|15th Prime Minister of India|
26 May 2014
|Preceded by||Manmohan Singh|
|14th Chief Minister of Gujarat|
7 October 2001 – 22 May 2014
|Governor||Sunder Singh Bhandari
Nawal Kishore Sharma
S. C. Jamir
|Preceded by||Keshubhai Patel|
|Succeeded by||Anandiben Patel|
|Member of the Indian Parliament
16 May 2014
|Preceded by||Murli Manohar Joshi|
|Member of the Gujarat Legislative Assembly
1 January 2002 – 16 May 2014
|Preceded by||Kamlesh Patel|
|Succeeded by||Suresh Patel|
|Born||Narendra Damodardas Modi
17 September 1950
Vadnagar, Gujarat, India
|Political party||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|Spouse(s)||Jashodaben Chimanlal (1968; estranged)|
|Residence||7, Race Course Road|
|Alma mater||University of Delhi
|Website||Official websiteGovernment website|
Narendra Damodardas Modi (Gujarati: [nəreːnd̪rə d̪ɑːmoːd̪ərəd̪ɑːs moːd̪iː] ( listen), born 17 September 1950) is the 15th and current Prime Minister of India, in office since 26 May 2014. Modi, a leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), previously served as the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014. He is currently the Member of Parliament (MP) from Varanasi.
Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election, which resulted in an outright majority for the BJP in the Lok Sabha (the lower house of the Indian parliament) – the last time that any party had secured an outright majority in the Lok Sabha was in 1984. Since then, Modi has also been credited for the BJP's electoral victories in the states of Haryana and Maharashtra in October 2014.
Modi is a Hindu Nationalist and a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). He is a controversial figure both within India as well as internationally as his administration has been criticised for failing to act to prevent the 2002 Gujarat riots. Modi has been praised for his economic policies, which are credited with creating an environment for a high rate of economic growth in Gujarat. However, his administration has also been criticised for failing to make a significant positive impact upon the human development of the state.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Chief Minister of Gujarat
- 4 National government
- 5 Prime Minister
- 6 International diplomacy
- 7 Personality and image
- 8 Awards and recognitions
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Early life and education
Narendra Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar, Mehsana district, in Bombay State (present-day Gujarat). His family belonged to the Ghanchi (oil-presser) community, which is categorised among the other backward classes by the Indian government. He was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand and Heeraben Modi. As a child, he helped his father Damodardas sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station, and later ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus. He completed his higher secondary schooling in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described him as being an average student, but a keen debater with an interest in theatre. An early gift for rhetoric in debates was noted by teachers and students at the time. Modi also showed a preference for playing larger than life characters in theatre performances which has influenced the image he portrays of himself in politics.
At the age of eight, Modi came into contact with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and began attending its local shakhas, or training sessions. There he met Lakshmanrao Inamdar, popularly known as Vakil Saheb, who was to become Modi's political mentor. Inamdar inducted Modi as a balswayamsevak, or junior cadet in the RSS. While training with the RSS, he also met Vasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, Bharatiya Jana Sangh leaders who were later founding members of the BJP's Gujarat unit in 1980.
In keeping with the traditions of the Ghanchi caste, Modi's marriage was arranged by his parents while he was still a child. He was engaged at the age of 13 to Jashodaben Chimanlal, and married when he was 18. They spent little time together, and were soon estranged when Modi began two years of travels (including visits to Hindu ashrams). The marriage was reportedly never consummated. Modi kept the marriage secret for most of his career, only acknowledging the existence of his wife when filing his nomination for a parliamentary seat in the 2014 general elections.
