List of volcanoes in Indonesia

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A brown volcano in the center with white smoke emanating from its peak, a cloudy sky fading from blue at the top through yellow in the middle to red at the horizon, and brown mountains in the foreground.
Mahameru (Semeru) above Mount Bromo, East Java

The geography of Indonesia is dominated by volcanoes that are formed due to subduction zones between the Eurasian plate and the Indo-Australian plate. Some of the volcanoes are notable for their eruptions, for instance, Krakatau for its global effects in 1883,[1] Lake Toba for its supervolcanic eruption estimated to have occurred 74,000 years before present which was responsible for six years of volcanic winter,[2] and Mount Tambora for the most violent eruption in recorded history in 1815.[3]

Volcanoes in Indonesia are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. The 150 entries in the list below are grouped into six geographical regions, four of which belong to the volcanoes of the Sunda Arc trench system. The remaining two groups are volcanoes of Halmahera, including its surrounding volcanic islands, and volcanoes of Sulawesi and the Sangihe Islands. The latter group is in one volcanic arc together with the Philippine volcanoes.

The most active volcanoes are Kelut and Merapi on Java island which have been responsible for thousands of deaths in the region. Since AD 1000, Kelut has erupted more than 30 times, of which the largest eruption was at scale 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI),[4] while Mount Merapi has erupted more than 80 times.[5] The International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior has named Mount Merapi as a Decade Volcano since 1995 because of its high volcanic activity.

In 2012, Indonesia has 127 active volcanoes with about 5 million people have activities within the danger zone. The earthquake and tsunami event of December 26, 2004 is thought to bring disruption to the volcanoes' eruption pattern. The 2010 eruption of Mount Sinabung, which has no recorded eruption since the 1600s, is presented as one possible example of the hypothesis.[6]

The word for Mount in Indonesian and many regional languages of the country (such as Javanese) is Gunung. Thus, Mount Merapi for example, is referred to as Gunung Merapi in Indonesian and also in some English-based sites.

Scope[edit]

A chart with the heading "Major Volcanoes of Indonesia (with eruptions since 1900 A.D.)". Depicted below the heading is an overhead view of a cluster of islands.
Major volcanoes in Indonesia

There is no single standard definition for a volcano. It can be defined from individual vents, volcanic edificies or volcanic fields. Interior of ancient volcanoes may have been eroded, creating a new subsurface magma chamber as a separate volcano. Many contemporary active volcanoes rise as young parasitic cones from flank vents or at a central crater. Some volcanic cones are grouped into one volcano name, for instance, the Tengger caldera complex, although individual vents are named by local people. The status of a volcano, either active or dormant, cannot be defined precisely. An indication of a volcano is determined by either its historical records, radiocarbon dating, or geothermal activities.

The primary source of the list below is taken from the "Volcanoes of the World" book, compiled by two volcanologists Tom Simkin and Lee Siebert,[a] in which active volcanoes in the past 10,000 years (Holocene) are listed.[7] Particularly for Indonesia, Simkin and Siebert used a catalogue of active volcanoes from the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior publication series.[b] The Simkin and Siebert list is the most complete list of volcanoes in Indonesia, but the accuracy of the record varies from one region to another in terms of contemporary activities and fatalities in recent eruptions. Complementary sources for the latest volcanic data are taken from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, a governmental institution which is responsible for volcanic activities and geological hazard mitigation in Indonesia,[8] and some academic resources.

Geographical groups[edit]

Sumatra[edit]

Drawing of an overhead view of an elongated island stretching from the top left corner to the bottom right corner and labelled with names of locations.
Map showing the location of volcanoes and geological fault lines of Sumatra

The geography of Sumatra is dominated by a mountain range called Bukit Barisan (lit: "a row of hills"). The mountain range spans nearly 1,700 km (1,100 mi) from the north to the south of the island, and it was formed by movement of the Australian tectonic plate.[9] The plate moves with a convergence rate of 5.5 cm/year which has created major earthquakes on the western side of Sumatra including the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.[10][11] The tectonic movement has been responsible not only for earthquakes, but also for the formulation of magma chambers beneath the island.[9]

Only one of the 35 active volcanos, Weh, is separated from the Sumatran mainland. The separation was caused by a large eruption that filled the lowland between Weh and the rest of the mainland with sea water in the Pleistocene epoch. The largest volcano of Sumatra is the supervolcano Toba within the 100 km (62 mi) × 30 km (19 mi) Lake Toba, which was created after a caldera collapse (est. in 74,000 Before Present).[2] The eruption is estimated to have been at level eight on the VEI scale, the largest possible for a volcanic eruption. The highest peak of the mountain range is Mount Kerinci with an elevation of 3,800 m (12,467 ft).

Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI) Geolocation
Weh stratovolcano 7002617000000000000617 metres (2,024 ft) Pleistocene 5°49′N 95°17′E / 5.82°N 95.28°E / 5.82; 95.28
Seulawah Agam stratovolcano 70031810000000000001,810 metres (5,940 ft) 1839 (2) 5°26′53″N 95°39′29″E / 5.448°N 95.658°E / 5.448; 95.658
Peuet Sague complex volcano 70032801000000000002,801 metres (9,190 ft) 25 December 2000 (2) 4°54′50″N 96°19′44″E / 4.914°N 96.329°E / 4.914; 96.329
Geureudong stratovolcano 70032885000000000002,885 metres (9,465 ft) 1937 4°48′47″N 96°49′12″E / 4.813°N 96.82°E / 4.813; 96.82
Kembar shield volcano 70032245000000000002,245 metres (7,365 ft) Pleistocene 3°51′00″N 97°39′50″E / 3.850°N 97.664°E / 3.850; 97.664
Sibayak stratovolcano 70032212000000000002,212 metres (7,257 ft) 1881 3°14′N 98°31′E / 3.23°N 98.52°E / 3.23; 98.52
Sinabung stratovolcano 70032460000000000002,460 metres (8,070 ft) 5 October 2014 3°10′12″N 98°23′31″E / 3.17°N 98.392°E / 3.17; 98.392
Toba supervolcano 70032157000000000002,157 metres (7,077 ft) 72000 BC 2°35′N 98°50′E / 2.58°N 98.83°E / 2.58; 98.83
Helatoba-Tarutung fumarole field 70031100000000000001,100 metres (3,600 ft) Pleistocene 2°02′N 98°56′E / 2.03°N 98.93°E / 2.03; 98.93
Imun unknown 70031505000000000001,505 metres (4,938 ft) unknown 2°09′29″N 98°55′48″E / 2.158°N 98.93°E / 2.158; 98.93
Sibualbuali stratovolcano 70031819000000000001,819 metres (5,968 ft) unknown 1°33′22″N 99°15′18″E / 1.556°N 99.255°E / 1.556; 99.255
Lubukraya stratovolcano 70031862000000000001,862 metres (6,109 ft) unknown 1°28′41″N 99°12′32″E / 1.478°N 99.209°E / 1.478; 99.209
Sorikmarapi stratovolcano 70032145000000000002,145 metres (7,037 ft) 1986 (1) 0°41′10″N 99°32′20″E / 0.686°N 99.539°E / 0.686; 99.539
Talakmau complex volcano 70032919000000000002,919 metres (9,577 ft) unknown 0°04′44″N 99°58′48″E / 0.079°N 99.98°E / 0.079; 99.98
Sarik-Gajah volcanic cone unknown unknown 0°00′29″N 100°12′00″E / 0.008°N 100.20°E / 0.008; 100.20
Marapi complex volcano 70032891000000000002,891 metres (9,485 ft) 5 August 2004 (2) 0°22′52″S 100°28′23″E / 0.381°S 100.473°E / -0.381; 100.473
Tandikat stratovolcano 70032438000000000002,438 metres (7,999 ft) 1924 (1) 0°25′59″S 100°19′01″E / 0.433°S 100.317°E / -0.433; 100.317
Talang stratovolcano 70032597000000000002,597 metres (8,520 ft) 12 April 2005 (2) 0°58′41″S 100°40′44″E / 0.978°S 100.679°E / -0.978; 100.679
Kerinci stratovolcano 70033800000000000003,800 metres (12,500 ft) 22 June 2004 (2) 1°41′49″S 101°15′50″E / 1.697°S 101.264°E / -1.697; 101.264
Hutapanjang stratovolcano 70032021000000000002,021 metres (6,631 ft) unknown 2°20′S 101°36′E / 2.33°S 101.60°E / -2.33; 101.60
Sumbing stratovolcano 70032507000000000002,507 metres (8,225 ft) 23 May 1921 (2) 2°24′50″S 101°43′41″E / 2.414°S 101.728°E / -2.414; 101.728
Kunyit stratovolcano 70032151000000000002,151 metres (7,057 ft) unknown 2°35′31″S 101°37′48″E / 2.592°S 101.63°E / -2.592; 101.63
Pendan unknown unknown unknown 2°49′S 102°01′E / 2.82°S 102.02°E / -2.82; 102.02
Belirang-Beriti compound 70031958000000000001,958 metres (6,424 ft) unknown 2°49′S 102°11′E / 2.82°S 102.18°E / -2.82; 102.18
Bukit Daun stratovolcano 70032467000000000002,467 metres (8,094 ft) unknown 3°23′S 102°22′E / 3.38°S 102.37°E / -3.38; 102.37
Kaba stratovolcano 70031952000000000001,952 metres (6,404 ft) 22 August 2000 (1) 3°31′S 102°37′E / 3.52°S 102.62°E / -3.52; 102.62
Dempo stratovolcano 70033173000000000003,173 metres (10,410 ft) October 1994 (1) 4°02′S 103°08′E / 4.03°S 103.13°E / -4.03; 103.13
Patah unknown 70032817000000000002,817 metres (9,242 ft) unknown 4°16′S 103°18′E / 4.27°S 103.30°E / -4.27; 103.30
Bukit Lumut Balai stratovolcano 70032055000000000002,055 metres (6,742 ft) unknown 4°14′S 103°37′E / 4.23°S 103.62°E / -4.23; 103.62
Besar stratovolcano 70031899000000000001,899 metres (6,230 ft) April 1940 (1) 4°26′S 103°40′E / 4.43°S 103.67°E / -4.43; 103.67
Ranau caldera 70031881000000000001,881 metres (6,171 ft) unknown 4°50′S 103°55′E / 4.83°S 103.92°E / -4.83; 103.92
Sekincau Belirang caldera 70031719000000000001,719 metres (5,640 ft) unknown 5°07′S 104°19′E / 5.12°S 104.32°E / -5.12; 104.32
Suoh caldera 70031000000000000001,000 metres (3,300 ft) 10 July 1933 (4) 5°15′S 104°16′E / 5.25°S 104.27°E / -5.25; 104.27
Hulubelu caldera 70031040000000000001,040 metres (3,410 ft) 1836 5°21′S 104°36′E / 5.35°S 104.60°E / -5.35; 104.60
Rajabasa stratovolcano 70031281000000000001,281 metres (4,203 ft) 1798 5°46′48″S 105°37′30″E / 5.78°S 105.625°E / -5.78; 105.625
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
An overhead view of a land formation that is brightly coloured with patches of pink, blue, green, white, and black in irregular configurations.
Landsat image of Lake Toba 
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a grey mountain range in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
Mount Kerinci, the highest mountain on Sumatra 
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[12]

Sunda Strait and Java[edit]

The Sunda Strait separates the islands of Sumatra and Java with the volcanic island Krakatau lying between them. Krakatau erupted violently in 1883, destroying two-thirds of the island and leaving a large caldera under the sea. This cataclysmic explosion was heard as far away as the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius (approx. 4,800 kilometres (3,000 mi) away).[1] A new parasitic cone, called Anak Krakatau (or the child of Krakatau), rose from the sea at the center of the caldera in 1930.[13] The other Krakatau islets from the 1883 eruptions are known as Sertung, Panjang and Rakata.

