List of monarchs of Korea

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Monarchs of Korea
Sunjong of the Korean Empire.jpg
Sunjong, the last Emperor of Korea
Details
First monarch Dangun (legendary)
Last monarch Sunjong
Formation 2333 BC (disputed)
Abolition August 29, 1910
Residence Changdeokgung
Pretender(s) Disputed
Yi Won
Lee Haewon

The Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall.

This list includes the monarchs' Romanized posthumous or temple names and reign dates. Names are romanized according to the South Korean Revised Romanization of Korean. McCune-Reischauer romanizations may be found at the articles about the individual monarchs.

Gojoseon[edit]

Gojoseon (c. 2333 ? – 108 BCE) was the first Korean kingdom. It is said to have been founded by Dangun in 2333 BCE, although the foundation year is disputed among historians.[1]

Bronze age archaeological evidence of Gojoseon culture is found in northern Korea and Liaoning. By the 9th to 4th century BCE, various historical and archaeological evidence shows Gojoseon was a flourishing state and a self-declared kingdom.

Dangun Joseon[edit]

# Portrait Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Portrait of Dangun.jpg Dangun Wanggeom 단군왕검
檀君王儉
?–? BCE

Gija Joseon[edit]

# Portrait Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gija 기자
箕子
1122?–1082? BCE
···
···
···
···
? King Jun 준왕
準王
?–194 BCE

Wiman Joseon[edit]

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Wi Man 위만 衛滿 194–? BCE
2 Unknown (Son of Wi Man) Unknown ?–?
3 King Ugeo 우거왕
右渠王
?–108 BCE

Buyeo[edit]

Buyeo (c. 2nd century BC – 494 CE) ruled in modern-day Northeast China. Although records are sparse and contradictory, it is speculated that in the 1st century BCE, Dongbuyeo (Eastern Buyeo) branched out, after which the original Buyeo is sometimes referred to as Bukbuyeo (Northern Buyeo). Its remnants were absorbed by the neighboring and brotherhood kingdom of Goguryeo in 494.

Early Eastern Buyeo[edit]

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Hae Buru 해부루
解夫婁
?–? BCE
2 Geumwa 금와왕
金蛙王
?–? BCE
3 Daeso 대소왕
臺素王
? BCE – 22 CE

Galsa Buyeo

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Founder of Galsa 갈사왕
曷思王
21 CE–?
? Dodu 도두
都頭
?–68 CE

Later Northern Buyeo[edit]

Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
Wigutae 위구태왕
慰仇太王
?–?, 2nd century
Ganwigeo 간위거왕
簡位居王
?–?, 3rd century
Maryeo 마려왕
麻余王
?–?, 3rd century
···
···
···
Uiryeo 의려왕
依慮王
?–285 CE
Uira 의라왕
依羅王
286 CE–?
···
···
···
Hyeon 현왕
玄王
?–346 CE
Yeoul 여울왕
餘蔚王
?–384 CE
···
···
···
Jan
?–494 CE

Goguryeo[edit]

Goguryeo (37 BC – 668 AD) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo rulers may have used the title of Taewang (太王, "Greatest King"). [1]

# Personal names[2][3] Period of reign Posthumous name [4]
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Jumong
Chumo
Sanghae
주몽 (朱蒙)
추모 (鄒牟)
상해 (象解)
37–19 BCE Dongmyeong 동명성왕 (東明聖王)
동명왕 (東明王) [5]
2 Yuri
Yuryu
Nuri
유리 (琉璃, 類利)
유류 (孺留)
누리 (累利)
19 BCE – 18 CE Yuri 유리왕 (琉璃王)
유리명왕 (琉璃明王) [5]
3 Muhyul 무휼 (無恤) 18–44 Daemusin 대무신왕 (大武神王)
대해주류왕 (大解朱留王)
4 Saekju 색주 (色朱) 44–48 Minjung 민중왕 (閔中王)
5 U
Aeru
Mangnae
우 (憂)
애루 (愛婁)
막래 (莫來)
48–53 Mobon 모본왕 慕本王
6 Gung
Eosu
궁 (宮)
어수 (於漱)
53–146 Taejo 태조[대]왕 (太祖[大]王)
국조왕 (國祖王)
7 Suseong 수성 (遂成) 146–165 Chadae 차대왕 (次大王)
8 Baekgo
Baekgu
백고 (伯固)
백구 (伯句)
165–179 Sindae 신대왕 (新大王)
9 Nam-mu 남무 (男武) 179–197 Gogukcheon 고국천왕 (故國川王)
국양왕 (國襄王)
10 Jeong-u
Wigung
정우 (廷優)
위궁 (位宮)
197–227 Sansang 산상왕 (山上王)
11 Uwigeo
Gyoche
우위거 (憂位居)
교체 (郊彘)
227–248 Dongcheon 동천왕 (東川王)
동양왕 (東襄王)
12 Yeonbul 연불 (然弗) 248–270 Jungcheon 중천왕 (中川王)
중양왕 (中襄王)
13 Yangno
Yagu
약로 (藥盧)
약우 (若友)
270–292 Seocheon 서천왕 (西川王)
서양왕 (西襄王)
14 Sangbu
Sapsiru
상부 (相夫)
삽시루 (插矢婁)
292–300 Bongsang 봉상왕 (烽上王)
치갈왕 (雉葛王)
15 Eulbul
Ubul
을불 (乙弗)
우불 (憂拂)
300–331 Micheon 미천왕 (美川王)
호양왕 (好攘王)
16 Sayu
Yu
Soe
사유 (斯由)
유 (劉)
쇠 (釗)
331–371 Gogugwon 고국원왕 (故國原王)
17 Gubu 구부 (丘夫) 371–384 Sosurim 소수림왕 (小獸林王)
18 Yiryeon
Eojiji
이련 (伊連)
어지지 (於只支)
384–391 Gogugyang 고국양왕 (故國攘王)
19 Damdeok
An
담덕 (談德)
안 (安)
391–413 Gwanggaeto the Great 광개토왕 (廣開土王)
20 Georyeon
Yeon
거련 (巨連)
연 (璉)
413–491 Jangsu 장수왕 (長壽王)
21 Na-un
Un
나운 (羅雲)
운 (雲)
491–519 Munjamyeong 문자명왕 (文咨明王)
22 Heung-an
An
흥안 (興安)
안 (安)
519–531 Anjang 안장왕 (安藏王)
23 Bojeong
Jeong
보정 (寶廷)
정 (廷)
531–545 Anwon 안원왕 (安原王)
24 Pyeongseong 평성 (平成) 545–559 Yangwon 양원왕 (陽原王)
양강왕 (陽崗王)
25 Yangseong
Yang
Tang
양성 (陽成)
양 (陽)
탕 (湯)
559–590 Pyeongwon 평원왕 (平原王)
평강왕(平岡王)
26 Daewon
Won
대원 (大元)
원 (元)
590–618 Yeongyang 영양왕 (嬰陽王)
평양왕 (平陽王)
27 Geonmu
Mu
Seong
건무 (建武)
무 (武)
성 (成)
618–642 Yeongnyu 영류왕 (榮留王)
28 Bojang
Jang
보장 (寶藏)
장 (藏)
642–668 Bojang 보장왕 (寶藏王)

