Muyeol of Silla

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Muyeol of Silla
Hangul 태종 무열왕
Hanja 太宗 武烈王
Revised Romanization Taejong Muyeol
McCune–Reischauer T'aejong Muyǒl
Birth name
Hangul 김춘추
Hanja 金春秋
Revised Romanization Gim Chun-chu
McCune–Reischauer Kim Ch'unch'u
Monarchs of Korea
Silla
(Pre-unification)
  1. Hyeokgeose 57 BCE – 4 CE
  2. Namhae 4–24
  3. Yuri 24–57
  4. Talhae 57–80
  5. Pasa 80–112
  6. Jima 112–134
  7. Ilseong 134–154
  8. Adalla 154–184
  9. Beolhyu 184–196
  10. Naehae 196–230
  11. Jobun 230–247
  12. Cheomhae 247–261
  13. Michu 262–284
  14. Yurye 284–298
  15. Girim 298–310
  16. Heulhae 310–356
  17. Naemul 356–402
  18. Silseong 402–417
  19. Nulji 417–458
  20. Jabi 458–479
  21. Soji 479–500
  22. Jijeung 500–514
  23. Beopheung 514–540
  24. Jinheung 540–576
  25. Jinji 576–579
  26. Jinpyeong 579–632
  27. Seondeok 632–647
  28. Jindeok 647–654
  29. Muyeol 654–661

King Taejong Muyeol (604[1] – June 661), born Kim Chunchu, was the 29th monarch of the southern Korean kingdom of Silla (Sinra) and ruled from 654 to 661.[2] He is credited for leading the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was a friend of Kim Yusin, who eventually became his brother-in-law after he married the latter's sister.

Background[edit]

King Taejong Muyeol was born with the "sacred bone" rank of seonggol. His father, Kim Yongsu (金龍樹), was a son of Silla's 25th ruler, King Jinji. When King Jinji was overthrown, all royalty from his line, including Kim Yongsu, were deemed unfit to rule over the kingdom. However, as he Yongsu was one of the few remaining seonggols, and married a seonggol princess (King Jinpyeong's daughter Princess Cheonmyeong), their child, Kim Chunchu, became seonggol and thus had a claim to the throne. Kim Yongsu was a powerful figure in the government. However, he lost all of his power to Kim Baekban, the brother of the king. In order to survive, he had accepted to become a jingol, the rank that was right below seonggol. Therefore, he lost his chance of becoming the king, and so did his child, Kim Chunchu. Following the death of his aunt, Queen Seondeok, Chunchu was passed over in favor of Jindeok of Silla, the last verifiable seonggol. With her death, all the seonggols were dead, so somebody with the royal blood in the jinggol rank had to succeed the throne. Kim Alcheon (a.k.a. So Alcheon), who was then Sangdaedeung (highest post of government) of Silla was the original favorite to succeed the throne. His father was a seonggol, who married a jingol wife so that his son would not be a seonggol and suffer from the fight for the throne. However, Kim Yushin supported Kim Chunchu, and Alcheon eventually refused the throne and supported Chunchu's claim. As a result, Kim Chunchu succeeded the throne as King Muyeol.

Reign[edit]

He was well acquainted with the Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, for he and the Emperor were friends before Gaozong became an Emperor. King Muyeol was a great support to the Emperor, and the Emperor returned the support to King Muyeol. He constantly pleaded with the Tang for reinforcements to destroy Baekje, to which the Tang finally acquiesced in 660, sending 130,000 troops under General Su Dingfang. Meanwhile, Kim Yusin set out from Silla with 50,000 soldiers and fought the bloody Battle of Hwangsanbeol leaving Baekje devastated and unprotected. King Uija of Baekje finally surrendered, leaving only Goguryeo to face Silla as an adversary on the Korean peninsula.

In June of the following year King Muyeol died, leaving his son Kim Beopmin to assume the throne as King Munmu.

Family[edit]

  • Wife:
    • Queen Munmyeong (Hangul: 문명왕후, Hanja: 文明王后), birth name "Kim Munhui" (Hangul: 김문희, Hanja: 金文姬), younger sister of General Kim Yushin, younger daughter of General Kim Seohyun and Lady Manmyeong.
  • Issue:[3][4]
    • King Munmu of Silla (626 - 681)
    • Kim Inmun (Hangul: 김인문, Hanja: 金仁問) (629 - 694)
    • Kim Munwang (Hangul: 김문왕, Hanja: 金文王) (629 - 665)
    • Kim Nocha (Hangul: 김노차, Hanja: 金老且)
    • Kim Jigyeong (Hangul: 김지경, Hanja: 金智鏡)
    • Kim Gaewon (Hangul: 김개원, Hanja: 金愷元)
    • Kim Intae (Hangul: 김인태, Hanja: 金仁泰)
    • Kim Gaejimun (Hangul: 김개지문, Hanja: 金皆知文)
    • Kim Geodeok (Hangul: 김차득, Hanja: 金車得)
    • Kim Madeok (Hangul: 김마득, Hanja: 金馬得)

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ According to records in his royal tombstone, his birth year is 604
  2. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Book One, page 64. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1-59654-348-5
  3. ^ King Munmu and Kim Inmun are known for certain to be sons of Queen Munmyeong. It is also certain that Kim Intae, Kim Gaejimun, Kim Geodeok, and Kim Madeok were the sons of concubines.
  4. ^ The identity of Kim Munwang, Kim Nocha, Kim Jigyeong, and Kim Gaewon's mothers are uncertain. According to the Samguk Yusa, they are listed as sons of Queen Munmyeong. In the Samguk Sagi, they are listed as sons of concubines.