Little is known of the time he spent traveling; however, in interviews Modi has spoken of visiting various Hindu ashrams, or places of Hindu religious learning, founded by Swami Vivekananda. The first of these was the Belur Math near Kolkata. He later visited the Advaita Ashrama in Almora, and the Ramakrishna mission in Rajkot. However he was only able to stay for a short period in each ashram, as he lacked a college education, and the institutions were strictly limited to postgraduates. After two years of travel, Modi returned to Vadnagar, and after a brief visit left again for Ahmedabad. Here he lived with his uncle and worked at a canteen also run by his uncle at the Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation. In Ahmedabad, Modi renewed his acquaintance with Inamdar, who was then based at Hedgewar Bhavan, the RSS headquarters in the city. After the end of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, he stopped working for his uncle and became a full–time pracharak (campaigner) of the RSS. In 1978, Modi became a sambhaag pracharak (regional organiser) for the RSS, and also graduated with an extramural degree in political science through a distance education course at Delhi University. In 1983, he completed his Master of Arts degree in political science from Gujarat University.
Early political career
On 26 June 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a unilateral state of emergency throughout the country, which lasted until 1977. During this period, many of her political opponents were jailed, and organisations opposing her, including the RSS, were banned. At the time, Modi was the pracharak in-charge of the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), the student wing of the RSS. He was forced to go underground in Gujarat, and frequently traveled in disguise to avoid being arrested. He became involved in printing booklets against the central government and distributing them to Delhi, as well as organising agitations. During this period, he also wrote a book in Gujarati titled Sangharsh ma Gujarat (The struggles of Gujarat) which described events during the emergency.
The RSS assigned Modi to the BJP in 1985. In 1988, Modi was elected an organising secretary of BJP's Gujarat unit, marking his formal entry into electoral politics. He rose to prominence within the party after helping organise L. K. Advani's Ayodhya Rath Yatra in 1990 and Murli Manohar Joshi's Ekta Yatra (Journey for Unity) in 1991–92. His electoral strategy as secretary was seen to be central to the BJP's victory in the 1995 state assembly elections. Later in the same year in November, Modi was elected National Secretary of the BJP, and was transferred to New Delhi where he was assigned responsibility for the party's activities in Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. In 1996, Shankersinh Vaghela, one of the most prominent leaders of the BJP in Gujarat, defected to the INC after he lost his parliamentary seat in the 1996 Lok Sabha elections. While on the selection committee for the 1998 Assembly elections in Gujarat, Modi favoured supporters of another BJP leader, Keshubhai Patel, over those loyal to Vaghela, in an attempt to put an end to the factional divisions within the party. His strategies were credited as being key to the BJP winning an overall majority in the 1998 elections. As a result, Modi was promoted to the post of general secretary (Organisation) of the BJP in May 1998.
Chief Minister of Gujarat
In 2001, Keshubhai Patel's health was failing, and the BJP had lost seats in the by-elections. Allegations of abuse of power, corruption and poor administration were being made, and Patel's standing had been damaged by his administration's handling of the Bhuj Earthquake of 2001. As a result, the BJP's national leadership sought a new candidate for the office of chief minister, and Modi, who had aired his misgivings about Patel's administration, was chosen as a replacement. L. K. Advani, a senior leader of the BJP, did not want to ostracise Patel and was worried about Modi's lack of experience in governance. Modi declined an offer to be Patel's deputy chief minister, informing Advani and Atal Bihari Vajpayee that he was "going to be fully responsible for Gujarat or not at all", and on 3 October 2001, Modi was named as the replacement of Patel as the Chief Minister of Gujarat, with the responsibility of preparing the BJP for elections in December 2002. As Chief Minister, Modi's ideas of governance revolved around privatisation and small government, which stood at odds with what political commentator Aditi Phadnis has described as the anti-privatisation, anti-globalisation position of the RSS.
First term (2001–02)
On 7 October 2001, Modi was administered the oath of office by the Sunder Singh Bhandari, Governor of Gujarat . He then contested election from Rajkot - II assembly constituency in a by-poll and on 24th February 2002 won by defeating Congress's Ashwin Mehta by 14,728 votes.