Notes: [1] Some of Goguryeo's own records of individual kings, especially of the 19th (Gwanggaeto), use the title "Taewang" or "Hotaewang", roughly meaning Greatest King or Very Greatest King. Some argue that the title should be translated as "Emperor," equivalent of the Chinese title 皇帝, but this is not widely accepted. The most complete and oldest existing Korean history text, the Samguk Sagi and the Samguk Yusa, written centuries after Goguryeo was defeated, uses the title "Wang", meaning King.

[2] The king names generally derive from the location of the king's burial, and do not necessarily correspond to the Chinese concept of 諡號.

[3] Goguryeo kings had the surname Go, except for the second (Yuri) through fifth (Mobon), whose surnames are recorded as Hae. All of the kings are recorded to belong to the same patrilineal bloodline. It is not clear whether the two surnames are different transcription of the same name, or evidence of a power struggle.

[4] The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, and sometimes other records mention "other names," "birth names," "childhood names," or "personal names."

[5] The Jolbon line names and dates are from the Samguk Sagi. The Wei shu (History of the Wei dynasty) gives the following names: 朱蒙 Jumong, 閭達 Yeodal, 始閭諧 Shiryeohae, 如栗 Yeoyul, and 莫來 Mangnae. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early 5th century when king Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contact with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Chumo, 儒留 Yuryu, and 大朱留 Daejuryu. The connections between those names are not clear.

Sources: The Academy of Korean Studies,[6] Korea Britannica Corp.[7] and the Doosan Encyclopedia.[8]

Baekje[edit]

Baekje (18 BC – AD 660) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Temple names were the same as personal names, unless noted otherwise.

