List of monarchs of Korea

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Monarchs of Korea
Former Monarchy
Sunjong of the Korean Empire.jpg
Sunjong, the last Emperor of Korea
First monarch Dangun (legendary)
Last monarch Sunjong
Official residence Changdeokgung
Monarchy began 2333 BC (disputed)
Monarchy ended August 29, 1910
Current pretender(s) Disputed
Yi Won
Lee Haewon

The Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall.

This list includes the monarchs' Romanized posthumous or temple names and reign dates. Names are romanized according to the South Korean Revised Romanization of Korean. McCune-Reischauer romanizations may be found at the articles about the individual monarchs.

Gojoseon[edit]

Gojoseon (c. 2333 ? – 108 BCE) was the first Korean kingdom. It is said to have been founded by Dangun in 2333 BCE, although the foundation year is disputed among historians.[1] Bronze age archaeological evidence of Gojoseon culture is found in northern Korea and Liaoning. By the 9th to 4th century BCE, various historical and archaeological evidence shows Gojoseon was a flourishing state and a self-declared kingdom.

Gojoseon[edit]

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Dangun Wanggeom (legendary) 단군왕검
檀君王儉
2333–2240 BCE

Wiman Joseon[edit]

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Wi Man 위만 衛滿 194–? BCE
2 Unknown (Son of Wi Man) Unknown ?–?
3 King Ugeo 우거왕
右渠王
?–108 BCE

Buyeo[edit]

Buyeo (2nd century BC – 494 CE) ruled in modern-day Northeast China. The rulers continued to use the titles of Dangun.[2] Some records refer to Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo) and Dongbuyeo (East Buyeo). It was absorbed into Goguryeo.

Eastern Buyeo (c. 86 BCE – 22 CE)[edit]

The rulers of Dongbuyeo submitted to Bukbuyeo in 86 BC, and thus used the title Wang ("King").

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Hae Buru 해부루
解夫婁
86–48 BCE
2 Geumwa 금와왕
金蛙王
48–7 BCE
3 Daeso 대소왕
臺素王
7 BCE – 22 CE

Galsa Buyeo

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 King of Galsa 갈사왕
曷思王
21 CE–?
? Dodu 도두
都頭
?–68 CE

Later Buyeo[edit]

Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
Wigutae 위구태왕
慰仇太王
?–?, 2nd century
Ganwigeo 간위거왕
簡位居王
?–?, 3rd century
Maryeo 마려왕
麻余王
?–?, 3rd century
···
···
···
Uiryeo 의려왕
依慮王
?–285 CE
Uira 의라왕
依羅王
286 CE–?
···
···
···
Hyeon 현왕
玄王
?–346 CE
Yeoul 여울왕
餘蔚王
?–384 CE
···
···
···
Jan
?–494 CE

Goguryeo[edit]

Goguryeo (37 BC – 668 AD) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo rulers may have used the title of Taewang (太王, "Greatest King"). [1]