2002 Gujarat riots
On 27 February 2002, a train with several hundred passengers including large numbers of Hindu pilgrims was burned near Godhra, killing around 60 people.[a] Following rumours that the fire was carried out by Muslim arsonists, anti-Muslim violence spread throughout Gujarat. Estimates of the death toll ranged from 900 to over 2,000, while several thousand more people were injured. The Modi government imposed a curfew in major cities, issued shoot-at-sight orders, and called for the army to prevent the violence from escalating. However, human rights organisations, opposition parties, and sections of the media all accused Gujarat's government of taking insufficient action against the riots, and even condoning it in some cases. Modi's decision to move the corpses of the Kar Sevaks who had been burned to death in Godhra to Ahmedabad had been criticised for inflaming the violence.
In March 2008, the Supreme Court asked the state government to re-investigate nine cases in the 2002 Gujarat riots, including the Gulbarg Society incident, and constituted a Special Investigation Team (SIT) to probe the cases afresh. Responding to a petition from Zakia Jafri, widow of Ehsan Jafri who was killed in the Gulbarg Society massacre, the Supreme court in April 2009 asked the SIT to probe her complaint alleging that Modi and another minister had been complicit in the killing. The SIT questioned Modi in March 2010, and in May 2010 presented its report before the Court, stating that it found no evidence to substantiate the allegations. In July 2011, the amicus curiae Raju Ramachandran submitted his final report to the Supreme Court, stating that Modi could be prosecuted based on the available evidence, contrary to the position of the SIT. Ramachandran's report was criticised by the SIT for relying on the testimony of Sanjiv Bhatt, who, it said, had fabricated the documents used as evidence. The Supreme court handed the matter to the magistrate court, and left it to the SIT to examine Ramachandran's report. The SIT submitted its final report in March 2012, seeking closure of the case, against which Zakia Jaffri filed a protest petition. In December 2013, the magistrate court rejected the protest petition and accepted the clean chit given to Modi by SIT stating that there was no evidence against Modi in the case.
Modi's involvement in the events of 2002 has continued to be debated. Several scholars have described the events of 2002 as a pogrom, while others have called it an instance of state terrorism. Summarizing academic views on the subject, Martha Nussbaum stated that "There is by now a broad consensus that the Gujarat violence was a form of ethnic cleansing, that in many ways it was premeditated, and that it was carried out with the complicity of the state government and officers of the law." In 2012, Maya Kodnani, a former minister in Modi's Government from 2007–09, was convicted of having participated in the Naroda Patiya massacre during the 2002 riots. She was both the first female and the first MLA to be convicted in a post-Godhra riots case. While initially announcing that it would seek the death penalty for Kodnani, Modi's government eventually pardoned her in 2013 and settled for a prison sentence.
A few months after the riots, New York Times reporter Celia Dugger asked Modi if he wished he handled the riots any differently. He told her his only regret was that he did not handle the news media better and cited India's NDTV channel as being irresponsible in its reporting.
In the aftermath of the violence, there were widespread calls for Modi to resign from his position as chief minister of Gujarat. These came from both within and outside the state, including from the leaders of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and the Telugu Desam Party, which were allies in then BJP-led NDA government at the centre. The opposition parties stalled the national parliament over the issue. In April 2002, at the national executive meeting of BJP at Goa, Modi submitted his resignation; however, it was rejected by the party. On 19 July 2002, Modi's cabinet had an emergency meeting and offered its resignation to the Governor of Gujarat, S. S. Bhandari, and the assembly was dissolved. In the subsequent elections, the BJP, led by Modi, won 127 seats in the 182-member assembly. Modi made significant use of anti-Muslim rhetoric during his election campaign, though he later denied it. Modi won from the Maninagar constituency receiving 1,13,589 votes of the total of 1,54,981 votes polled defeating Congress Candidate Yatin Oza by a difference of 75,333 votes. On 22 December 2002, Modi was sworn in as the Chief Minister for a second time by the Governor Bhandari.