# Temple name Hangul Hanja Period of reign Personal name Relationship Note
1 Onjo 온조왕 溫祚王 18 BCE – 28 CE founder son of Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo
2 Daru 다루왕 多婁王 28–77 first son of Onjo
3 Giru 기루왕 己婁王 77–128 first son of Daru
4 Gaeru 개루왕 蓋婁王 128–166 son of Giru
5 Chogo 초고왕 肖古王 166–214 son of Gaeru also Sogo (소고왕, 素古王)
6 Gusu 구수왕 仇首王 214–234 first son of Chogo also Guisu (귀수왕, 貴須王)
7 Saban 사반왕 沙泮王 234 first son of Gusu also Sai (사이왕, 沙伊王)
8 Goi 고이왕 古爾王 234–286 second son of Gaeru also Gui (구이군, 久爾君)
9 Chaekgye 책계왕 責稽王 286–298 son of Goi also Cheonggye (청계왕, 靑稽王)
10 Bunseo 분서왕 汾西王 298–304 first son of Chaekgye
11 Biryu 비류왕 比流王 304–344 second son of Gusu
12 Gye 계왕 契王 344–346 first son of Bunseo
13 Geunchogo 근초고왕 近肖古王 346–375 Yeogu second son of Biryu also Chogo (초고왕, 肖古王) or Sokgo (속고왕, 速古王)
14 Geun-gusu 근구수왕 近仇首王 375–384 son of Geunchogo also Guisu (귀수왕, 貴首王)
15 Chimnyu 침류왕 枕流王 384–385 first son of Geungusu
16 Jinsa 진사왕 辰斯王 385–392 younger brother of Chimnyu also Buyeohui (부여휘, 扶餘暉)
17 Asin 아신왕 阿莘王 392–405 nephew of Jinsa; first son of Chimnyu also Aha (아화왕, 阿華王)
18 Jeonji 전지왕 腆支王 405–420 first son of Asin also Jikji (직지왕, 直支王) or Jinji (진지왕, 眞支王)
19 Gu-isin 구이신왕 久爾辛王 420–427 first son of Jeonji
20 Biyu 비유왕 毗有王 427–455 first son of Guisin also Yeobi (여비, 餘毗)
21 Gaero 개로왕 蓋鹵王 455–475 Gyeongsa (경사, 慶司) or Gyeong (경, 慶) first son of Biyu also Yeogyeong (여경, 餘慶)
22 Munju 문주왕 文周王 475–477 Modo (모도, 牟都) or Do (도, 都) son of Gaero
23 Samgeun 삼근왕 三斤王 477–479 Samgeun (삼근, 三斤), Imgeol (임걸, 壬乞) or Samgeol (삼걸, 三乞) first son of Munju also Mun-geun (문근왕, 文斤王)
24 Dongseong 동성왕 東城王 479–501 Modae (모대, 牟大) or Mamo (마모, 摩牟) cousin of Samgeun
25 Muryeong 무령왕 武寧王 501–523 Sama (사마, 斯麻 or 斯摩) or Yung (융, 隆) second son of Dongseong also Sama (사마왕, 斯麻王), Do (도왕, 嶋王), or Horyeong (호령왕, 虎寧王)
26 Seong 성왕 聖王 523–554 Myeong (명, 明) son of Muryeong also Myeong (명왕, 明王) or Seongmyeong (성명왕, 聖明王)
27 Wideok 위덕왕 威德王 554–598 Chang (창, 昌) first son of Seong also Chang (창왕, 昌王)
28 Hye 혜왕 惠王 598–599 Gye (계, 季) younger brother of Wideok also Heon (헌왕, 獻王)
29 Beop 법왕 法王 599–600 Seon (선, 宣) or Hyosun (효순, 孝順) first son of Hye
30 Mu 무왕 武王 600–641 personal name Jang (장, 璋) or Seodong (서동, 薯童) youngest son of Wideok also Mugang (무강왕, 武康王) or Mugwang (무광왕,武廣王)
31 Uija 의자왕 義慈王 641–660 first son of Mu

*Source: [1]

Silla[edit]

Silla (57 BC – 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the early years, Silla was ruled by the Pak, Seok, and Kim families. Rulers of Silla had various titles, including Isageum, Maripgan, and Daewang. Like some Baekje kings, some declared themselves emperor.

  1. Hyeokgeose Geoseogan 혁거세 거서간 朴赫居世居西干 (57 BCE – 4 CE)
  2. Namhae Chachaung 남해 차차웅 南解次次雄 (4–24)
  3. Yuri Yisageum (24–57) 유리이사금 儒理尼師今 (Kings Yuri to Heurhae bore the Korean title Isageum, an old word for "ruler")
  4. Talhae Isageum 탈해이사금 脫解尼師今 (57–80)
  5. Pasa Isageum 파사이사금 婆娑尼師今 (80–112)
  6. Jima Isageum 지마이사금 祗摩尼師今 (112–134)
  7. Ilseong Isageum 일성이사금 逸聖尼師今 (134–154)
  8. Adalla Isageum 아달라이사금 阿達羅尼師今 (154–184)
  9. Beolhyu Isageum 벌휴이사금 伐休尼師今 (184–196)
  10. Naehae Isageum 내해이사금 奈解尼師今 (196–230)
  11. Jobun Isageum 조분이사금 助賁尼師今 (230–247)
  12. Cheomhae Isageum 첨해이사금 沾解尼師今 (247–261)
  13. Michu Isageum 미추이사금 味鄒尼師今 (262–284)
  14. Yurye Isageum 유례이사금 儒禮尼師今 (284–298)
  15. Girim Isageum 기림이사금 基臨尼師今 (298–310)
  16. Heulhae Isageum 흘해이사금 訖解尼師今 (310–356)
  17. Naemul Maripgan 내물마립간 奈勿麻立干 (356–402) (Kings Naemul to Soji bore the Korean title Maripgan, an old word for "ruler")
  18. Silseong Maripgan 실성마립간 實聖麻立干 (402–417)
  19. Nulji Maripgan 눌지마립간 訥祗麻立干 (417–458)
  20. Jabi Maripgan 자비마립간 慈悲麻立干 (458–479)
  21. Soji Maripgan 소지마립간 炤智麻立干 (479–500)
  22. King Jijeung 지증왕 智證王 (500–514) (Kings Jijeung to Gyeongsun bore the title Wang (the modern Korean word for "king"), with the exceptions noted below)
  23. King Beopheung 법흥왕 法興王 (514–540)
  24. King Jinheung 진흥왕 眞興王 (540–576)
  25. King Jinji 진지왕 眞智王 (576–579)
  26. King Jinpyeong 진평왕 眞平王 (579–632)
  27. Queen Seondeok 선덕왕 善德王 (632–647)
  28. Queen Jindeok 진덕왕 眞德王 (647–654)
  29. King Taejong Muyeol 태종무열왕 太宗武烈王 (654–661)

