Nav Nirman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Nav Nirman Movement
Date December 20, 1973 (1973-12-20) - March 16, 1974 (1974-03-16)
Location Gujarat, India
Causes economic crisis and corruption in public life
Goals Resignation of Chief Minister and dissolution of assembly
Methods Protest march, Street protest, riot, hunger strike, strike
Result legislative assembly dissolved and fresh elections
Parties to the civil conflict
Nav Nirman Yuvak Samiti
Lead figures
Non-centralized leadership
Violence and action
Death(s) Atleast 100[1][2]
Injuries 1000-3000[1][2]
Arrested 8000[1][2]

Nav Nirman Andolan (Re-invention or Re-construction movement) was a socio-political movement that occurred in 1974 in Gujarat. It was students and middle-class people's movement against economic crisis and corruption in public life. This was the only successful agitation in history of free India that resulted in dissolution of an elected government.[1][2][3]

Incidents[edit]

Chimanbhai Patel became the chief minister of Gujarat in July 1973 replacing Ghanshyam Oza. There were allegations of corruptions on him.[1] Urban middle class was facing economic crisis due to high prices of foods.[1][2][3]

Early student protests[edit]

On 20 December 1973, students of L.D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad went on strike in protest against 20% hike in hostel food bill.[4] The same type of strike also organised on 3 January 1974 resulted in clashes between the police and students which provoked students across Gujarat. An indefinite strike started on 7 January in educational institutes. Their demand was related to food and education.[3] People from middle class and some factory workers also joined protests in Ahmedabad who also attacked some ration shops.[1] Students, lawyers and professors formed a committee, later known as the Nav Nirman Yuvak Samiti, to voice grievances and guide protests.[1][3]

Protesters demanded Chimanbhai Patel's resignation. A strike on 10 January turned violent in Ahmedabad and Vadodara for two days.[3] A statewide strike was organised on 25 January 1974 resulted in clashes between police and people at least in 33 towns.[1] while the government imposed a curfew in 44 towns and the agitation spread throughout Gujarat.[3] The army was called in to restore peace in Ahmedabad on 28 January 1974.[1]

Political incidents[edit]

Due to pressure of protests, Indira Gandhi asked Chimanbhai Patel to resign. He resigned on 9 February.[2][3] The governor suspended the state assembly and imposed President’s rule. Opposition partie demanded dissolution of state assembly.[1]Congress had 140 out of 167 MLAs in state assembly. The resignation of 15 Congress (O) MLAs on 16 February[1] triggered the next phase of the agitation. Three Jan Sangh MLAs also resigned. By March, students had got 95 of 167 to resign. Morarji Desai, leader of Congress (O), went on an indefinite fast on 12 March in support of the demand. On 16 March, the assembly was dissolved bringing end to agitation.[1][2][3]

At least 100 died, 1,000 to 3,000 were injured, and 8,000 arrested during the movement.[1][2]

Consequences[edit]

Nav Nirman Yuvak Samiti demended fresh elections and opposition parties supported it. Morarji Desai again went on indefinite fast on 6 April 1975 to support it.[1] Finally Indira Gandhi gave in and fresh elections were held on 10 June and result declared on 12 June 1975. Verdict on Indira Gandhi's electoral malpractice declared the same day which later resulted in Emergency.[1] Meanwhile Chimanbhai Patel formed new party named Kisan Mazdoor Lok Paksh and contested on his own. Congress lost elections which won only 75 seats. Coalition of Congress (O), Jan Sangh, PSP and Lok Dal known as Janata Morcha won 88 seats and Babubhai J. Patel became Chief Minister. This government lasted nine months and president's rule imposed in March 1976.[2] Congress won elections in December 1976 and Madhav Singh Solanki became Chief Minister.[1][2]

Aftereffects[edit]

Jayaprakash Narayan visited Gujarat on 11 February 1974, after Chimanbhai Patel's resignation, though he was not involved in movement. The Bihar Movement was already started in Bihar. It inspired him to lead it and turn it into a total revolution movement, which resulted in Emergency.[1][3] Later Janata Morcha became precursor of the Janata Party, which formed the first non-Congress government winning the general election against Indira Gandhi in 1977, and Morarji Desai became Prime Minister.[2][5][6]

Congress formed new caste based election combination known as KHAM (Kshtriya-Harijan-Adivasi-Muslim)to elevate them in politics. Upper caste sensed it as end of their political importance and reacted strong against imposition of Reservations in 1981.[4] It ultimately provoked the anti-Mandal riots in 1985, which later turned anti-Muslim which helped rise of the BJP in Gujarat.[7]

Chimanbhai Patel became chief minister again with BJP support in 1990 again.[1]

The agitation helped local leaders of RSS and its student organization ABVP to establish themselves in politics. Narendra Modi who later became chief minister of Gujarat was one of them.[1]

Significance[edit]

It reflected middle-class people and students anger due to economical crisis and corruption in government prevalent at that time. It also showed people's power to change government by forcing to resign by protesting.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Krishna, Ananth V. (2011). India Since Independence: Making Sense Of Indian Politics. Pearson Education India. p. 117. ISBN 9788131734650. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Dhar, P. N. (2000). Excerpted from 'Indira Gandhi, the "emergency", and Indian democracy' published in Business Standard. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195648997. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Shah, Ghanshyam (20 December 2007). "Pulse of the people". India Today. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  4. ^ a b jain, Arun Kumar. Political Science. FK Publication. p. 114. ISBN 9788189611866. Retrieved 22 November 2012. 
  5. ^ Katherine Frank (2002). Indira: The Life Of Indira Nehru Gandhi. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 371. ISBN 978-0-395-73097-3. 
  6. ^ "The Rise of Indira Gandhi". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  7. ^ Sanghavi, Nagindas (15 October 2010). Mehta, Nalin; Mehta, Mona G., eds. From Navnirman to the anti-Mandal riots: the political trajectory of Gujarat (1974–1985) [Gujarat Beyond Gandhi: Identity, Conflict and Society]. Issue 4 1. pp. 480–493. doi:10.1080/19472498.2010.507021. Retrieved 23 November 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Krishna, Ananth V. (1 September 2011). India Since Independence: Making Sense Of Indian Politics. Pearson Education India. p. 117. ISBN 9788131734650. 
  • Sheth, Pravin N. (1977). Nav Nirman & political change in India: from Gujarat 1974 to New Delhi 1977. Vora.