Second term (2002–07)
Despite allegations of using anti-Muslim rhetoric during the campaign, Modi's emphasis shifted during his second term from Hindutva to the economic development of Gujarat. Modi's decisions curtailed the influence of organisations of the Sangh Parivar such as the Bharatiya Kisan Sangh (BKS) and the Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), which had become entrenched in Gujarat after the decline of Ahmedabad's textile industry. Modi dropped Gordhan Zadafia, an ally of his former Sangh co–worker and VHP state chief Praveen Togadia, from the cabinet ministry. When the BKS launched a farmers' agitation, Modi ordered their eviction from houses provided by the state government. Modi's decision to demolish 200 illegal temples in Gandhinagar deepened the rift with VHP. Various organisations of the Sangh were no longer consulted nor informed of Modi's administrative decisions prior to their enactment.
The changes brought by Modi in the period 2002–07 has led to Gujarat being called an attractive investment destination. Aditi Phadnis writes that "there was sufficient anecdotal evidence pointing to the fact that corruption had gone down significantly in the state... if there was to be any corruption, Modi had to know about it". Modi started financial and technology parks in the state. During the 2007 Vibrant Gujarat summit, real estate investment deals worth 6.6 trillion were signed in Gujarat.
Despite his focus on economic issues during the second term, Modi continued to be criticised for his relationship with Muslims. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, then Prime Minister of India, who had asked Modi not to discriminate between citizens in the aftermath of the 2002 Gujarat violence and had pushed for his resignation as Chief Minister of Gujarat, distanced himself from Modi and reached out to North Indian Muslims before the 2004 elections to the Lok Sabha. After the elections, Vajpayee held that the violence in Gujarat had been one of the reasons for BJP's electoral defeat and acknowledged that not removing Modi immediately after the Gujarat violence was a mistake.
In the run up to the assembly elections in 2007 and the general election in 2009, the BJP stepped up its rhetoric on terrorism. On 18 July 2006, Modi criticised the Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, "... for his reluctance to revive anti-terror legislations" such as the Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act. He asked the national government to allow states to invoke tougher laws in the wake of the 2006 blasts in Mumbai. Around this time Modi frequently demanded the execution of Afzal Guru, a collaborator of the Pakistani jihadists who had been convicted of terrorism for his involvement in the 2001 Indian Parliament attack.[b] As a consequence of the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, Modi held a meeting to discuss security of Gujarat's 1,600 km (990 mi) long coastline which resulted in the central government authorisation of 30 high–speed surveillance boats.
In July 2007, Modi completed 2,063 consecutive days as chief minister of Gujarat, making him the longest-serving holder of that post. The BJP won 122 of the 182 seats in the state assembly in the 2007 election, and Modi continued as chief minister.
Third term (2007–12)
Successive BJP governments under Patel and Modi supported NGOs and communities in the creation of infrastructure projects for conservation of groundwater. Gujarat is a semi-arid state and, according to Tushaar Shah, was "... never known for agrarian dynamism". By December 2008, 500,000 structures had been constructed, of which 113,738 were check dams. While most check dam impoundments dried up during the pre-monsoon season, they helped the monsoon rains recharge the aquifers that lie beneath. 60 of the 112 tehsils which were found to have over–exploited the groundwater table in 2004 had regained their normal groundwater level by 2010, meaning that Gujarat had managed to increase its groundwater levels at a time when they were falling in all other Indian states. As a result, production of genetically-modified Bt cotton, which could now be irrigated using tube wells, increased to become the largest in India. The boom in cotton production and utilisation of semi–arid land saw the agriculture growth rate of Gujarat increase to 9.6% in the period 2001–07. Though public irrigation measures in the central and southern areas, such as the Sardar Sarovar Project, have not been as successful in achieving their aims, for the decade 2001–10, Gujarat recorded an agricultural growth rate of 10.97%, the highest among all Indian states. However, sociologists have pointed out that the growth rate under the Congress government during 1992–97 was at 12.9%.