Unified Silla[edit]

  1. King Munmu 문무왕 文武王 (661–681)
  2. King Sinmun 신문왕 神文王 (681–692)
  3. King Hyoso 효소왕 孝昭王 (692–702)
  4. King Seongdeok 성덕왕 聖德王 (702–737)
  5. King Hyoseong 효성왕 孝成王 (737–742)
  6. King Gyeongdeok 경덕왕 景德王 (742–765)
  7. King Hyegong 혜공왕 惠恭王 (765–780)
  8. King Seondeok 선덕왕 宣德王 (780–785)
  9. King Wonseong 원성왕 元聖王 (785–798)
  10. King Soseong 소성왕 昭聖王 (798–800)
  11. King Aejang 애장왕 哀莊王 (800–809)
  12. King Heondeok 헌덕왕 憲德王 (809–826)
  13. King Heungdeok 흥덕왕 興德王 (826–836)
  14. King Huigang 희강왕 僖康王 (836–838)
  15. King Minae 민애왕 閔哀王 (838–839)
  16. King Sinmu 신무왕 神武王 (839)
  17. King Munseong 문성왕 文聖王 (839–857)
  18. King Heonan 헌안왕 憲安王 (857–861)
  19. King Gyeongmun 경문왕 景文王 (861–875)
  20. King Heongang 헌강왕 憲康王 (875–886)
  21. King Jeonggang 정강왕 定康王 (886–887)
  22. Queen Jinseong 진성왕 眞聖王 (887–897)
  23. King Hyogong 효공왕 孝恭王 (897–912)
  24. King Sindeok 신덕왕 神德王 (912–917)
  25. King Gyeongmyeong 경명왕 景明王 (917–924)
  26. King Gyeongae 경애왕 景哀王 (924–927)
  27. King Gyeongsun 경순왕 敬順王 (927–935)

Gaya confederacy[edit]

The Gaya confederacy (42–562) consisted of several small statelets. All rulers of Gaya bore the title Wang ("King").

Geumgwan Gaya[edit]

Geumgwan Gaya (42–532) was one of the Gaya confederacy.

# Name Period of reign[9]
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Suro of Geumgwan Gaya 수로왕
首露王
42–199
2 Geodeung of Geumgwan Gaya 거등왕
居登王
199–259
3 Mapum of Geumgwan Gaya 마품왕
麻品王
259–291
4 Geojilmi of Geumgwan Gaya 거질미왕
居叱彌王
291–346
5 Isipum of Geumgwan Gaya 이시품왕
伊尸品王
346–407
6 Jwaji of Geumgwan Gaya 좌지왕
坐知王
407–421
7 Chwihui of Geumgwan Gaya 취희왕
吹希王
421–451
8 Jilji of Geumgwan Gaya 질지왕
銍知王
451–492
9 Gyeomji of Geumgwan Gaya 겸지왕
鉗知王
492–521
10 Guhyeong of Geumgwan Gaya 구형왕
仇衡王
521–532

Daegaya[edit]

Daegaya (42–562) was one of the Gaya confederacy.

# Name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Ijinasi of Daegaya 이진아시왕
伊珍阿豉王
42 CE–?
···
···
···
···
3 or 4 Geumnim of Daegaya 금림왕
錦林王
?–?
···
···
···
···
Unknown Haji of Daegaya 하지왕
荷知王
?–?
···
···
···
···
6 or 7 Gasil of Daegaya 가실왕
嘉悉王 or 嘉實王
?–?
···
···
···
···
9 Inoe of Daegaya 이뇌왕
異腦王
?–?
10 or 16 Crown Prince Wolgwang
or
Doseolji of Daegaya
월광태자 (月光太子)
or
도설지왕 (道設智王)
?–562

Balhae[edit]

Balhae 渤海 (698–926) was an ancient Manchurian kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. Balhae (Chinese: Bohai 渤海) which is often included in Korean history by Korean historians. Balhae occupied southern parts of Northeast China and Primorsky Krai, and the northern part of the Korean peninsula.

# Personal name Period of reign Posthumous name (諡號) Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Dae Jo-yeong 대조영
大祚榮
698–719 Go 고왕
高王
None None
2 Dae Muye 대무예
大武藝
719–737 Mu 무왕
武王
Inan 인안
仁安
3 Dae Heummu 대흠무
大欽茂
737–793 Mun 문왕
文王
Daeheung
Boryeok
대흥 大興
보력 寶曆
4 Dae Won-ui 대원의
大元義
793 None None None None
5 Dae Hwa-yeo 대화여
大華與
793-794 Seong 성왕
成王
Jungheung 중흥
中興
6 Dae Sung-rin 대숭린
大嵩璘
794–809 Gang 강왕
康王
Jeongryeok 정력
正曆
7 Dae Won-yu 대원유
大元瑜
809–812 Jeong 정왕
定王
Yeongdeok 영덕
永德
8 Dae Eon-ui 대언의
大言義
812–817? Hui 희왕
僖王
Jujak 주작
朱雀
9 Dae Myeongchung 대명충
大明忠
817?–818? Gan 간왕
簡王
Taesi 태시
太始
10 Dae Insu 대인수
大仁秀
818?–830 Seon 선왕
宣王
Geonheung 건흥
建興
11 Dae Ijin 대이진
大彝震
830–857 Unknown Unknown Hamhwa 함화
咸和
12 Dae Geonhwang 대건황
大虔晃
857–871 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
13 Dae Hyeonseok 대현석
大玄錫
871–895 Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
14 Dae Wihae 대위해
大瑋瑎
895–906 None None None None
15 Dae Inseon 대인선
大諲譔
906–926 Unknown Unknown None None