# Posthumous name[2] Hangul (Hanja) Personal names [3][4] Period of reign
Jolbon line [5]
1 Dongmyeong 동명성왕 (東明聖王), 동명왕 (東明王) Jumong 주몽 (朱蒙), Chumo 추모 (鄒牟), Sanghae 상해 (象解) 37–19 BCE
2 Yuri 유리왕 (琉璃王), 유리명왕 (琉璃明王) Yuri 유리 (琉璃, 類利), Yuryu 유류 (孺留), Nuri 누리 (累利) 19 BCE – 18 CE
Gungnae line
3 Daemusin 대무신왕 (大武神王), 대해주류왕 (大解朱留王) Muhyul 무휼 (無恤) 18–44
4 Minjung 민중왕 (閔中王) Saekju 색주 (色朱) 44–48
5 Mobon 모본왕 (慕本王) U 우 (憂), Aeru 애루 (愛婁), Mangnae 막래 (莫來) 48–53
6 Taejo 태조[대]왕 (太祖[大]王), 국조왕 (國祖王) Gung 궁 (宮), Eosu 어수 (於漱) 53–146
7 Chadae 차대왕 (次大王) Suseong 수성 (遂成) 146–165
8 Sindae 신대왕 (新大王) Baekgo 백고 (伯固), Baekgu 백구 (伯句) 165–179
9 Gogukcheon 고국천왕 (故國川王), 국양왕 (國襄王) Nammu 남무 (男武) 179–197
10 Sansang 산상왕 山上王 Jeong-u 정우 廷優, Wigung 위궁 位宮 197–227
11 Dongcheon 동천왕 東川王, 東襄王 Uwigeo 우위거 憂位居, Gyoche 교체 郊彘 227–248
12 Jungcheon 중천왕 中川王, 中襄王 Yeonbul 연불 然弗 248–270
13 Seocheon 서천왕 西川王, 西襄王 Yangno 약로 藥盧, Yagu 약우 若友 270–292
14 Bongsang 봉상왕 烽上太王, 鴙葛王 Sangbu 상부 相夫, Sapsiru 삽시루 插矢婁 292–300
15 Micheon 미천왕 美川太王, 好攘王 Eulbul 을불 乙弗, Ubul 우불 憂拂 300–331
16 Gogugwon 고국원왕 故國原王 Sayu 사유 斯由, Yu 유 劉, Soe 쇠 釗 331–371
17 Sosurim 소수림왕 小獸林王 Gubu 구부 丘夫 371–384
18 Gogugyang 고국양왕 故國攘王 Yiryeon 이련 伊連, Eojiji 어지지 於只支 384–391
19 Gwanggaeto the Great 광개토왕 廣開土王 Damdeok 담덕 談德, An 안 安 391–413
Pyongyang line
20 Jangsu 장수왕 長壽王 Georyeon 거련 巨連, Goryeon 고련 高璉 413–491
21 Munjamyeong 문자명왕 文咨明王 Na-un 나운 羅雲, Go-un 고운 高雲 491–519
22 Anjang 안장왕 安藏王 Heung-an 흥안 興安, Go-an 고안 高安 519–531
23 Anwon 안원왕 安原王 Bojeong 보정 寶廷, Gojeong 고정 高廷 531–545
24 Yangwon 양원왕 陽原王, 陽崗王 Pyeongseong 평성 平成 545–559
25 Pyeongwon 평원왕 平原王 Yangseong 양성 陽成, Tang 탕 湯, Goyang 고양 高陽 559–590
26 Yeongyang 영양왕 嬰陽王, 평양왕 平陽王 Go Won 고원 高元, Daewon 대원 大元 590–618
27 Yeongnyu 영류왕 榮留王 Go Geonmu 고건무 高建武, Seong 성 成, Gomu 고무 高武 618–642
28 Bojang 보장왕 寶藏王 Go Jang 고장 高藏, Bojang 보장 寶藏 642–668

Notes: [1] Some of Goguryeo's own records of individual kings, especially of the 19th (Gwanggaeto), use the title "Taewang" or "Hotaewang", roughly meaning Greatest King or Very Greatest King. Some argue that the title should be translated as "Emperor," equivalent of the Chinese title 皇帝, but this is not widely accepted. The most complete and oldest existing Korean history text, the Samguk Sagi and the Samguk Yusa, written centuries after Goguryeo was defeated, uses the title "Wang", meaning King.

[2] The king names generally derive from the location of the king's burial, and do not necessarily correspond to the Chinese concept of 諡號.

[3] Goguryeo kings had the surname Go, except for the second (Yuri) through fifth (Mobon), whose surnames are recorded as Hae. All of the kings are recorded to belong to the same patrilineal bloodline. It is not clear whether the two surnames are different transcription of the same name, or evidence of a power struggle.

[4] The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, and sometimes other records mention "other names," "birth names," "childhood names," or "personal names."

[5] The Jolbon line names and dates are from the Samguk Sagi. The Wei shu (History of the Wei dynasty) gives the following names: 朱蒙 Jumong, 閭達 Yeodal, 始閭諧 Shiryeohae, 如栗 Yeoyul, and 莫來 Mangnae. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early 5th century when king Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contact with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Chumo, 儒留 Yuryu, and 大朱留 Daejuryu. The connections between those names are not clear.

Sources: The Academy of Korean Studies,[3] Korea Britannica Corp.[4] and the Doosan Encyclopedia.[5]

Baekje[edit]

Baekje (18 BC – AD 660) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Temple names were the same as personal names, unless noted otherwise.