The Narendra Modi government also succeeded in bringing electricity to every village in Gujarat, although Dipankar Banerjee points out that all but 170 of them had been electrified under the previous Congress administration. Modi also greatly changed the system of power distribution in the state, with a significant impact on farmers. The state greatly expanded the Jyotigram Yojana scheme, in which the agricultural electricity supply was rewired to separate it from other rural power supplies. The electricity supplied was then rationed to fit scheduled demand for irrigation, resulting in a cost reduction. Initial farmer protests died down when the farmers who benefited found that supply had become more regular. An assessment study found that corporations and large farmers had significantly benefited from the policy, but that small farmers and labourers had been negatively impacted.
In his third term, progress was made on the Gujarat International Finance Tec-City project, considered as one of Modi's pet projects. The first phase, which encompassed two skyscrapers, GIFT One and Two, was completed in 2012.
Debate on Gujarat's development under Modi
Modi's government has worked to brand Gujarat as a state of dynamic development, economic growth and prosperity, using the slogan "Vibrant Gujarat". However, critics have pointed to Gujarat's relatively poor record on human development, poverty alleviation, nutrition, and education. The state is 13th in India for poverty, 21st for education, 44.7 percent of children under five are underweight and 23 percent are undernourished putting the state in the "alarming" category on the India State Hunger Index. In contrast, officials from the state of Gujarat claim that Gujarat outperformed India as a whole in the rates of improvement of multiple human indicators, such as female education, between 2001 and 2011. Furthermore, they claim that the school drop-out rates declined from 20 percent in 2001 to 2 percent in 2011, and that maternal mortality declined by 32 percent from 2001 to 2011. Additionally, the Indian Supreme Court, in a review of the Land Acquisition Act, 1894, identified Gujarat as being one of the few states from which there were no complaints of forcible land acquisition.
Political scientist Christophe Jaffrelot asserts that the development in Gujarat has been limited to the urban middle class, while rural dwellers and lower castes have become increasingly marginalised. He cites the fact that Gujarat ranks 10th among the 21 Indian states in the Human Development Index, which he attributes to the lower development in rural Gujarat. He states that under Modi, the number of families living below the poverty line has increased, and that particularly rural adivasi and dalits have become increasingly marginalised. In July 2013, Economics Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen criticised Narendra Modi's governance record and said he did not approve of it, saying that under Modi's administration, Gujarat's "record in education and healthcare is pretty bad". However, economists Arvind Panagariya and Jagdish Bhagwati state that Gujarat's social indicator improved from a much lower baseline than other Indian states. They state that Gujarat's performance in raising literacy rates has been superior to other states in India, and the "rapid" improvement of health indicators in Gujarat as evidence that "its progress has not been poor by any means."
Fourth term (2012–14)
In the 2012 Gujarat legislative assembly elections, Modi won from the constituency of Maninagar with a majority of 86,373 votes over Sanjiv Bhatt's wife, Shweta, who was contesting for the Indian National Congress. The BJP won 115 of the 182 seats, continuing the majority that the party has had throughout Modi's tenure, and allowing the party to form the government, as it has in Gujarat since 1995.
In later by-elections, the BJP won an additional four assembly seats and 2 Lok Sabha seats that were all held by the Indian National Congress prior to the by-elections, even though Modi never campaigned for its candidates. This brought the number of seats held by the BJP in the state assembly up to 119.
In 2013, the Wharton India Economic Forum (WIEF) at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania cancelled a keynote video-conference speech by Modi after some Indian-Americans lobbied against Modi.
After being elected as Prime Minister, Modi resigned from the post of chief minister on 21 May 2014, and his MLA seat from the Maninagar constituency, after delivering a leaving speech described as emotional. Anandiben Patel was chosen as his replacement.