Later Baekje[edit]

Hubaekje (900–936) was founded by Gyeon Hwon, who was a general during Later Silla's period of decline. Thus began the Later Three Kingdoms period. Hubaekje met its downfall at the hands of Gyeon Hwon himself, who later led the Goryeo armies alongside Taejo of Goryeo to capture Singeom, the prince of Hubaekje, who had betrayed Gyeon Hwon.

# Personal name Period of reign
Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gyeon Hwon 견훤
甄萱
900–935
2 Gyeon Singeom 견신검
甄神劍
935–936

Later Goguryeo[edit]

Later Goguryeo (901–918), also known as Ma-jin or Taebong, was established by Gung-ye, an outcast prince of Silla. Gung-Ye joined General Yang-Gil's rebellion, and rose through the ranks. He eventually assassinated Yang-Gil and established a new kingdom, naming it Later Goguryeo. Gung-Ye turned out to be a tyrant, and was overthrown by his generals, opening the way for General Wang Geon, who established Goryeo.

# Personal name Period of reign Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gung-ye 궁예
弓裔
901–918 Mutae
Seongchaek
Sudeok-Manse
Jeong-gae
무태 (武泰)
성책 (聖冊)
수덕만세 (水德萬歲)
정개 (政開)

Goryeo dynasty[edit]

Goryeo (918–1392) was ruled by the Wang Dynasty. The first ruler had the temple name Taejo, which means "great progenitor", and was applied to the first kings of both Goryeo and Joseon, as they were also the founders of the Wang and Yi Dynasties respectively. Starting with Gwangjong, rulers of Goryeo styled themselves emperors, with the first three rulers elevated to that title posthumously. With the Mongol conquest, however, the title of the ruler was demoted to a king, or "Wang."

The next twenty-three kings (until Wonjong) are also referred to by their temple names, ending in jong. Beginning with Chungnyeol (the twenty-fifth king), all the remaining kings of Goryeo had the title Wang ("King") as part of their temple names. Era names are in bracket where available.