# Temple name Hangul Hanja Period of reign Personal name Relationship Note
1 Onjo 온조왕 溫祚王 18 BCE – 28 CE founder son of Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo
2 Daru 다루왕 多婁王 28–77 first son of Onjo
3 Giru 기루왕 己婁王 77–128 first son of Daru
4 Gaeru 개루왕 蓋婁王 128–166 son of Giru
5 Chogo 초고왕 肖古王 166–214 son of Gaeru also Sogo (소고왕, 素古王)
6 Gusu 구수왕 仇首王 214–234 first son of Chogo also Guisu (귀수왕, 貴須王)
7 Saban 사반왕 沙泮王 234 first son of Gusu also Sai (사이왕, 沙伊王)
8 Goi 고이왕 古爾王 234–286 second son of Gaeru also Gui (구이군, 久爾君)
9 Chaekgye 책계왕 責稽王 286–298 son of Goi also Cheonggye (청계왕, 靑稽王)
10 Bunseo 분서왕 汾西王 298–304 first son of Chaekgye
11 Biryu 비류왕 比流王 304–344 second son of Gusu
12 Gye 계왕 契王 344–346 first son of Bunseo
13 Geunchogo 근초고왕 近肖古王 346–375 Yeogu second son of Biryu also Chogo (초고왕, 肖古王) or Sokgo (속고왕, 速古王)
14 Geun-gusu 근구수왕 近仇首王 375–384 son of Geunchogo also Guisu (귀수왕, 貴首王)
15 Chimnyu 침류왕 枕流王 384–385 first son of Geungusu
16 Jinsa 진사왕 辰斯王 385–392 younger brother of Chimnyu also Buyeohui (부여휘, 扶餘暉)
17 Asin 아신왕 阿莘王 392–405 nephew of Jinsa; first son of Chimnyu also Aha (아화왕, 阿華王)
18 Jeonji 전지왕 腆支王 405–420 first son of Asin also Jikji (직지왕, 直支王) or Jinji (진지왕, 眞支王)
19 Gu-isin 구이신왕 久爾辛王 420–427 first son of Jeonji
20 Biyu 비유왕 毗有王 427–455 first son of Guisin also Yeobi (여비, 餘毗)
21 Gaero 개로왕 蓋鹵王 455–475 Gyeongsa (경사, 慶司) or Gyeong (경, 慶) first son of Biyu also Yeogyeong (여경, 餘慶)
22 Munju 문주왕 文周王 475–477 Modo (모도, 牟都) or Do (도, 都) son of Gaero
23 Samgeun 삼근왕 三斤王 477–479 Samgeun (삼근, 三斤), Imgeol (임걸, 壬乞) or Samgeol (삼걸, 三乞) first son of Munju also Mun-geun (문근왕, 文斤王)
24 Dongseong 동성왕 東城王 479–501 Modae (모대, 牟大) or Mamo (마모, 摩牟) cousin of Samgeum
25 Muryeong 무령왕 武寧王 501–523 Sama (사마, 斯麻 or 斯摩) or Yung (융, 隆) second son of Dongseong also Sama (사마왕, 斯麻王), Do (도왕, 嶋王), or Horyeong (호령왕, 虎寧王)
26 Seong 성왕 聖王 523–554 Myeong (명, 明) son of Muryeong also Myeong (명왕, 明王) or Seongmyeong (성명왕, 聖明王)
27 Wideok 위덕왕 威德王 554–598 Chang (창, 昌) first son of Seong also Chang (창왕, 昌王)
28 Hye 혜왕 惠王 598–599 Gye (계, 季) younger brother of Wideok also Heon (헌왕, 獻王)
29 Beop 법왕 法王 599–600 Seon (선, 宣) or Hyosun (효순, 孝順) first son of Hye
30 Mu 무왕 武王 600–641 personal name Jang (장, 璋) or Seodong (서동, 薯童) youngest son of Wideok also Mugang (무강왕, 武康王) or Mugwang (무광왕,武廣王)
31 Uija 의자왕 義慈王 641–660 first son of Mu

*Source: [1]

Silla[edit]

Silla (57 BC – 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the early years, Silla was ruled by the Pak, Seok, and Kim families. Rulers of Silla had various titles, including Isageum, Maripgan, and Daewang. Like some Baekje kings, some declared themselves emperor.

