Sinabung, Deleng Sinabun, Dolok Sinaboen, Dolok Sinaboeng and Sinabuna) is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano of andesite and dacite in the Karo plateau of Karo Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 25 miles from Lake Toba supervolcano. Many old lava flows are on its flanks and the last known eruption, before recent times, occurred in the year 1600. Solfataric activities (cracks where steam, gas, and lava are emitted) were last observed at the summit in 1912; recent documented events include an eruption in the early hours of 29 August 2010 and eruptions in September and November 2013, January and February 2014.
Most of Indonesian volcanism stems from the Sunda Arc, created by the subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate under the Eurasian Plate. This arc is bounded on the north-northwest by the Andaman Islands, a chain of basaltic volcanoes, and on the East by the Banda Arc, also created by subduction.
|Wikinews has related news: Mount Sinabung erupts in Sumatra, Indonesia|
On 29 August 2010 (local time), the volcano experienced a minor eruption after several days of rumbling. Ash spewed into the atmosphere up to 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) high and lava was seen overflowing the crater. The volcano had been inactive for over four centuries, with the most recent eruption occurring in 1600. On 31 August 6,000 of the 30,000 villagers who had been evacuated returned to their homes. The volcano was assigned to category “B” In Indonesia, as it had been inactive for more than 400 years (volcanoes in category “A”, must be monitored frequently). The Indonesian Red Cross Society and the Health Ministry of Indonesia sent doctors and medicines to the region. The National Disaster Management Agency provided face masks and food to assist the evacuees.
On Friday 3 September, two more eruptions were noted. The first happened at 4:45 am in the morning, forcing more villagers to leave their houses - some of them had just returned the day before. This eruption was the most intense so far, with ash spewed up into the atmosphere about 3.0 kilometres (1.9 mi) high. Some hours before the eruption a warning had been issued through the volcanology agency, and most villagers were prepared to leave quickly. A second eruption occurred the same evening, around 6 pm. The eruption came with earthquakes which could be noticed out to a 25.0 kilometres (15.5 mi) distance around the volcano
On Tuesday 7 September, Mount Sinabung erupted yet again, its biggest eruption yet since it had become active on 29 August 2010 and experts warned of more blasts to come. Indonesia's chief vulcanologist, Surono, said "It was the biggest eruption yet and the sound was heard from 8 kilometres away. The smoke was 5,000 metres in the air". Heavy rain mixed with the ash to form muddy coatings, a centimetre thick, on buildings and trees. Electricity in one village was cut off, but there were no casualties.
The Indonesian government was reported to have evacuated around 17,500 people from the region on and around the volcano. The government issued the highest-level warning for the area, which was expected to remain in force for around a week, since scientists were unfamiliar with the characteristics of the volcano, due to it having been dormant for so long. The government also set up kitchens for refugees to have access to food and handed out 7,000 masks. Over 10,000 people have been internally evacuated after the eruption, Secretary of the provincial administration, Edy Sofyan told Xinhua by phone. Spokesman of National Disaster Management Agency Priyadi Kardono said the eruption had not been predicted earlier like other volcanoes and that authorities must conduct a quick preparation for emergency work because Mount Sinabung’s seismic activity has been monitored intensively only since Friday after it showed an increase in activity.
The towns nearest to the volcano are Kabanjahe and Berastagi. There were no disruptions reported to air services at the regional airport, Medan's Polonia. One person was reported dead due to the eruption; he had respiratory problems while fleeing his home.
On Sunday 15 September 2013, the volcano erupted at around 3 a.m local time. More than 3,700 people were evacuated from areas within a 3 kilometre (2 mile) radius of the volcano, and five halls normally used for traditional cultural ceremonies were converted into shelters with at least 1,500 being temporarily housed.
The volcano erupted again on 5 November 2013, for the third time in as many months, forcing hundreds of villagers to evacuate.
This volcano spewed a 7 km (4.3 mile) column of ash into the air, prompting authorities to impose a 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) evacuation radius.