# Portrait Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C)/
Mongol name (M) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P) /
Posthumous name given by Mongols (MP)
Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Goryo Taejo Wangkun 2.jpg Wang Geon 왕건 (王建) 918–943 Yakcheon (C) 약천 (若天, C) Taejo (T)
Sinseong (P)
태조 (太祖, T)
신성 (神聖, P)
Cheonsu 천수 (天授)
2 Wang Mu 왕무 (王武) 943–945 Sunggeon (C) 승건 (承乾, C) Hyejong
Uigong (P)
혜종 (惠宗, T)
의공 (義恭, P)
3 Wang Yo 왕요 (王堯) 945–949 Uicheon (C) 의천 (義天, C) Jeongjong (T)
Munmyeong (P)
정종 (定宗, T)
문명 (文明, P)
4 Wang So 왕소 (王昭) 949–975 Ilhwa (C) 일화 (日華, C) Gwangjong (T)
Daesung (P)
광종 (光宗, T)
대성 (大成, P)
Gwangdeok
Junpung
광덕 (光德)
준풍 (峻豊)
5 Wang Yu 왕유 (王伷) 975–981 Jangmin (C) 장민(長民, C) Gyeongjong (T)
Heonhwa (P)
경종 (景宗, T)
헌화 (獻和, P)
6 Wang Chi 왕치 (王治) 981–997 On-go (C) 온고 (溫古, C) Seongjong (T)
Munui (P)
성종 (成宗, T)
문의 (文懿, P)
7 Wang Song 왕송 (王誦) 997–1009 Hyosin (C) 효신 (孝伸, C) Mokjong (T)
Seonyang (P)
목종 (穆宗, T)
선양 (宣讓, P)
8 Wang Sun 왕순 (王詢) 1009–1031 Anse (C) 안세 (安世, C) Hyeonjong (T)
Wonmun (P)
현종 (顯宗, T)
원문 (元文, P)
9 Wang Heum 왕흠 (王欽) 1031–1034 Wonryang (C) 원량 (元良, C) Deokjong (T)
Gyeonggang (P)
덕종 (德宗, T)
경강 (敬康, P)
10 Wang Hyeong 왕형 (王亨) 1034–1046 Sinjo (C) 신조 (申照, C) Jeongjong (T)
Yonghye (P)
정종 (靖宗, T)
용혜 (容惠, P)
11 Wang Hwi 왕휘 (王徽) 1046–1083 Chok-yu (C) 촉유 (燭幽, C) Munjong (T)
Inhyo (P)
문종 (文宗, T)
인효 (仁孝, P)
12 Wang Hun 왕훈 (王勳) 1083 Uigong (C) 의공 (義恭, C) Sunjong (T)
Seonhye (P)
순종 (順宗, T)
선혜 (宣惠, P)
13 Wang Un 왕운 (王運) 1083–1094 Gyecheon (C) 계천 (繼天, C) Seonjong (T)
Sahyo (P)
선종 (宣宗, T)
사효 (思孝, P)
14 Wang Uk 왕욱 (王昱) 1094–1095 None None Heonjong (T)
Hoehyo (P)
헌종 (獻宗, T)
사효 (懷孝, P)
15 Wang Ong 왕옹 (王顒) 1095–1105 Cheonsang (C) 천상 (天常, C) Sukjong (T)
Myeonghyo (P)
숙종 (肅宗, T)
명효 (明孝, P)
16 Wang U 왕우 (王俁) 1105–1122 Semin (C) 세민 (世民, C) Yejong (T)
Munhyo (P)
예종 (睿宗, T)
문효 (文孝, P)
17 Wang Hae 왕해 (王楷) 1122–1146 Inpyo (C) 인표 (仁表, C) Injong (T)
Gonghyo (P)
인종 (仁宗, T)
공효 (恭孝, P)
18 Wang Hyeon 왕현 (王晛) 1146–1170 Ilsung (C) 일승 (日升, C) Uijong (T)
Janghyo (P)
의종 (毅宗, T)
장효 (莊孝, P)
19 Wang Ho 왕호 (王皓) 1170–1197 Jidan (C) 지단 (之旦, C) Myeongjong (T)
Gwanghyo (P)
명종 (明宗, T)
광효 (光孝, P)
20 Wang Tak 왕탁 (王晫) 1197–1204 Jihwa (C) 지화 (至華, C) Sinjong (T)
Jeonghyo (P)
신종 (神宗, T)
정효 (靖孝, P)
21 Wang Yeong 왕영 (王韺) 1204–1211 Bulpi (C) 불피 (不陂, C) Huijong (T)
Seonghyo (P)
희종 (熙宗, T)
성효 (成孝, P)
22 Wang O 왕오 (王祦) 1211–1213 Daehwa (C) 대화 (大華, C) Gangjong (T)
Wonhyo (P)
강종 (康宗, T)
원효 (元孝, P)
23 Wang Cheol 왕철 (王澈) 1213–1259 Cheon-u (C) 천우 (天祐, C) Gojong (T)
Anhyo (P)
고종 (高宗, T)
안효 (安孝, P)
24 Wang Sik 왕식 (王倎) 1259–1274 Ilsin (C) 일신 (日新, C) Wonjong (T)
Sunhyo (P)
원종 (元宗, T)
순효 (順孝, P)
25 Wang Geo 왕거 (王椹) 1274–1298
1298-1308
None None Chungnyeol (MP)
Gyeonghyo (P)
충렬 (忠烈, MP)
경효 (景孝, P)
26 Wang Jang 왕장 (王璋) 1298
1308–1313
Jungang (C)
Iǰirbuka (M)
중앙 (仲昻, C)
이지르부카 (益知禮普花, M)
Chungseon (MP)
Heonhyo (P)
충선 (忠宣, MP)
헌효 (憲孝, P)
27 Wang Man 왕만 (王燾) 1313–1330
1332–1339
Uihyo (C)
Aratnašri (M)
의효 (宜孝, C)
아라트나시리 (阿刺訥忒失里, M)
Chungsuk (MP)
Uihyo (P)
충숙 (忠肅, MP)
의효 (懿孝, P)
28 Wang Jeong 왕정 (王禎) 1330–1332
1339–1344
Buddhašri (M) 보탑실리 (普塔失里, M) Chunghye (MP)
Heonhyo (P)
충혜 (忠惠, MP)
헌효 (獻孝, P)
29 Wang Heun 왕흔 (王昕) 1344–1348 Padma dorji (M) 바스마도르지 (八思麻朶兒只, M) Chungmok (MP)
Hyeonghyo (P)
충목 (忠穆, MP)
현효 (顯孝, P)
30 Wang Jeo 왕저 (王蚳) 1348–1351 Misgen dorji (M) 미스젠도르지 (迷思監朶兒只, M) Chungjeong (MP) 충정 (忠靖, MP)
31 King Kongmin of Koryo.jpg Wang Jeon 왕전 (王祺) 1351–1374 Bayan Temür (M)
Ijae / Ikdang (Ps)
바얀 테무르 (伯顔帖木兒, M)
이재 / 익당 (Ps)
Gongmin (P)
Gyeonghyo (P)
공민 (恭, P)
경효 (敬孝, P)
32 Wang U 왕우 (王禑) 1374–1388 None None U None
33 Wang Chang 왕창 (王昌) 1388–1389 None None Chang None
34 Wang Yo 왕요 (王瑤) 1389–1392 None None Gongyang 공양 (恭讓, P)

Joseon dynasty[edit]

Joseon (1392–1910) followed Goryeo. In 1897, when Joseon became the Korean Empire, some of the Joseon kings were posthumously raised to the rank of emperors.

Joseon monarchs had temple names ending in jo or jong. Jo was given to the first kings/emperors of new lines within the dynasty, with the first king/emperor having the special name (Taejo), which means "great progenitor" (see also Goryeo). Jong was given to all other kings/emperors.

Two kings, Yeonsangun and Gwanghaegun, were not given temple names after their reigns ended.