  1. Hyeokgeose Geoseogan 혁거세 거서간 朴赫居世居西干 (57 BCE – 4 CE)
  2. Namhae Chachaung 남해 차차웅 南解次次雄 (4–24)
  3. Yuri Yisageum (24–57) 유리이사금 儒理尼師今 (Kings Yuri to Heurhae bore the Korean title Isageum, an old word for "ruler")
  4. Talhae Isageum 탈해이사금 脫解尼師今 (57–80)
  5. Pasa Isageum 파사이사금 婆娑尼師今 (80–112)
  6. Jima Isageum 지마이사금 祗摩尼師今 (112–134)
  7. Ilseong Isageum 일성이사금 逸聖尼師今 (134–154)
  8. Adalla Isageum 아달라이사금 阿達羅尼師今 (154–184)
  9. Beolhyu Isageum 벌휴이사금 伐休尼師今 (184–196)
  10. Naehae Isageum 내해이사금 奈解尼師今 (196–230)
  11. Jobun Isageum 조분이사금 助賁尼師今 (230–247)
  12. Cheomhae Isageum 첨해이사금 沾解尼師今 (247–261)
  13. Michu Isageum 미추이사금 味鄒尼師今 (262–284)
  14. Yurye Isageum 유례이사금 儒禮尼師今 (284–298)
  15. Girim Isageum 기림이사금 基臨尼師今 (298–310)
  16. Heulhae Isageum 흘해이사금 訖解尼師今 (310–356)
  17. Naemul Maripgan 내물마립간 奈勿麻立干 (356–402) (Kings Naemul to Soji bore the Korean title Maripgan, an old word for "ruler")
  18. Silseong Maripgan 실성마립간 實聖麻立干 (402–417)
  19. Nulji Maripgan 눌지마립간 訥祗麻立干 (417–458)
  20. Jabi Maripgan 자비마립간 慈悲麻立干 (458–479)
  21. Soji Maripgan 소지마립간 炤智麻立干 (479–500)
  22. King Jijeung 지증왕 智證王 (500–514) (Kings Jijeung to Gyeongsun bore the title Wang (the modern Korean word for "king"), with the exceptions noted below)
  23. King Beopheung 법흥왕 法興王 (514–540)
  24. King Jinheung 진흥왕 眞興王 (540–576)
  25. King Jinji 진지왕 眞智王 (576–579)
  26. King Jinpyeong 진평왕 眞平王 (579–632)
  27. Queen Seondeok 선덕왕 善德王 (632–647)
  28. Queen Jindeok 진덕왕 眞德王 (647–654)
  29. King Taejong Muyeol 태종무열왕 太宗武烈王 (654–661)

Unified Silla[edit]

  1. King Munmu 문무왕 文武王 (661–681)
  2. King Sinmun 신문왕 神文王 (681–692)
  3. King Hyoso 효소왕 孝昭王 (692–702)
  4. King Seongdeok 성덕왕 聖德王 (702–737)
  5. King Hyoseong 효성왕 孝成王 (737–742)
  6. King Gyeongdeok 경덕왕 景德王 (742–765)
  7. King Hyegong 혜공왕 惠恭王 (765–780)
  8. King Seondeok 선덕왕 宣德王 (780–785)
  9. King Wonseong 원성왕 元聖王 (785–798)
  10. King Soseong 소성왕 昭聖王 (798–800)
  11. King Aejang 애장왕 哀莊王 (800–809)
  12. King Heondeok 헌덕왕 憲德王 (809–826)
  13. King Heungdeok 흥덕왕 興德王 (826–836)
  14. King Huigang 희강왕 僖康王 (836–838)
  15. King Minae 민애왕 閔哀王 (838–839)
  16. King Sinmu 신무왕 神武王 (839)
  17. King Munseong 문성왕 文聖王 (839–857)
  18. King Heonan 헌안왕 憲安王 (857–861)
  19. King Gyeongmun 경문왕 景文王 (861–875)
  20. King Heongang 헌강왕 憲康王 (875–886)
  21. King Jeonggang 정강왕 定康王 (886–887)
  22. Queen Jinseong 진성왕 眞聖王 (887–897)
  23. King Hyogong 효공왕 孝恭王 (897–912)
  24. King Sindeok 신덕왕 神德王 (912–917)
  25. King Gyeongmyeong 경명왕 景明王 (917–924)
  26. King Gyeongae 경애왕 景哀王 (924–927)
  27. King Gyeongsun 경순왕 敬順王 (927–935)

Gaya confederacy[edit]

The Gaya confederacy (42–562) consisted of several small statelets. All rulers of Gaya bore the title Wang ("King").

Geumgwan Gaya[edit]

Geumgwan Gaya (42–532) was one of the Gaya confederacy.