Java is a relatively small island compared to Sumatra, but it has a higher concentration of active volcanoes. There are 45 active volcanoes on the island excluding 20 small craters and cones in the Dieng volcanic complex and the young cones in the Tengger caldera complex. Some volcanoes are grouped together in the list below because of their close location. Mount Merapi, Semeru and Kelud are the most active volcanoes in Java. Mount Semeru has been continuously erupting since 1967.[14] Mount Merapi has been named as one of the Decade Volcanoes since 1995.[15] Ijen has a unique colorful caldera lake which is an extremely acidic natural reservoir (pH<0.3).[16] There are sulfur mining activities at Ijen, where miners collect highly concentrated sulfur rocks by hand.

Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI) Geolocation
Krakatau caldera 7002813000000000000813 metres (2,667 ft) 11 January 2011 6°06′07″S 105°25′23″E / 6.102°S 105.423°E / -6.102; 105.423
Pulosari stratovolcano 70031346000000000001,346 metres (4,416 ft) unknown 6°20′31″S 105°58′30″E / 6.342°S 105.975°E / -6.342; 105.975
Karang stratovolcano 70031778000000000001,778 metres (5,833 ft) unknown 6°16′12″S 106°02′31″E / 6.27°S 106.042°E / -6.27; 106.042
Kiaraberes-Gagak stratovolcano 70031511000000000001,511 metres (4,957 ft) 6 April 1939 (1) 6°44′S 106°39′E / 6.73°S 106.65°E / -6.73; 106.65
Perbakti stratovolcano 70031699000000000001,699 metres (5,574 ft) unknown 6°45′S 106°41′E / 6.75°S 106.68°E / -6.75; 106.68
Salak stratovolcano 70032211000000000002,211 metres (7,254 ft) 31 January 1938 (2) 6°43′S 106°44′E / 6.72°S 106.73°E / -6.72; 106.73
Gede stratovolcano 70032958000000000002,958 metres (9,705 ft) 13 March 1957 (2) 6°47′S 106°59′E / 6.78°S 106.98°E / -6.78; 106.98
Patuha stratovolcano 70032434000000000002,434 metres (7,986 ft) unknown 7°09′36″S 107°24′00″E / 7.160°S 107.40°E / -7.160; 107.40
Wayang-Windu lava dome 70032182000000000002,182 metres (7,159 ft) unknown 7°12′29″S 107°37′48″E / 7.208°S 107.63°E / -7.208; 107.63
Malabar stratovolcano 70032343000000000002,343 metres (7,687 ft) unknown 7°08′S 107°39′E / 7.13°S 107.65°E / -7.13; 107.65
Tangkuban Perahu stratovolcano 70032084000000000002,084 metres (6,837 ft) 14 September 1983 (1) 6°46′S 107°36′E / 6.77°S 107.60°E / -6.77; 107.60
Papandayan stratovolcano 70032665000000000002,665 metres (8,743 ft) 11 November 2002 (2) 7°19′S 107°44′E / 7.32°S 107.73°E / -7.32; 107.73
Kendang stratovolcano 70032608000000000002,608 metres (8,556 ft) unknown 7°14′S 107°43′E / 7.23°S 107.72°E / -7.23; 107.72
Kamojang stratovolcano 70031730000000000001,730 metres (5,680 ft) Pleistocene 7°07′30″S 107°48′00″E / 7.125°S 107.80°E / -7.125; 107.80
Guntur complex volcano 70032249000000000002,249 metres (7,379 ft) 16 October 1847 (2) 7°08′35″S 107°50′24″E / 7.143°S 107.840°E / -7.143; 107.840
Tampomas stratovolcano 70031684000000000001,684 metres (5,525 ft) unknown 6°46′S 107°57′E / 6.77°S 107.95°E / -6.77; 107.95
Galunggung stratovolcano 70032168000000000002,168 metres (7,113 ft) 9 January 1984 (1) 7°15′00″S 108°03′29″E / 7.25°S 108.058°E / -7.25; 108.058
Talagabodas stratovolcano 70032201000000000002,201 metres (7,221 ft) unknown 7°12′29″S 108°04′12″E / 7.208°S 108.07°E / -7.208; 108.07
Karaha fumarole 70031155000000000001,155 metres (3,789 ft) unknown 7°07′S 108°05′E / 7.12°S 108.08°E / -7.12; 108.08
Cereme stratovolcano 70033078000000000003,078 metres (10,098 ft) 1951 6°53′31″S 108°24′00″E / 6.892°S 108.40°E / -6.892; 108.40
Slamet stratovolcano 70033432000000000003,432 metres (11,260 ft) 1 May 1999 (1) 7°14′31″S 109°12′29″E / 7.242°S 109.208°E / -7.242; 109.208
Dieng complex volcano 70032565000000000002,565 metres (8,415 ft) 31 December 1996 (1) 7°12′S 109°55′E / 7.20°S 109.92°E / -7.20; 109.92
Sundoro stratovolcano 70033136000000000003,136 metres (10,289 ft) 29 October 1971 (2) 7°18′00″S 109°59′31″E / 7.30°S 109.992°E / -7.30; 109.992
Sumbing stratovolcano 70033371000000000003,371 metres (11,060 ft) 1730 (1) 7°23′02″S 110°04′12″E / 7.384°S 110.070°E / -7.384; 110.070
Ungaran stratovolcano 70032050000000000002,050 metres (6,730 ft) unknown 7°11′S 110°20′E / 7.18°S 110.33°E / -7.18; 110.33
Telomoyo stratovolcano 70031894000000000001,894 metres (6,214 ft) unknown 7°22′S 110°24′E / 7.37°S 110.40°E / -7.37; 110.40
Merbabu stratovolcano 70033145000000000003,145 metres (10,318 ft) 1797 (2) 7°27′S 110°26′E / 7.45°S 110.43°E / -7.45; 110.43
Merapi stratovolcano 70032968000000000002,968 metres (9,738 ft) 26 October 2010 (4)[17] 7°32′31″S 110°26′31″E / 7.542°S 110.442°E / -7.542; 110.442
Muria stratovolcano 70031625000000000001,625 metres (5,331 ft) 160 BC ± 30 years 6°37′S 110°53′E / 6.62°S 110.88°E / -6.62; 110.88
Lawu stratovolcano 70033265000000000003,265 metres (10,712 ft) 28 November 1885 (1) 7°37′30″S 111°11′31″E / 7.625°S 111.192°E / -7.625; 111.192
Wilis stratovolcano 70032563000000000002,563 metres (8,409 ft) unknown 7°48′29″S 111°45′29″E / 7.808°S 111.758°E / -7.808; 111.758
Kelud stratovolcano 70031731000000000001,731 metres (5,679 ft) 13 February 2014 (4) 7°55′48″S 112°18′29″E / 7.93°S 112.308°E / -7.93; 112.308
Kawi-Butak stratovolcano 70032651000000000002,651 metres (8,698 ft) unknown 7°55′S 112°27′E / 7.92°S 112.45°E / -7.92; 112.45
Arjuno-Welirang stratovolcano 70033339000000000003,339 metres (10,955 ft) 15 August 1952 (0) 7°43′30″S 112°34′48″E / 7.725°S 112.58°E / -7.725; 112.58
Penanggungan stratovolcano 70031653000000000001,653 metres (5,423 ft) unknown 7°37′S 112°38′E / 7.62°S 112.63°E / -7.62; 112.63
Malang Plain maar 7002680000000000000680 metres (2,230 ft) unknown 8°01′S 112°41′E / 8.02°S 112.68°E / -8.02; 112.68
Semeru stratovolcano 70033676000000000003,676 metres (12,060 ft) 1967–2006 continuing (3) 8°06′29″S 112°55′12″E / 8.108°S 112.92°E / -8.108; 112.92
Tengger stratovolcano 70032329000000000002,329 metres (7,641 ft) 8 June 2004 (2) 7°56′31″S 112°57′00″E / 7.942°S 112.95°E / -7.942; 112.95
Lamongan stratovolcano 70031651000000000001,651 metres (5,417 ft) 5 February 1898 (2) 7°58′44″S 113°20′31″E / 7.979°S 113.342°E / -7.979; 113.342
Lurus complex volcano 7002539000000000000539 metres (1,768 ft) unknown 7°44′S 113°35′E / 7.73°S 113.58°E / -7.73; 113.58
Iyang-Argapura complex volcano 70033088000000000003,088 metres (10,131 ft) unknown 7°58′S 113°34′E / 7.97°S 113.57°E / -7.97; 113.57
Raung stratovolcano 70033332000000000003,332 metres (10,932 ft) 2 June 2002 (2) 8°07′30″S 114°02′31″E / 8.125°S 114.042°E / -8.125; 114.042
Ijen stratovolcano 70032799000000000002,799 metres (9,183 ft) 28 June 1999 (1) 8°03′29″S 114°14′31″E / 8.058°S 114.242°E / -8.058; 114.242
Baluran stratovolcano 70031247000000000001,247 metres (4,091 ft) unknown 7°51′S 114°22′E / 7.85°S 114.37°E / -7.85; 114.37