Each monarch had a posthumous name that included either the title Wang ("King"), Hwangje ("Emperor"), Daewang ("King X the Great"), or Daeje ("Emperor X the Great"). For the sake of consistency, the title "King/Emperor" has been added to each monarch's temple name in the list below.

# Portrait Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P)
Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 King Taejo Yi 02.jpg Yi Seong-gye
Yi Dan
이성계 (李成桂)
이단 (李旦)
1392–1398 Gunjin (C)
Songheon (Ps)
군진 (君晋, C)
송헌 (松軒, Ps)
Taejo (T)
(P)
태조 (太祖, T)
(P)
2 Yi Bang-gwa
Yi Gyeong
이방과 (李芳果)
이경 (李曔)
1398–1400 Gwangwon (C) 광원 (光遠, C) Jeongjong (T)
Gongjeong (P)
정종 (定宗, T)
공정 (恭靖, P)
3 Yi Bang-won 이방원 (李芳遠) 1400–1418 Yudeok (C) 유덕 (遺德, C) Taejong (T)
Gongjeong (P)
태종 (太宗, T)
공정 (恭定, P)
4 Yi Do 이도 (李祹) 1418–1450 Wonjeong (C) 원정 (元正, C) Sejong (T)
Jangheon (P)
세종 (世宗, T)
장헌 (莊憲, P)
5 Yi Hyang 이향 (李珦) 1450–1452 Hwiji (C) 휘지 (輝之, C) Munjong (T)
Gongsun (P)
문종 (文宗, T)
공순 (恭順, P)
6 Danjong.jpg Yi Hong-wi 이홍위 (李弘緯) 1452–1455 None None Danjong (T)
Gongui (P)
단종 (端宗, T)
공의 (恭懿, P)
7 Yi Yu 이유 (李瑈) 1455–1468 Suji (C) 수지 (粹之, C) Sejo (T)
Hyejang (P)
세조 (世祖, T)
혜장 (惠莊, P)
8 Yi Gwang 이광 (李晄) 1468–1469 Myeingjo (C)
Pyeongnam (C)
명조 (明照, C)
평남 (平南, C)
Yejong (T)
Yangdo (P)
예종 (睿宗, T)
양도 (襄悼, P)
9 Yi Hyeol 이혈 (李娎) 1469–1494 None None Seongjong (T)
Gangjeong (P)
성종 (成宗, T)
강정 (康靖, P)
10 Yi Yung 이융 (李隆) 1494–1506 None None Yeonsangun 연산군 (燕山君)
11 Yi Yeok 이역 (李懌) 1506–1544 Nakcheon (C) 낙천 (樂天, C) Jungjong (T)
Gonghui (P)
중종 (中宗, T)
공희 (恭僖, P)
12 Yi Ho 이호 (李峼) 1544–1545 Cheonyun (C) 천윤 (天胤, C) Injong (T)
Yeongjeong (P)
인종 (仁宗, T)
영정 (榮靖, P)
13 Yi Hwan 이환 (李峘) 1545–1567 Daeyang (C) 대양 (對陽, C) Myeongjong (T)
Gongheon (P)
명종 (明宗, T)
공헌 (恭憲, P)
14 Yi Yeon 이연 (李蚣) 1567–1608 None None Seonjo (T)
Sogyeong (P)
선조 (宣祖, T)
소경 (昭敬, P)
15 Yi Hon 이혼 (李琿) 1608–1623 None None Gwanghaegun 광해군 (光海君)
16 Yi Jong 이종 (李倧) 1623–1649 Cheonyun (C)
Hwabaek (C)
Songchang (Ps)
천윤 (天胤, C)
화백 (和伯, C)
송창 (松窓, Ps)
Injo (T) 인조 (仁祖, T)
17 Yi Ho 이호 (李淏) 1649–1659 Jeongyeon (C)
Juk-o (Ps)
정연 (靜淵, C)
죽오(竹梧, Ps)
Hyojong (T) 효종 (孝宗, T)
18 Yi Yeon 이연 (李棩) 1659–1674 Gyeongjik (C) 경직 (景直, C) Hyeonjong (T) 현종 (顯宗, T)
19 Yi Sun 이순 (李焞) 1674–1720 Myeongbo (C) 명보 (明譜, C) Sukjong (T) 숙종 (肅宗, T)
20 Yi Yun 이윤 (李昀) 1720–1724 Hwiseo (C) 휘서 (輝瑞, C) Gyeongjong (T) 경종 (景宗, T)
21 Korea-Yeongjo-King of Joseon-c1.jpg Yi Geum 이금 (李昑) 1724–1776 Gwangsuk (C)
Yangseongheon (Ps)
광숙 (光叔, C)
양성헌 (養性軒, Ps)
Yeongjo (T) 영조 (英祖, T)
22 Yi San 이산 (李祘) 1776–1800 Hyeongun (C)
Hongjae (Ps)
형운 (亨運, C)
홍재 (弘齋, Ps)
Jeongjo (T) 정조 (正祖, T)
23 Yi Gong 이공 (李蚣) 1800–1834 Gongbo (C)
Sunjae (Ps)
공보(公寶, C)
순재 (純齋, Ps)
Sunjo (T) 순조 (純祖, T)
24 Yi Hwan 이환 (李奐) 1834–1849 Muneung (C)
Wonheon (Ps)
문응 (文應, C)
원헌 (元軒, Ps)
Heonjong (T) 헌종 (憲宗, T)
25 Cheoljong2.jpg Yi Byeon 이변 (李昪) 1849–1863 Doseung (C)
Daeyongjae (Ps)
도승 (道升, C)
대용재 (大勇齋, Ps)
Cheoljong (T) 철종 (哲宗, T)
26 Gojong of the Korean Empire 01.jpg Yi Myeong-bok
Yi Hui
이명복 (李命福)
이희 (李㷩)
1863–1897 (1897–1907) * Seongrim (C)
Juyeon (Ps)
성림 (聖臨, C)
주연 (珠淵, Ps)
Gojong (T) *
(P) *
고종 (高宗, T) *
(P) *
Gaeguk
Geonyang
Gwangmu *
개국 (開國)
건양 (建陽)
광무 (光武) *
27 Sunjong of the Korean Empire.jpg Yi Cheok 이척 (李拓) (1907–1910) * Gundang (C)
Jeongheon (Ps)
군방 (君邦, C)
정헌 (正軒, Ps)
Sunjong (T) *
(P) *
순종 (純宗, T) *
(P) *
Yunghui * 융희 (隆熙) *