2014 general election
On 31 March 2013, Modi was appointed to the BJP Parliamentary Board, the highest decision-making body of the party. On 9 June 2013, Modi was appointed Chairman of the BJP's Central Election Campaign Committee for the 2014 general election, at the national level executive meeting of BJP. The party's senior leader and founding member Lal Krishna Advani resigned from all his posts at the party following the selection, protesting against leaders who were "concerned with their personal agendas"; the resignation was described by The Times of India as "a protest against Narendra Modi's elevation as the chairman of the party's election committee". However, Advani withdrew his resignation the next day at the urging of RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat. In September 2013, BJP announced Modi as their prime ministerial candidate for the 2014 Lok Sabha election. Narendra Modi contested the election from two constituencies: Varanasi and Vadodara. His candidacy was supported by spiritual leaders Ramdev and Morari Bapu, and by economists Jagdish Bhagwati and Arvind Panagariya, who have stated that they, "...are impressed by Modi's economics." His detractors included Nobel Prize laureate economist Amartya Sen, who said that he did not want Modi as a Prime Minister because he had not done enough to make minorities feel safe, and that under Modi, Gujarat's record in health and education provision has been "pretty bad".
During his campaign, Modi, pledged to speed government decision-making and remove bureaucratic hurdles that have slowed development.
Modi won from both seats he contested; defeating Arvind Kejriwal, leader of the Aam Aadmi Party, in Varanasi and Madhusudan Mistry of the Indian National Congress in Vadodara (by a margin of 570,128 votes, the second highest ever). He led the BJP-led NDA to a decisive victory in the general elections in which the ruling Indian National Congress suffered its worst ever defeat. Modi was unanimously elected as the leader of the BJP parliamentary party following his party's victory in the Indian parliamentary elections and was subsequently appointed the prime minister by India's president. To comply with the rule that a MP can not hold two constituencies, Modi vacated the Vadodara seat.
In "India's first social media election", Modi effectively used social media like Twitter, Facebook and Google in his campaign, besides Google Hangouts and holograms for campaign appearances. He even posted a selfie on Twitter and his victory tweet emerged as the most retweeted in India.
|This section is outdated. (January 2015)|
|This section requires expansion. (December 2014)|
Narendra Modi was sworn in as Prime Minister on 26 May 2014 at the Rastrapati Bhavan. He is India's first prime minister born after the country's independence. In a first of its kind, Modi invited all SAARC leaders to attend his swearing-in ceremony; the attendees included Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai, Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa, Bhutan Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay, Maldives President Abdulla Yameen Abdul Gayoom, Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam of Mauritius (SAARC observer), Nepal Prime Minister Sushil Koirala, Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif, and Speaker of the National Parliament of Bangladesh Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury. Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina could not attend since she had a scheduled state visit to Japan and deputed the Speaker of National Parliament of Bangladesh to attend the ceremony on her behalf.
Modi's first cabinet consisted of 45 ministers, less than the 70 ministers of the previous government.
As chief minister of Gujarat
To attract foreign investment in Gujarat during his time as chief minister, Modi made visits to countries such as China, Singapore and Japan. He also visited China in November 2006 to study the Special Economic Zones that were about to be implemented in Gujarat. He again visited in September 2007 and later in November 2011. A month after his visit of 2011, the Chinese Government released 13 diamond traders from India who had been jailed by the Shenzhen Customs, which Modi attributed to his diplomatic efforts and statesmanship.
Modi's relationship with many Western nations was a troubled one during his tenure as Chief Minister. Questions about his role in the 2002 Gujarat riots resulted in a boycott by the UK, the US and the EU. He was barred from entering the United States under a provision of the Immigration and Nationality Act. Modi is the only person ever denied a visa to the U.S. under this provision. The UK as well as the European Union refused to deal with Modi because of perceptions of his role in the riots. However, as Modi emerged as a national leader in India, the UK and the EU lifted their boycotts in October 2012 and March 2013 respectively and, following Modi's election as the Prime Minister of India, the US invited him to Washington.