Note: Height of Krakatau is of Rakata, not of the active Anak Krakatau

An aerial photograph of an irregularly shaped, dark grey island with green foliage on the right and bottom, all surrounded by blue water.
Satellite image of Anak Krakatau with fresh lava flows 
A photograph depicting a white sky at the top, a grey land configuration in the middle, and a body of water swirling around at the bottom.
Tangkuban Perahu, taken from above 
A photograph depicting lightning striking a volcano that is in the process of erupting bright yellow lava into the air, all surrounded by a red haze.
Lightning striking during the 1982 Galunggung eruption 
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a dark grey volcano in the middle, and green foliage at the bottom.
Mount Merapi, the most active volcano in Indonesia 
A photograph depicting a blue sky with white clouds at the top, a light grey lake in the middle, and dark grey rocks surrounding the lake.
The turquoise colored sulfuric acid lake on the Ijen caldera 
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[18][19]

Lesser Sunda Islands[edit]

The Lesser Sunda Islands is a small archipelago which, from west to east, consists of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba and the Timor islands; all are located at the edge of the Australian continental shelf. Volcanoes in the area are formed because of oceanic crusts and the movement of the shelf itself.[20] Some volcanoes completely form an island, for instance, the Sangeang Api island. Mount Tambora, on Sumbawa island, erupted on 5 April 1815, with a scale 7 on the VEI and is considered the most violent eruption in recorded history.[3]

Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI) Geolocation
Merbuk tba 70031386000000000001,386 metres (4,547 ft) unknown -
Bratan caldera 70032276000000000002,276 metres (7,467 ft) unknown 8°17′S 115°08′E / 8.28°S 115.13°E / -8.28; 115.13
Batur caldera 70031717000000000001,717 metres (5,633 ft) 15 March 1999 (1) 8°14′31″S 115°22′30″E / 8.242°S 115.375°E / -8.242; 115.375
Agung stratovolcano 70033142000000000003,142 metres (10,308 ft) 18 February 1963 (5) 8°20′31″S 115°30′29″E / 8.342°S 115.508°E / -8.342; 115.508
Rinjani stratovolcano 70033726000000000003,726 metres (12,224 ft) 1 October 2004 (2) 8°25′S 116°28′E / 8.42°S 116.47°E / -8.42; 116.47
Tambora stratovolcano 70032722000000000002,722 metres (8,930 ft) 1967 ± 20 years (0) 8°15′S 118°00′E / 8.25°S 118.00°E / -8.25; 118.00
Sangeang Api complex volcano 70031949000000000001,949 metres (6,394 ft) 30 May 2014 (?) 8°12′S 119°04′E / 8.20°S 119.07°E / -8.20; 119.07
Wai Sano caldera 7002903000000000000903 metres (2,963 ft) unknown 8°43′S 120°01′E / 8.72°S 120.02°E / -8.72; 120.02
Poco Leok unknown 70031675000000000001,675 metres (5,495 ft) unknown 8°41′S 120°29′E / 8.68°S 120.48°E / -8.68; 120.48
Ranakah lava dome 70032100000000000002,100 metres (6,900 ft) March 1991 (1) 8°37′S 120°31′E / 8.62°S 120.52°E / -8.62; 120.52
Inierie stratovolcano 70032245000000000002,245 metres (7,365 ft) 8050 BC 8°52′30″S 120°57′00″E / 8.875°S 120.95°E / -8.875; 120.95
Inielika complex volcano 70031559000000000001,559 metres (5,115 ft) 11 January 2001 (2) 8°44′S 120°59′E / 8.73°S 120.98°E / -8.73; 120.98
Ebulobo stratovolcano 70032124000000000002,124 metres (6,969 ft) 27 February 1969 (2) 8°49′S 121°11′E / 8.82°S 121.18°E / -8.82; 121.18
Iya stratovolcano 7002637000000000000637 metres (2,090 ft) 27 January 1969 (3) 8°53′49″S 121°38′42″E / 8.897°S 121.645°E / -8.897; 121.645
Sukaria caldera 70031500000000000001,500 metres (4,900 ft) unknown 8°47′31″S 121°46′12″E / 8.792°S 121.77°E / -8.792; 121.77
Ndete Napu fumarole 7002750000000000000750 metres (2,460 ft) unknown 8°43′S 121°47′E / 8.72°S 121.78°E / -8.72; 121.78
Kelimutu complex volcano 70031639000000000001,639 metres (5,377 ft) 3 June 1968 (1) 8°46′S 121°49′E / 8.77°S 121.82°E / -8.77; 121.82
Paluweh stratovolcano 7002875000000000000875 metres (2,871 ft) 3 February 1985 (1) 8°19′12″S 121°42′29″E / 8.32°S 121.708°E / -8.32; 121.708
Egon stratovolcano 70031703000000000001,703 metres (5,587 ft) 6 February 2005 (1) 8°40′S 122°27′E / 8.67°S 122.45°E / -8.67; 122.45
Ilimuda stratovolcano 70031100000000000001,100 metres (3,600 ft) unknown 8°28′41″S 122°40′16″E / 8.478°S 122.671°E / -8.478; 122.671
Lewotobi stratovolcano 70031703000000000001,703 metres (5,587 ft) 30 May 2003 (2) 8°32′31″S 122°46′30″E / 8.542°S 122.775°E / -8.542; 122.775
Leroboleng complex volcano 70031117000000000001,117 metres (3,665 ft) 26 June 2003 (3) 8°21′29″S 122°50′31″E / 8.358°S 122.842°E / -8.358; 122.842
Riang Kotang fumarole 7002200000000000000200 metres (660 ft) unknown 8°18′00″S 122°53′31″E / 8.30°S 122.892°E / -8.30; 122.892
Iliboleng stratovolcano 70031659000000000001,659 metres (5,443 ft) June 1993 (1) 8°20′31″S 123°15′29″E / 8.342°S 123.258°E / -8.342; 123.258
Lewotolo stratovolcano 70031423000000000001,423 metres (4,669 ft) 15 December 1951 (2) 8°16′19″S 123°30′18″E / 8.272°S 123.505°E / -8.272; 123.505
Ililabalekan stratovolcano 70031018000000000001,018 metres (3,340 ft) unknown 8°33′S 123°23′E / 8.55°S 123.38°E / -8.55; 123.38
Iliwerung complex volcano 70031018000000000001,018 metres (3,340 ft) 22 May 1999 (0) 8°32′S 123°34′E / 8.53°S 123.57°E / -8.53; 123.57
Batu Tara stratovolcano 7002748000000000000748 metres (2,454 ft) 1847 (2) 7°47′31″S 123°34′44″E / 7.792°S 123.579°E / -7.792; 123.579
Sirung complex volcano 7002862000000000000862 metres (2,828 ft) 1970 (2) 8°30′29″S 124°07′48″E / 8.508°S 124.13°E / -8.508; 124.13
Yersey submarine 2996620000000000000−3,800 metres (−12,500 ft) unknown 7°32′S 123°57′E / 7.53°S 123.95°E / -7.53; 123.95
Eruption of Rinjani in 1984 
One of three different colored lakes of Kelimutu 
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[21]

Banda Sea[edit]

The Banda Sea in the south of the Molucca archipelago includes a small group of islands. Three major tectonic plates beneath the sea, Eurasian, Pacific and Indo-Australian plates, have been converging since the Mesozoic epoch.[22] Volcanoes in the Banda Sea are mainly islands, but some are submarine volcanoes.

Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI) Geolocation
Emperor of China submarine 2996715000000000000−2,850 metres (−9,350 ft) unknown 6°37′S 124°13′E / 6.62°S 124.22°E / -6.62; 124.22
Nieuwerkerk submarine 2996771500000000000−2,285 metres (−7,497 ft) unknown 6°36′00″S 124°40′30″E / 6.60°S 124.675°E / -6.60; 124.675
Gunungapi Wetar stratovolcano 7002282000000000000282 metres (925 ft) 1699 (3) 6°38′31″S 126°39′00″E / 6.642°S 126.65°E / -6.642; 126.65
Wurlali stratovolcano 7002868000000000000868 metres (2,848 ft) 3 June 1892 (2) 7°07′30″S 128°40′30″E / 7.125°S 128.675°E / -7.125; 128.675
Teon stratovolcano 7002655000000000000655 metres (2,149 ft) 3 June 1904 (2) 6°55′12″S 129°07′30″E / 6.92°S 129.125°E / -6.92; 129.125
Nila stratovolcano 7002781000000000000781 metres (2,562 ft) 7 May 1968 (1) 6°44′S 129°30′E / 6.73°S 129.50°E / -6.73; 129.50
Serua stratovolcano 7002641000000000000641 metres (2,103 ft) 18 September 1921 (2) 6°18′S 130°00′E / 6.30°S 130.00°E / -6.30; 130.00
Manuk stratovolcano 7002282000000000000282 metres (925 ft) unknown 5°31′48″S 130°17′31″E / 5.53°S 130.292°E / -5.53; 130.292
Banda Api caldera 7002640000000000000640 metres (2,100 ft) 9 May 1988 (3) 4°31′30″S 129°52′16″E / 4.525°S 129.871°E / -4.525; 129.871
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[23]

Sulawesi and Sangihe Islands[edit]

Four peninsulas dominate the shape of Sulawesi island (formerly known as Celebes). The central part is a high mountainous area, but mostly non-volcanic. Active volcanoes are found in the northern peninsula and continuously stretch to the north to Sangihe Islands. The Sangihe Islands mark the border with the Philippines.

Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI) Geolocation
Colo stratovolcano 7002507000000000000507 metres (1,663 ft) 18 July 1983 (4) 0°10′12″S 121°36′29″E / 0.17°S 121.608°E / -0.17; 121.608
Ambang complex volcano 70031795000000000001,795 metres (5,889 ft) 1845 ± 5 years 0°45′N 124°25′E / 0.75°N 124.42°E / 0.75; 124.42
Soputan stratovolcano 70031784000000000001,784 metres (5,853 ft) 24–30 October 2007 1°06′29″N 124°43′48″E / 1.108°N 124.73°E / 1.108; 124.73
Sempu caldera 70031549000000000001,549 metres (5,082 ft) unknown 1°07′48″N 124°45′29″E / 1.13°N 124.758°E / 1.13; 124.758
Tondano caldera 70031202000000000001,202 metres (3,944 ft) unknown 1°14′N 124°50′E / 1.23°N 124.83°E / 1.23; 124.83
Lokon-Empung stratovolcano 70031580000000000001,580 metres (5,180 ft) 15 July 2011 1°21′29″N 124°47′31″E / 1.358°N 124.792°E / 1.358; 124.792
Mahawu stratovolcano 70031324000000000001,324 metres (4,344 ft) 16 November 1977 (0) 1°21′29″N 124°51′29″E / 1.358°N 124.858°E / 1.358; 124.858
Klabat stratovolcano 70031995000000000001,995 metres (6,545 ft) unknown 1°28′N 125°02′E / 1.47°N 125.03°E / 1.47; 125.03
Tongkoko stratovolcano 70031149000000000001,149 metres (3,770 ft) 1880 (1) 1°31′N 125°12′E / 1.52°N 125.20°E / 1.52; 125.20
Ruang stratovolcano 7002725000000000000725 metres (2,379 ft) 25 September 2002 (4) 2°18′N 125°22′E / 2.30°N 125.37°E / 2.30; 125.37
Karangetang stratovolcano 70031784000000000001,784 metres (5,853 ft) August 2007 2°47′N 125°24′E / 2.78°N 125.40°E / 2.78; 125.40
Banua Wuhu submarine 2999500000000000000−5 metres (−16 ft) 18 July 1919 (3) 3°08′17″N 125°29′28″E / 3.138°N 125.491°E / 3.138; 125.491
Awu stratovolcano 70031320000000000001,320 metres (4,330 ft) 2 June 2004 (2) 3°40′N 125°30′E / 3.67°N 125.50°E / 3.67; 125.50
Submarine 1922 submarine 2996500000000000000−5,000 metres (−16,000 ft) unknown 3°58′N 125°10′E / 3.97°N 125.17°E / 3.97; 125.17
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[24][25]

Halmahera[edit]

Halmahera island in the north of Molucca archipelago has been formed by the movement of three tectonic plates resulting in two intersecting mountain ranges, which form four rocky peninsulas separated by three deep bays. A volcanic arc stretches from north to south in the west side of Halmahera, some of which are volcanic islands, for instance, Gamalama and Tidore. Gamalama's island name is Ternate and it has been the center for spice trading since the Portuguese Empire opened a fort in 1512. Due to its location as the center for spice trading during the Age of Discovery, historical records of volcanic eruptions in Halmahera have been available as far back as the early 16th century.

Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI) Geolocation
Tarakan pyroclastic cone 7002318000000000000318 metres (1,043 ft) unknown 1°50′N 127°50′E / 1.83°N 127.83°E / 1.83; 127.83
Dukono complex volcano 70031335000000000001,335 metres (4,380 ft) 13 August 1933 (3) 1°41′N 127°53′E / 1.68°N 127.88°E / 1.68; 127.88
Tobaru unknown 70031035000000000001,035 metres (3,396 ft) unknown 1°38′N 127°40′E / 1.63°N 127.67°E / 1.63; 127.67
Ibu stratovolcano 70031325000000000001,325 metres (4,347 ft) May 2005 (0) 1°29′17″N 127°37′48″E / 1.488°N 127.63°E / 1.488; 127.63
Gamkonora stratovolcano 70031635000000000001,635 metres (5,364 ft) 9 July 2007 (?) 1°23′N 127°32′E / 1.38°N 127.53°E / 1.38; 127.53
Todoko-Ranu caldera 7002979000000000000979 metres (3,212 ft) unknown 1°15′N 127°28′E / 1.25°N 127.47°E / 1.25; 127.47
Jailolo stratovolcano 70031130000000000001,130 metres (3,710 ft) unknown 1°05′N 127°25′E / 1.08°N 127.42°E / 1.08; 127.42
Hiri stratovolcano 7002630000000000000630 metres (2,070 ft) unknown 0°54′N 127°19′E / 0.90°N 127.32°E / 0.90; 127.32
Gamalama stratovolcano 70031715000000000001,715 metres (5,627 ft) 31 July 2003 (2) 0°48′N 127°20′E / 0.80°N 127.33°E / 0.80; 127.33
Tidore stratovolcano 70031730000000000001,730 metres (5,680 ft) unknown 0°39′29″N 127°24′00″E / 0.658°N 127.40°E / 0.658; 127.40
Mare stratovolcano 7002308000000000000308 metres (1,010 ft) unknown 0°34′N 127°24′E / 0.57°N 127.40°E / 0.57; 127.40
Moti stratovolcano 7002950000000000000950 metres (3,120 ft) unknown 0°27′N 127°24′E / 0.45°N 127.40°E / 0.45; 127.40
Makian stratovolcano 70031357000000000001,357 metres (4,452 ft) 29 July 1988 (3) 0°19′N 127°24′E / 0.32°N 127.40°E / 0.32; 127.40
Tigalalu stratovolcano 7002422000000000000422 metres (1,385 ft) unknown 0°04′N 127°25′E / 0.07°N 127.42°E / 0.07; 127.42
Amasing stratovolcano 70031030000000000001,030 metres (3,380 ft) unknown 0°32′S 127°29′E / 0.53°S 127.48°E / -0.53; 127.48
Bibinoi stratovolcano 7002900000000000000900 metres (3,000 ft) unknown 0°46′S 127°43′E / 0.77°S 127.72°E / -0.77; 127.72
A drawing of a volcano erupting orange lava and black smoke into the air with a body of water in the foreground and ships sailing in it.
Depiction of Gamalama erupting in the early 1700s with a Portuguese fort shown
Source: Global Volcanism Program.[26]

Major eruptions[edit]

Below is a list of selected major eruptions of volcanoes in Indonesia, sorted chronologically by the starting date of the eruption. Only eruptions with scale 3 or above on VEI are given with known sources and fatalities, except if smaller scale eruptions resulted some fatalities.

Eruption date Volcano Cessation date VEI Characteristics Tsunami Tephra volume Fatality Sources
3 November 2010 Merapi 8 November 2010 4 cv,pf,ld,lm no N/A 138 [5]
10 February 1990 Kelut March 1990 4 cv,cl,pf,ph,ld,lm no 0.13 km³ 35 [27]
18 July 1983 Colo December 1983 4 cv,pf,ph no N/A 0 [27]
5 April 1982 Galunggung 8 January 1983 4 cv,pf,lf,lm no 0.37 km³ + 68 [28][29]
6 October 1972 Merapi March 1985 2 cv,pf,lf,ld,lm no 0.021 km³ 29 [5]
26 April 1966 Kelut 27 April 1966 4 cv,cl,pf,lm no 0.089 km³ 212 [27]
17 March 1963 Agung 27 January 1964 5 cv,pf,lf,lm no 1 km³ 1,148 [30]
31 August 1951 Kelut 31 August 1951 4 cv,cl,pf,lm no 0.2 km³ 7 [27]
25 November 1930 Merapi September 1931 3 cv,rf,pf,lf,ld,lm no 0.0017 km³ 1,369 [5]
19 May 1919 Kelut 20 May 1919 4 cv,cl,pf,lm no 0.19 km³ 5,110 [27]
7 June 1892 Awu 12 June 1892 3 cv,pf,lm yes N/A 1,532 [31]
26 August 1883 Krakatau February 1884 6 cv,se,pf,fa,lm,cc 15–42 m 5–8.5 km³ 36,600 [1][30][32]
15 April 1872 Merapi 21 April 1872 4 cv,pf no 0.33 km³ 200 [5]
2 March 1856 Awu 17 March 1856 3 cv,pf,lm yes 0.51±0.50 km³ 2,806 [31]
8 October 1822 Galunggung December 1822 5 cv,pf,ld,lm no 1 km³ + 4,011 [27]
10 April 1815 Mount Tambora 15 July 1815 7 cv,pf,cc 1–2 m 160 km³ 71,000+ [3][33]
6 August 1812 Awu 8 August 1812 4 cv,pf,lm no 0.55±0.50 km³ 963 [31]
12 August 1772 Papandayan 12 August 1772 3 cv,ph no N/A 2,957 [34]
4 August 1672 Merapi unknown 3 cv,pf,lm no N/A 3,000 [5]
1586 Kelut unknown 5 cf,cl,lm no 1 km³ + 10,000 [27]
≈ 74,000 BP Toba unknown 8 pf,lf,cc likely 2,800 km³ near extinction of
human population
[2]
Fatality numbers are mostly taken from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia,[8] and Tanguy et al. (1998).[35]
Notes: cv=central vent eruption, pf=pyroclastic flows, lf=lava flows, lm=lahar mudflows, cl=crater lake eruption, ph=phreatic eruption, ld=lava dome extrusion, cc=caldera collapse, se=submarine eruption, fa=fumarole activity, rf=radial fissure eruption.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General references[edit]