* see Korean Empire section

Korean Empire[edit]

In 1897, Joseon Dynasty became Korean Empire, which lasted until 1910. Technically, the emperors should be referred to by their era names rather than their temple names, but the latter are commonly used.

# Portrait Personal name Period of reign Courtesy Name (C) /
Pseudonym (Ps)
Temple name (廟號) (T) /
Posthumous name (諡號) (P)
Era name (年號)
Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja Westernized Hangul/Hanja
1 Gojong of the Korean Empire 01.jpg Yi Myeong bok
Yi Hui
이명복 (李命福)
이희 (李㷩)
1897–1907 Seongrim (C)
Juyeon (Ps)
성림 (聖臨, C)
주연 (珠淵, Ps)
Gojong (T)
(P)
고종 (高宗, T)
(P)
Gwangmu 광무 (光武)
2 Sunjong of the Korean Empire.jpg Yi Cheok 이척 (李拓) 1907–1910 Gundang (C)
Jeongheon (Ps)
군방 (君邦, C)
정헌 (正軒, Ps)
Sunjong (T)
(P)
순종 (純宗, T)
(P)
Yunghui 융희 (隆熙)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cumings (1997, p. 25) only indicates that Gojoseon was among the small peninsular states which emerged "by the fourth century BC." Lee (1984, p. 13) also only mentions Gojoseon as having emerged in the Liao and Taedong valleys by the 4th century. Some, like Kim (1997) do regard "Dangun Joseon" as having possibly existed during the Neolithic period, i.e. before the 13th century BCE; however, by the same token they reject the possibility that Gojoseon can be regarded as a "state" or even "tribal confederation" in the modern sense. Professor Yoon says that the Gojoseon had become an ancient nation at 2333 BCE(Yoon, 2002), which is most recent research
  2. ^ Goguryeo kings had the surname Go, except for the second Yuri through fifth Mobon, whose surnames are recorded as Hae. All of the kings are recorded to belong to the same patrilineal bloodline. It is not clear whether the two surnames are different transcription of the same name, or evidence of a power struggle.
  3. ^ The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, and sometimes other records mention "other names," "birth names," "childhood names," or "personal names."
  4. ^ The king names generally derive from the location of the king's burial, and do not necessarily correspond to the Chinese concept of 諡號.
  5. ^ a b The Jolbon line names and dates are from the Samguk Sagi. The Wei shu History of the Wei dynasty gives the following names: 朱蒙 Jumong, 閭達 Yeodal, 始閭諧 Shiryeohae, 如栗 Yeoyul, and 莫來 Mangnae. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early 5th century when king Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contact with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Chumo, 儒留 Yuryu, and 大朱留 Daejuryu. The connections between those names are not clear.
  6. ^ http://kdaq.empas.com/koreandb/history/koreanking/html/person/koguryeo_king.html (The Academy of Korean Studies)[dead link]
  7. ^ http://enc.daum.net/dic100//topView.do (Korea Britannica Corp.)
  8. ^ 고구려 (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2013-10-07. 
  9. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Epilogue, page 354. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1-59654-348-5 - note: the dates for Geojilmi's reign go there until 344

References[edit]

  • Yoon, N.-H.(윤내현), The Location and Transfer of GO-CHOSUN's Capital(고조선의 도읍 위치와 그 이동), 단군학연구, 7, 207 - 238 (2002)
  • Byeon Tae-seop (변태섭) (1999). 韓國史通論 (Hanguksa tongnon) (Outline of Korean history), 4th ed. ISBN 89-445-9101-6. 
  • Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5. 
  • Kim, Jung Bae (1997). "Formation of the ethnic Korean nation and the emergence of its ancient kingdom states". Korean history: Discovery of its characteristics and developments. Seoul: Hollym. pp. 27–36. ISBN 1-56591-177-6. 
  • Nahm, Andrew C. (1988). Korea: Tradition and Transformation — A History of the Korean People. Hollym International. ISBN 0-930878-56-6. 
  • http://www.rootsinfo.co.kr/index_sub02.html (in Korean only)
  • http://www.rulers.org