In 2011, the Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry, impressed with the development of Gujarat, invited Modi to visit Pakistan and address prominent business leaders. They also asked him to consider a flight between Karachi and Ahmedabad, on account of the historical cultural and economic relations between the two regions of Gujarat and Sindh. Modi wanted to help Pakistan out of its power crisis, especially in Sindh, suggesting Pakistan can follow the 'Gujarat Model' in two ways – Gujarat Solar Park and Kalpasar Project.
In April 2014, in a move described as "unexpected", senior Pakistani diplomats told The Daily Telegraph that Modi is their preferred choice for the Prime Minister of India, "as he could provide the strong leadership necessary for peace talks".
Although boycotted by Western nations, Modi visited Japan in 2012. According to Ryohei Kasai, research fellow at the Center for South Asian Studies, Gifu Women's University, Japan, "There is a growing interest in Modi in Japan with much anticipation that he will reshape India by revitalizing its economy and better governance. I believe Japan has an excellent relationship with him. Not only have successive Japanese ambassadors to India been regular guests in 'Vibrant Gujarat' investors' summit (organised biennially) but Japanese private companies also made a big amount of investment in the state."
As Prime Minister of India
Modi invited the leaders of SAARC countries to his swearing-in ceremony for taking office as Prime Minister, to strengthen the diplomatic relationship and increase business. Continuing with the aim of promoting close ties with neighbouring countries, Modi's first foreign visit as Prime Minister of India was to Bhutan . He later visited Nepal on August 8, 2014. Later, he made a 5 day bilateral visit to Japan starting on August 30, 2014. On 17 September 2014, Chinese President Xi Jinping arrived in India and several financial MoUs and agreements of cooperation were signed between the two countries. which Modi termed as a new chapter in the economic relations of both them. Modi visited the United States in the last week of September 2014, which was described as very successful, leading to a boosting of bilateral relations between India and the US. During his address to UN General Assembly on September 27, 2014, Modi asked the world leaders to adopt, June 21, as International Yoga Day. which was approved by the 193-member U.N. General Assembly and a resolution establishing June 21 as 'International Day of Yoga' was made.
Personality and image
Modi is a vegetarian. He has a frugal lifestyle, is a workaholic and an introvert. He writes poems in Gujarati. As a speaker, he is known as a crowd-puller. In the critical opinion of Somini Sengupta, writing for The New York Times in a 2009 article on the Supreme Court's ordering of an investigation into Modi's role in the 2002 Gujarat riots, "Mr. Modi has assiduously sought to reinvent himself from a scruffy mascot of Hindu nationalism to a decisive corporate-style administrator". He emerged as social media savvy politician and since September 2014 is the second most followed leader in the world with over 6 million followers on Twitter. His interaction on Google Hangouts on 31 August 2012 made Modi the first Indian politician to interact with netizens through live chat on the internet.
Modi has been labelled by the media and some articles in peer-reviewed journals as a controversial, polarising and divisive figure, but British economist Jim O'Neill, author of the BRIC report, wrote on his blog that Modi is "good on economics", one of the things that "India desperately needs in a leader". In August 2013, financial analyst Chris Wood, chief strategist of CLSA, wrote in his weekly Greed & Fear that "the Indian stock market's greatest hope is the emergence of Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi as the BJP's prime ministerial candidate".
Modi's usual dress is a kurta with a vest over it. His kurta is unusual for having half-sleeves, and this look is being called the "Modi kurta". His clothes are made of silk or cotton. They are always crisply ironed, which is a contrast to many Indian politicians who are not as careful to be so neat. He has them made by hand in his home state of Gujarat. He has favored certain brand name products, including his Movado watch and his Bulgari glasses. When he was chief minister, he wore bold and bright colors, but after becoming prime minister, he tended to favor pastel colors. For holidays he has a habit of wearing traditional hats of the place where he is.