# Temple Name Period of reign[6]
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Suro of Geumgwan Gaya 수로왕
首露王
42–199
2 Geodeung of Geumgwan Gaya 거등왕
居登王
199–259
3 Mapum of Geumgwan Gaya 마품왕
麻品王
259–291
4 Geojilmi of Geumgwan Gaya 거질미왕
居叱彌王
291–346
5 Isipum of Geumgwan Gaya 이시품왕
伊尸品王
346–407
6 Jwaji of Geumgwan Gaya 좌지왕
坐知王
407–421
7 Chwihui of Geumgwan Gaya 취희왕
吹希王
421–451
8 Jilji of Geumgwan Gaya 질지왕
銍知王
451–492
9 Gyeomji of Geumgwan Gaya 겸지왕
鉗知王
492–521
10 Guhyeong of Geumgwan Gaya 구형왕
仇衡王
521–532

Daegaya[edit]

Daegaya (42–562) was one of the Gaya confederacy.

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Ijinasi of Daegaya 이진아시왕
伊珍阿豉王
42 CE–?
···
···
···
···
3 or 4 Geumnim of Daegaya 금림왕
錦林王
?–?
···
···
···
···
Unknown Haji of Daegaya 하지왕
荷知王
?–?
···
···
···
···
6 or 7 Gasil of Daegaya 가실왕
嘉悉王 or 嘉實王
?–?
···
···
···
···
9 Inoe of Daegaya 이뇌왕
異腦王
?–?
10 or 16 Crown Prince Wolgwang
or
Doseolji of Daegaya
월광태자 (月光太子)
or
도설지왕 (道設智王)
?–562

Balhae[edit]

Balhae 渤海 (698–926) was an ancient Manchurian kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. Balhae (chinese: Bohai 渤海) which is often included in Korean history by Korean historians. Balhae occupied southern parts of Northeast China and Primorsky Krai, and the northern part of the Korean peninsula.

# Personal name Period of reign Era name (年號) Posthumous name (諡號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Dae Jo-yeong 대조영
大祚榮
698–719 None None Go 고왕
高王
2 Dae Muye 대무예
大武藝
719–737 Inan 인안
仁安
Mu 무왕
武王
3 Dae Heummu 대흠무
大欽茂
737–793 Daeheung
Boryeok
대흥 (大興)
보력 (寶曆)
Mun 문왕
文王
4 Dae Won-ui 대원의
大元義
793 None None None None
5 Dae Hwa-yeo 대화여
大華與
793-794 Jungheung 중흥
中興
Seong 성왕
成王
6 Dae Sung-rin 대숭린
大嵩璘
794–809 Jeongryeok 정력
正曆
Gang 강왕
康王
7 Dae Won-yu 대원유
大元瑜
809–812 Yeongdeok 영덕
永德
Jeong 정왕
定王
8 Dae Eon-ui 대언의
大言義
812–817? Jujak 주작
朱雀
Hui 희왕
僖王
9 Dae Myeongchung 대명충
大明忠
817?–818? Taesi 태시
太始
Gan 간왕
簡王
10 Dae Insu 대인수
大仁秀
818?–830 Geonheung 건흥
建興
Seon 선왕
宣王
11 Dae Ijin 대이진
大彝震
830–857 Hamhwa 함화
咸和
Unknown Unknown
12 Dae Geonhwang 대건황
大虔晃
857–871 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
13 Dae Hyeonseok 대현석
大玄錫
871–895 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
14 Dae Wihae 대위해
大瑋瑎
895–906 None None None None
15 Dae Inseon 대인선
大諲譔
906–926 Unknown Unknown None None

Later Baekje[edit]

Hubaekje (900–936) was founded by Gyeon Hwon, who was a general during Later Silla's period of decline. Thus began the Later Three Kingdoms period. Hubaekje met its downfall at the hands of Gyeon Hwon himself, who later led the Goryeo armies alongside Taejo of Goryeo to capture Singeom, the prince of Hubaekje, who had betrayed Gyeon Hwon.

# Personal name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gyeon Hwon 견훤
甄萱
900–935
2 Singeom 신검
神劍
935–936

Later Goguryeo[edit]

Later Goguryeo (901–918), also known as Ma-jin or Taebong, was established by Gung-ye, an outcast prince of Silla. Gung-Ye joined General Yang-Gil's rebellion, and rose through the ranks. He eventually assassinated Yang-Gil and established a new kingdom, naming it Later Goguryeo. Gung-Ye turned out to be a tyrant, and was overthrown by his generals, opening the way for General Wang Geon, who established Goryeo.