The military helped evacuate 1,293 people from four villages around the volcano, which is 88 km (55 mi) from the provincial capital, Medan. The number of evacuees was expected to rise.
No casualties were reported.
About 14,000 people were forced the evacuate when the volcano showed signs of activity in September. Sinabung is one of nearly 130 active volcanoes in the world's fourth-most populated country, which straddles the "Pacific Ring of Fire".
On 11 November 2013, a pyroclastic flow, a fast-moving avalanche of ash, lava fragments and air, was seen racing down the peak. Since then, the volcano has blasted out one to two ash explosions every day.
By 28 December 2013 a lava dome had formed on the summit.
On 4 January 2014, the volcano erupted again. "Mount Sinabung, which has erupted over a hundred times between Jan. 4 through the morning of Jan. 5 is spewing out a 4,000 metre (13,000 ft) high column of ash damaging property and crops and poisoning animals over a wide radius."
On 1 February 2014 a further eruption occurred that sent clouds of hot ash 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) into the air and engulfed nearby villages. Reports claim that at least 14 people died as a result of the eruption, which occurred just after residents living more than five kilometers from the mountain had been allowed to return home following a lack of recent volcanic activity. Among the dead were a local television journalist and four high-school students along with their teacher, who were visiting the mountain to see the eruptions up close. Seven of the victims were members of the Indonesian Christian Student Movement (GMKI), who died while trying to save local residents as pyroclastic flows swept across Mount Sinabung. 
- Mount Sibayak – an active volcano near Sinabung
- "Sinabung". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0601-08%3D. Retrieved 2006-12-18.
- "Gunung Sinabung: Indonesia". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "Dolok Sinabung: Indonesia". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "Deleng Sinabun: Indonesia". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "Dolok Sinaboen: Indonesia". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "Dolok Sinaboeng: Indonesia". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "Sinabuna: Indonesia". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2013-02-03.
- "Mount Sinabung in Sumatra erupts". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Volcanoes of Indonesia: Highlights". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Volcano quiet for 400 years erupts in Indonesia". Associated Press. August 29, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
- Bakkara, Binsar (August 31, 2010). "Villagers return to slopes of Indonesian volcano". The Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "Indonesia Volcano Calmer After Sudden Eruptions". Voice of America. August 31, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "Thousands evacuated in unexpected volcano eruption in Indonesia". Xinhua News. August 29, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
- CNN Wire Staff (August 29, 2010). "Long-dormant volcano erupts in Indonesia". CNN. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "More flee following strongest eruption yet at Mt. Sinabung". The Jakarta Post. September 4, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
- "Indonesia’s Mt. Sinabung Volcano Erupts for Fifth Time in Eight Days". The Epoch Times. September 8, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-10.
- Arshad, Arlina (August 29, 2010). "Thousands flee as Indonesian volcano erupts". Yahoo! News. AFP. Archived from the original on 2010-08-31. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
- "Mount Sinabung Volcano Erupts in North Sumatra, Indonesia". The News of Today. August 29, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-09-01. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- Indonesia’s Sinabung volcano August 29, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
- "Volcano erupts on Indonesia's Sumatra after 400 years". Reuters. August 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "One dies in Mount Sinabung eruption". The Jakarta Post. August 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Thousands flee as Mt. Sinabung erupts". The Jakarta Post. September 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- Oskin, Becky (November 15, 2013). "Dangerous New Eruption at Sumatra's Sinabung Volcano". TechMediaNetwork company. Retrieved 2013-11-15.
- "Cloud of Destruction: Mount Sinabung Erupts". Bloomberg News. January 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-08.
- "Indonesia volcano Sinabung in deadly eruption". BBC News. BBC. 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-02-01.
- "Death toll rises to 16 from Indonesia Volcano". AP News. Asian Correspondant. 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- "7 Aktivis GMKI Tewas saat Menyelamatkan Warga di Sinabung,". Tribun News. 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
- Media related to Mount Sinabung at Wikimedia Commons