  1. ^ a M. Neumann van Padang (1951). "Indonesia". "Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields" (1 ed.). Rome: IAVCEI. pp. 1–271. 
  2. ^ a Tom Simkin and Lee Siebert (1994). Volcanoes of the World: A Regional Directory, Gazetteer, and Chronology of Volcanism During the Last 10,000 Years (2nd ed.). Geoscience Press. ISBN 0-945005-12-1. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Winchester, Simon (2003). Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-621285-5. 
  2. ^ a b c Oppenheimer, C. (2002). "Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba ≈74 kyr BP?". Quaternary Science Reviews 21 (14–15): 1593–1609. Bibcode:2002QSRv...21.1593O. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(01)00154-8. 
  3. ^ a b c Stothers, Richard B. (1984). "The Great Tambora Eruption in 1815 and Its Aftermath". Science 224 (4654): 1191–1198. Bibcode:1984Sci...224.1191S. doi:10.1126/science.224.4654.1191. PMID 17819476. 
  4. ^ "Kelut Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-12-19. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Merapi Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-12-19. 
  6. ^ "Indonesia Miliki 127 Gunung Api Aktif". May 2, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Summary Data Criteria". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 
  8. ^ a b "Centre of Volcanology & Geological Hazard Mitigation". Volcanological Survey of Indonesia. Archived from the original on 2006-12-16. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 
  9. ^ a b Simoes, M., Avouac, J.P., Cattin, R., Henry, P. (2004). "The Sumatra subduction zone: A case for a locked fault zone extending into the mantle" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research 109: B10402. Bibcode:2004JGRB..10910402S. doi:10.1029/2003JB002958. 
  10. ^ Subarya, C., Chlieh, M., Prawirodirdjo, L., Avouac, J.P., Bock, Y., Sieh, K., Meltzner, A., Natawidjaja, D.H., McCaffrey, R. (2006). "Plate-boundary deformation associated with the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake" (PDF). Nature 440 (7080): 46–51. Bibcode:2006Natur.440...46S. doi:10.1038/nature04522. PMID 16511486. 
  11. ^ Lay, T., Kanamori, H., Ammon, C., Nettles, M., Ward, S., Aster, R., Beck, S., Bilek, S., Brudzinski, M., Butler, R., DeShon, H., Ekstrom, G. (2005). "The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 26 December 2004" (PDF). Science 308 (5725): 1127–1133. Bibcode:2005Sci...308.1127L. doi:10.1126/science.1112250. PMID 15905392. 
  12. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Sumatra". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  13. ^ Whittaker, R. J.; Bush, M. B. (1993). "Anak Krakatau and old Krakatau: a reply". GeoJournal 29 (4): 417–420. doi:10.1007/BF00807545. 
  14. ^ "Semeru Weekly Reports". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-12-07. 
  15. ^ International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (1995). "Decade Volcano Update". Bulletin of Volcanology 57 (1): 82–83. Bibcode:1995BVol...57...76.. doi:10.1007/BF00298711. 
  16. ^ Ansje Löhr, Thom Bogaard, Alex Heikens, Martin Hendriks, Sri Sumarti, Manfred van Bergen, Kees C.A.M. van Gestel, Nico van Straalen, Pieter Vroonand, and Budi Widianarko (2005). "Natural Pollution Caused by the Extremely Acid Crater Lake Kawah Ijen, East Java, Indonesia". Environmental Science and Pollution Research 12 (2): 89–95. doi:10.1065/espr2004.09.118. 
  17. ^ "Mount Merapi Erupts". ANTARA. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 2013-11-19. 
  18. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Krakatau". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  19. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Java". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  20. ^ H. A. Brouwer (July 1939). "Exploration in the Lesser Sunda Islands". The Geographical Journal (Blackwell Publishing) 94 (1): 1–10. doi:10.2307/1788584. JSTOR 1788584. 
  21. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Lesser Sunda Islands". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  22. ^ Christian Honthaasa, Jean-Pierre Réhaulta, René C. Maurya, Hervé Bellona, Christophe Hémonda, Jacques-André Maloda, Jean-Jacques Cornéeb, Michel Villeneuveb, Joseph Cottena, Safri Burhanuddinc, Hervé Guilloud and Nicolas Arnaud (1998). "A Neogene back-arc origin for the Banda Sea basins: geochemical and geochronological constraints from the Banda ridges (East Indonesia)". Tectonophysics 298 (4): 297–317. Bibcode:1998Tectp.298..297H. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(98)00190-5. 
  23. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Banda Sea". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  24. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Sulawesi". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  25. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Sangihe Islands". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  26. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia - Halmahera". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g "Large Holocene Eruptions". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 
  28. ^ Katili, J.A. and Sudradjat, A. (1984). "Galunggung: the 1982-1983 eruption". Volcanology Survei Indonesia: 102. 
  29. ^ "Galunggung, Java, Indonesia". Volcano World. Department of Geosciences at Oregon State University. Archived from the original on 2008-06-16. Retrieved 2006-12-30. 
  30. ^ a b Michael R. Rampino and Stephen Self (1982). "Historic eruptions of Tambora (1815), Krakatau (1883), and Agung (1963), their stratospheric aerosols, and climatic impact". Quaternary Research 18 (2): 127–143. Bibcode:1982QuRes..18..127R. doi:10.1016/0033-5894(82)90065-5. 
  31. ^ a b c "Awu's Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 
  32. ^ B.H. Choi, E. Pelinovsky, K.O. Kim and J.S. Lee (2003). "Simulation of the trans-oceanic tsunami propagation due to the 1883 Krakatau volcanic eruption" (PDF). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 3 (5): 321–332. doi:10.5194/nhess-3-321-2003. 
  33. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. 
  34. ^ "The Deadliest Eruptions". Volcano World. Department of Geosciences at Oregon State University. Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  35. ^ J.-C. Tanguy, Ch. Ribière, A. Scarth and W.S. Tjetjep (1998). "Victims from volcanic eruptions: a revised database". Bulletin of Volcanology 60 (2): 137–144. Bibcode:1998BVol...60..137T. doi:10.1007/s004450050222. 

External links[edit]