# Personal name Period of reign Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gung-ye 궁예
弓裔
901–918 Mutae
Seongchaek
Sudeok-Manse
Jeong-gae
무태 (武泰)
성책 (聖冊)
수덕만세 (水德萬歲)
정개 (政開)

Goryeo[edit]

Goryeo (918–1392) was ruled by the Wang Dynasty. The first ruler had the temple name Taejo, which means "great progenitor", and was applied to the first kings of both Goryeo and Joseon, as they were also the founders of the Wang and Yi Dynasties respectively. Starting with Gwangjong, rulers of Goryeo styled themselves emperors, with the first three rulers elevated to that title posthumously. With the Mongol conquest, however, the title of the ruler was demoted to a king, or "Wang."

The next twenty-three kings (until Wonjong) are also referred to by their temple names, ending in jong. Beginning with Chungnyeol (the twenty-fifth king), all the remaining kings of Goryeo had the title Wang ("King") as part of their temple names. Era names are in bracket where available.

# Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C)/
Mongol name (M) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P)
Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Wang Geon 왕건
王建
918–943 Yakcheon (C) 약천
若天 (C)
Taejo 태조
太祖 (T)
Cheonsu 천수
天授
2 Wang Mu 왕무
王武
943–945 Sunggeon (C) 승건
承乾 (C)
Hyejong 혜종
惠宗 (T)
3 Wang Yo 왕요
王堯
945–949 Cheon-ui (C) 천의 (C) Jeongjong 정종
定宗 (T)
4 Wang So 왕소
王昭
949–975 Ilhwa (C) 일화
日華 (C)
Gwangjong 광종
光宗 (T)
Gwangdeok
Junpung
광덕 (光德)
준풍 (峻豊)
5 Wang Yu 왕유
王伷
975–981 Jangmin (C) 장민
長民 (C)
Gyeongjong 경종
景宗 (T)
6 Wang Chi 왕치
王治
981–997 On-go (C) 온고
溫古 (C)
Seongjong 성종
成宗 (T)
7 Wang Song 왕송
王誦
997–1009 Hyosin (C) 효신
孝伸 (C)
Mokjong 목종
穆宗 (T)
8 Wang Sun 왕순
王詢
1009–1031 Anse (C) 안세
安世 (C)
Hyeonjong 현종
顯宗 (T)
9 Wang Heum 왕흠
王欽
1031–1034 Wonryang (C) 원량
元良 (C)
Deokjong 덕종
德宗 (T)
10 Wang Hyeong 왕형
王亨
1034–1046 Sinjo (C) 신조
申照 (C)
Jeongjong 정종
靖宗 (T)
11 Wang Hwi 왕휘
王徽
1046–1083 Chok-yu (C) 촉유
燭幽 (C)
Munjong 문종
文宗 (T)
12 Wang Hun 왕훈
王勳
1083 Uigong (C) 의공
義恭 (C)
Sunjong 순종
順宗 (T)
13 Wang Un 왕운
王運
1083–1094 Gyecheon (C) 계천
繼天 (C)
Seonjong 선종
宣宗 (T)
14 Wang Uk 왕욱
王昱
1094–1095 Heonjong 헌종
獻宗 (T)
15 Wang Hui 왕희
王熙
1095–1105 Cheonsang (C) 천상
天常 (C)
Sukjong 숙종
肅宗 (T)
16 Wang U 왕우
王俁
1105–1122 Semin (C) 세민
世民 (C)
Yejong 예종
睿宗 (T)
17 Wang Hae 왕해
王楷
1122–1146 Inpyo (C) 인표
仁表 (C)
Injong 인종
仁宗 (T)
18 Wang Hyeon 왕현
王晛
1146–1170 Ilsung (C) 일승
日升 (C)
Uijong 의종
毅宗 (T)
19 Wang Ho 왕호
王皓
1170–1197 Jidan (C) 지단
之旦 (C)
Myeongjong 명종
明宗 (T)
20 Wang Tak 왕탁
王晫
1197–1204 Jihwa (C) 지화
至華 (C)
Sinjong 신종
神宗 (T)
21 Wang Yeong 왕영
王韺
1204–1211 Bulpi (C) 불피
不陂 (C)
Huijong 희종
熙宗 (T)
22 Wang O 왕오/왕숙/왕정
王晶/王璹/王貞
1211–1213 Daehwa (C) 대화
大華 (C)
Gangjong 강종
康宗 (T)
23 Wang Cheol 왕철
王澈
1213–1259 Cheon-u (C) 천우
天祐 (C)
Gojong 고종
高宗 (T)
24 Wang Sik 왕식
王倎
1259–1274 Ilsin (C) 일신
日新 (C)
Wonjong 원종
元宗 (T)
25 Wang Geo 왕거
王椹
1274–1308 Chungryeol 충렬왕
忠烈王 (P)
26 Wang Jang 왕장
王璋
1308–1313 Jungang (C) 중앙
仲昻 (C)
Chungseon 충선왕
忠宣王 (P)
27 Wang Man 왕만
王燾
1313–1330
1332–1339
Uihyo (C) 의효 (C) Chungsuk 충숙왕
忠肅王 (P)
28 Wang Jeong 왕정
王禎
1330–1332
1339–1344
Botapsilli (M) 보탑실리
普塔失里 (M)
Chunghye 충혜왕
忠惠王 (P)
29 Wang Heun 왕흔
王昕
1344–1348 Palsamataaji (M) 팔사마타아지
八思麻朶兒只 (M)
Chungmok 충목왕
忠穆王 (P)
30 Wang Jeo 왕저
王蚳
1348–1351 Misagamtaaji (M) 미사감타아지
迷思監朶兒只 (M)
Chungjeong 충정왕
忠靖王 (P)
31 Wang Jeon 왕전
王祺
1351–1374 Bayantemureu (M)
Ijae / Ikdang (Ps)
바얀테무르
伯顔帖木兒 (M)
이재 / 익당 (Ps)
Gongmin 공민왕
恭愍王 (P)
32 Wang U 왕우
王禑
1374–1388 U 우왕
禑王 (P)
33 Wang Chang 왕창
王昌
1388–1389 Chang 창왕
昌王 (P)
34 Wang Yo 왕요
王瑤
1389–1392 Gongyang 공양왕
恭讓王 (P)

