Aerial view of Central Mutare (2001)
|Nickname(s): Gateway to the Eastern Highlands, Zimbabwe's Gateway to the Sea|
|Motto: Justice and Freedom|
|• Mayor||Brian James|
|Elevation||1,120 m (3,675 ft)|
|Population (2012)Census Results in Brief|
|• Total||188 243|
|Time zone||Central Africa Time (UTC+2)|
|Website||City of Mutare|
Mutare (known as Umtali until 1983) is the third largest city in Zimbabwe, with an urban population of around 188,243 and rural population of around 260,567. It is the capital of Manicaland province.
Mutare was founded in 1897 as a fort, about 8 km from the border with Mozambique, and is just 290 km from the Mozambican port of Beira, earning Mutare the title of "Zimbabwe's Gateway to the Sea". It is sometimes also called "Gateway to the Eastern Highlands". Many Zimbabwean locals refer to it as 'Kumakomoyo' (place of many mountains).There is a border railway station on the railway line from Harare to Beira with a railways mechanical work shop.
The area was the site of Chief Mutasa's kraal. In 1890 A.R. Coquhoun was given concessionary rights and Fort Umtali (the fort later became Mutare) was established between the Tsambe and Mutare Rivers. The word mutare originates from the word 'Utare' meaning gold. The name was probably given to the river as a result of gold being discovered in the Penhalonga valley through which the Mutare River runs.
In 1891 the location was moved to a site now known as Old Mutare, about 14 km north of the city centre. In 1896 the construction of the railway between Beira and Bulawayo led to the town being moved a third time so that it was closer to the railway line - compensation was paid by the British South Africa Company to the townspeople for the cost of moving. The town was proclaimed a municipality in 1914 and in 1971 it was granted city status. The name was officially changed from Umtali to Mutare in 1982.
There used to be a tramway, which transported passengers from the Railway station up to the (then Umtali Club) now Mutare Club. The Tramway was at the centre of Main Street where the palm trees now stand
There were plans to set up a Stock Exchange in Umtali. The main post office was at the site where CABS centre now stands.
Despite its tropical location, the city has a temperate climate. The average annual temperature is 19 °C, surprisingly low for its moderate altitude (about the same as Harare which is 360 metres higher.) This is due to its sheltered position against the mountain ridge of Cecil Kop which encourages cool breezes from lower altitude to the east and south. The coldest month is July (minimum 6 °C and maximum 20 °C) and the hottest month is October (minimum 16 °C and maximum 32 °C). The annual rainfall is 818 mm. Rain falls mostly in the months December to February although heavy showers are possible before and after this period. The wettest month on record was January 1926 which received 580 mm while January 1991 received only 24 mm.
|Climate data for Mutare|
|Average high °C (°F)||26
|Average low °C (°F)||16
|Precipitation mm (inches)||155
|Source: World Weather Online |
The town lies north of the Bvumba Mountains and south of the Imbeza Valley. Christmas Pass is a mountain pass that leads into the city from the west. The pass was so named by some of the colonial pioneers who camped at the foot of the pass on Christmas Day 1890.
Mutare is home to the Mutare Museum, the Utopia House Museum dedicated to Kingsley Fairbridge, the National Gallery of Zimbabwe, Murahwa Hill, known for its rock paintings and Iron Age village, Cross Kopje with a memorial to Zimbabweans and Mozambicans killed in World War I and a nature reserve Cecil Kopje and Tigers Kloof. The Mutare Boys' High Chapel was constructed in honour of former Old boys who perished in World War II, situated on a hilly knoll at Mutare Boys High then Umtali Boys High
There are two small Aerodromes the smallest is at Mutare Provincial Hospitall a very small light aircraft strip for emmergency evacuation (now defunct) and a light plane Aerodrome in Sakubva near Mutare Teachers College. There is yet a third airport constructed in Chiadzwa to carry diamonds for processing in Harare..
The population is predominantly Shona, the majority of them speaking the Manyika dialect. Manyika people are locally known as Samanyikas although this is somewhat derogatory. According to the 2012 preliminary census data, Mutare has a population of 188 243 ; 88 957 being male and 99 286 females . This marks a rapid increase from a population of 69,621 in 1982 and 131,367 in 1992.
Mutare, like most cities in Zimbabwe, classifies residential suburbs according to the population density.
The most upscale suburbs (low-density suburbs) such as Fairbridge Park (named after the founder of the present site of Mutare), Murambi, Morningside and Tiger's Kloof are located on the north end of the city along the foothills, while Palmerston, Darlington, Greenside and Bordervale are east of the city center, near the border with Mozambique.
In the west are the medium-density suburbs of Yeovil, Westlea and Florida (and Train Houses), as well as the high density suburb of Chikanga, which was constructed in phases (Phase 1; 2; 3) beginning in the late eighties.