Joseon[edit]

Joseon (1392–1897) followed Goryeo. In 1897, when Joseon became the Korean Empire, some of the Joseon kings were posthumously raised to the rank of emperors.

Joseon monarchs had temple names ending in jo or jong. Jo was given to the first kings/emperors of new lines within the dynasty, with the first king/emperor having the special name (Taejo), which means "great progenitor" (see also Goryeo). Jong was given to all other kings/emperors.

Two kings, Yeonsangun and Gwanghaegun, were not given temple names after their reigns ended.

Each monarch had a posthumous name that included either the title Wang ("King"), Hwangje ("Emperor"), Daewang ("King X the Great"), or Daeje ("Emperor X the Great"). For the sake of consistency, the title "King/Emperor" has been added to each monarch's temple name in the list below.

# Portrait Personal name Period of reign Korean era name Temple name (廟號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 King Taejo Yi 02.jpg Yi Seong-gye 이성계/이단
李成桂/李旦
1392–1398 Taejo 태조
太祖 (T)
2 Yi Bang-gwa 이방과
李芳果
1398–1400 Jeongjong 정종
定宗 (T)
3 Yi Bang-won 이방원
李芳遠
1400–1418 Taejong 태종
太宗(T)
4 Statue Sejong le Grand.jpg Yi Do 이도
李祹
1418–1450 Sejong the Great 세종
世宗(T)
5 Yi Hyang 이향
李珦
1450–1452 Munjong 문종
文宗 (T)
6 Yi Hong-wi 이홍위
李弘緯
1452–1455 Danjong 단종
端宗 (T)
7 Yi Yu 이유
李瑈
1455–1468 Sejo 세조
世祖 (T)
8 Yi Gwang 이광
李晄
1468–1469 Yejong 예종
睿宗 (T)
9 Yi Hyeol 이혈
李娎
1469–1494 Seongjong 성종
成宗(T)
10 Yi Yung 이융
李隆
1494–1506 Yeonsangun 연산군
燕山君
11 Yi Yeok 이역
李懌
1506–1544 Jungjong 중종
中宗 (T)
12 Yi Ho 이호
李峼
1544–1545 Injong 인종
仁宗 (T)
13 Yi Hwan 이환
李峘
1545–1567 Myeongjong 명종
明宗 (T)
14 Yi Yeon 이연
李蚣
1567–1608 Seonjo 선조
宣祖 (T)
15 Yi Hon 이혼
李琿
1608–1623 Gwanghaegun 광해군
光海君
16 Yi Jong 이종
李倧
1623–1649 Injo 인조
仁祖 (T)
17 Yi Ho 이호
李淏
1649–1659 Hyojong 효종
孝宗(T)
18 Yi Yeon 이연
李棩
1659–1674 Hyeonjong 현종
顯宗 (T)
19 Yi Sun 이순
李焞
1674–1720 Sukjong 숙종
肅宗 (T)
20 Yi Yun 이윤
李昀
1720–1724 Gyeongjong 경종
景宗 (T)
21 Korea-Yeongjo-King of Joseon-c1.jpg Yi Geum 이금
李昑
1724–1776 Yeongjo 영조
英祖 (T)
22 King JeongJo of Joseon.jpg Yi San 이산
李祘
1776–1800 Jeongjo 정조
正祖 (T)
23 Yi Gong 이공
李蚣
1800–1834 Sunjo 순조
純祖 (T)
24 Yi Hwan 이환
李奐
1834–1849 Heonjong 헌종
憲宗 (T)
25 Yi Byeon 이변
李昪
1849–1863 Cheoljong 철종
哲宗 (T)
26 Gojong of the Korean Empire 01.jpg Yi Myeong-bok 이명복
李命福
1863–1897 (1897–1907)* Gaeguk
Geonyang
Gwangmu
개국 (開國)
건양 (建陽)
광무 (光武)
Gojong* 고종
高宗 (T)
27 Sunjong of the Korean Empire.jpg Yi Cheok 이척
李拓
(1907–1910)* Yunghui 융희 (隆熙) Sunjong* 순종
純宗 (T)

* see Korean Empire section

Korean Empire[edit]

In 1897, Joseon Dynasty became Korean Empire, which lasted until 1910. Technically, the emperors should be referred to by their era names rather than their temple names, but the latter are commonly used.

# Portrait Personal name Period of reign Korean era name Temple name (廟號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gojong of the Korean Empire 01.jpg Yi Myeong bok 이명복
李命福
1897–1907 Gwangmu 광무
光武
Gojong 고종
高宗 (T)
2 Sunjong of the Korean Empire.jpg Yi Cheok 이척
李拓
1907–1910 Yunghui 융희
隆熙
Sunjong 순종
純宗 (T)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cumings (1997, p. 25) only indicates that Gojoseon was among the small peninsular states which emerged "by the fourth century BC." Lee (1984, p. 13) also only mentions Gojoseon as having emerged in the Liao and Taedong valleys by the 4th century. Some, like Kim (1997) do regard "Dangun Joseon" as having possibly existed during the Neolithic period, i.e. before the 13th century BCE; however, by the same token they reject the possibility that Gojoseon can be regarded as a "state" or even "tribal confederation" in the modern sense. Professor Yoon says that the Gojoseon had become an ancient nation at 2333 BCE(Yoon, 2002), which is most recent research
  2. ^ 백산 학회, 고조선 부여사 연구
  3. ^ http://kdaq.empas.com/koreandb/history/koreanking/html/person/koguryeo_king.html (The Academy of Korean Studies)[dead link]
  4. ^ http://enc.daum.net/dic100//topView.do (Korea Britannica Corp.)
  5. ^ "고구려" (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2013-10-07. 
  6. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Epilogue, page 354. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1-59654-348-5 - note: the dates for Geojilmi's reign go there until 344

References[edit]

  • Yoon, N.-H.(윤내현), The Location and Transfer of GO-CHOSUN's Capital(고조선의 도읍 위치와 그 이동), 단군학연구, 7, 207 - 238 (2002)
  • Byeon Tae-seop (변태섭) (1999). 韓國史通論 (Hanguksa tongnon) (Outline of Korean history), 4th ed. ISBN 89-445-9101-6. 
  • Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5. 
  • Kim, Jung Bae (1997). "Formation of the ethnic Korean nation and the emergence of its ancient kingdom states". Korean history: Discovery of its characteristics and developments. Seoul: Hollym. pp. 27–36. ISBN 1-56591-177-6. 
  • Nahm, Andrew C. (1988). Korea: Tradition and Transformation — A History of the Korean People. Hollym International. ISBN 0-930878-56-6. 
  • http://www.rootsinfo.co.kr/index_sub02.html (in Korean only)
  • http://www.rulers.org