Further west of Chikanga lies the Garikai/Hlalani Kuhle and Hobhouse. South of the railway track lies the high-density suburb of Sakubva, which contains nearly half of the city's population despite an area of less than four square miles. Sakubva is considered to be the poorest of Mutare's suburbs, and its economy is centred around a large outdoor food and flea market-and the "Musika weHuku" (The chicken market).
A few miles to the south, hidden from view from the rest of the city by a series of hills, is the high-density suburb of Dangamvura. The low-density areas of Weirmouth (Plots) and Fern valley are also on the southern outskirts of the city; in these areas residential lots exceed an acre, and market gardening is an economic activity.
Further to the south along the road to Masvingo and outside the city limits is the high-density town of Zimunya. Mutare's main industrial areas are south of the railway and west of Sakubva, although there is also some light industry just east of the southern part of the city centre.
These are some of the suburbs of Mutare.
|Northern (North of the railway line)||Fairbridge Park; Murambi; Morningside; Tiger's Kloof; Palmerston; Avenues; Utopia; Darlington; Greenside; Yeovil; Westlea; Florida; Chikanga; Toronto|
|Southern (South of the railway line)||Sakubva; Dangamvura; Weirmouth; Fern valley; Zimunya.|
Mutare is home to schools and tertiary institutions:
- Baring Primary School
- Cross Kopje Junior School
- Chikanga Primary School
- Dangamvura Primary School
- Hillcrest Preparatory School (Private school)
- Mutanda Primary
- Mutare Junior School
- New Dangare
- Murahwa Hill Primary School
- St Joseph's Primary School
- Sheni Primary School
- Sacred Hearts Primary School
- Chisamba Primary School
Secondary education / high school education
- Mutare Boys' High School
- Mutare Girls' High School
- St Dominics High Mutare
- St Josephs High School
- Hillcrest College (Private School)
- Chikanga High School
- Dangamvura High School
- Elise Gledhill High School
- Jay Rones High School
- Nyamauru High School
- Sakubva High1 School (Dangwe)
- Sakubva High 2 School (Rushingo)
- St Mary's High
- Beaulah Heights
- There are a number of private colleges around the city.
- Africa University, a pan-African United Methodist funded university of about 1,200 students
- Marymount Teachers' College
- Mutare Teachers College
- Mutare Polytechnic
- Magamba vocational training
- Fern Valley University -under consideration for construction
The main activities of the area are citrus farming, mining (The city's name is derived from "metal") and forestry. Two of the largest food producers in Zimbabwe, Cairns Foods and Tanganda Tea, operate in Mutare.
Mining includes gold at Redwing Mine, Penhalonga and some smaller mines, diamonds in Marange and gravel quarries around the city. There are a number of forestry companies including The Wattle Company, Allied Timbers formerly FCZ and Border Timbers. The main timber products include rough sawn timber, wattle bark, charcoal, various doors and frames and mouldings. The major timber produced is pine, sydney blue gum, black wattle, and some hardwoods on a smaller scale.
Since 2000, the city has suffered as a result of Zimbabwe's economical problems. Some of the companies which closed operations in Mutare include Mutare Board and Paper Mills, Pine Products, Karina Textiles and Fusalite Glasses-PG Plate Glass.
- C.W.Mercer, a British author who wrote under the pen name Dornford Yates; lived near the city from 1948 until his death in 1960
- Donal Lamont, Catholic bishop of Umtali/Mutare 1957-82, an outspoken opponent of the Ian Smith regime; expelled from Rhodesia in 1977 after a high-profile trial
- Douglas Rogers, a journalist and memoirist was born in the city in 1968 and raised there
- Arthur Mutambara, became Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe on 11 February 2009, under the September 2008 power-sharing agreement
- Tichafa Samuel Parirenyatwa Dr. (1927-1962), Zimbabwe's first black medical.
- Herbert Chitepo (15 June 1923 – 18 March 1975, Zimbabwe's first black lawyer and Chairman of ZANU July 1963 – 18 March 1975
- Supa Mandiwanzira, media personality and politician
- Edgar Tekere (1937–2011), nicknamed "2 Boy", a prominent politician
- Genius Chidzikwe, a tennis player
- Trevor Madondo (1976-2001), one of the first black cricket players in Zimbabwe
- Lawrence Mudehwe, the first Executive Mayor to be elected as an independent candidate in Zimbabwe; served for two terms
- Bjorn Mordt (born 1978), cricketer
- Daniel Baradza (born c. 1973), sculptor
- Blessing Makunike (24 January 1977 – 13 March 2004), a Zimbabwean international football player
- Chiwoniso Maraire (5 March 1976 - 24 July 2013), an accomplished Mbira player, singer, songwriter, and exponent of Zimbabwean mbira music
- Willard Katsande (Kaizer Chiefs and Warriors midfielder)
- Onismor Bhasera (Bidvest Wits and Warriors leftback)
- Washington Arubi (Tuks and warriors Goalkeeper)
- Morgan Tsvangirai
- Opa Muchinguri
- Morgan Tsvangirai