In 2012 Modi said that he was getting his clothing stitched by Kanahiya Ji Chouhan, who says that he has been making the same style clothing for Modi since 1974. Some of Modi's clothing has been created by Bollywood fashion designer Troy Costa.
In 2009 his clothing was critiqued as being like something from Bollywood and portraying the progressive nature of Gujarat. Of Modi's clothing, Vogue India editor Priya Tanna said in 2014 "never before has there been such a strong convergence between what a politician in India stands for and his clothing." She went on to say that his clothing choice was "100% India", democratic for being accessible for anyone to wear, supportive of Indian industry, separating him from politicians who wear western business clothes, a sign of his humble birth, clean and hygienic as India's image, aspirational, and raises the profile of personally tailored fashion. In response this Vogue critique, another commentator said that Modi's fashion choice has no particular meaning at all and that there is no justification for trying to interpret it.
Awards and recognitions
- Gujarat Ratna by Shri Poona Gujarati Bandhu Samaj at Ganesh Kala Krida Manch on celebration of centenary year.
- e-Ratna award by the Computer Society of India.
- Best Chief Minister – In a nationwide survey conducted in 2007 by India Today magazine, Narendra Modi was declared the Best Chief Minister in the country.
- Asian Winner of the fDi Personality of the Year award for 2009 by FDi magazine.
- In March 2012, Modi appeared on the cover of the Asian edition of Time, one of India's few politicians to have done so.
- Modi was featured in Time's 2014 Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world.
- Modi has become the most followed Asian leader on Twitter.
- In 2014, he was ranked as the 15th most powerful person in the world by Forbes.
- In 2015, Modi was featured in Time's "30 most influential people on the internet" as the second most-followed politician on Twitter and Facebook.
- The exact number of people killed in the train burning is variously reported. For example, the BBC says it was 59 while The Guardian put the figure at 60.
- Afzal Guru was executed on 9 February 2013. There had been BJP allegations that the government's delaying of the execution for so long was an attempt to ensure that the Muslim vote was not lost.
- "Narendra Modi is sworn in as the 15th Prime Minister of India". The Times of India. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "India’s Modi takes on rape issue in his first Independence Day speech". Washington Post. August 15, 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Modi wave conquers all: What exit polls show in Haryana, Maharashtra". Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Menon, Kalyani Devaki (2012). Everyday Nationalism: Women of the Hindu Right in India. The University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0812222340.
Yet, months after this violent pogrom against Muslims, the Hindu nationalist chief minister of Gujarat, Narendra Modi, went to the polls and won a resounding victory
- Mishra, Pankaj (April 2011). Visweswaran, Kamala, ed. Perspectives on Modern South Asia: A Reader in Culture, History, and Representation. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 188. ISBN 978-1405100625.
The chief minister of Gujarat, a young up-and-coming leader of the Hindu nationalists called Narendra Modi, quoted Isaac Newton to explain the killings of Muslims. "Every action", he said, "has an equal and opposite reaction."
- Nair, Rupam Jain (12 December 2007). "Edgy Indian state election going down to the wire". Reuters. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Robinson, Simon (11 December 2007). "India's Voters Torn Over Politician". Time. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Burke, Jason (28 March 2010). "Gujarat leader Narendra Modi grilled for 10 hours at massacre inquiry". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Buncombe, Andrew (19 September 2011). "A rebirth dogged by controversy". The Independent. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- David, Ruth (24 December 2007). "Controversial Gujarati Premier Confirmed in Office". Forbes. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Joseph, Manu (15 February 2012). "Shaking Off the Horror of the Past in India". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (June 2013). "Gujarat Elections: The Sub-Text of Modi’s ‘Hattrick’ — High Tech Populism and the ‘Neo-middle Class". Studies in Indian Politics 1.
- "'Modi is a Teli-Ghanchi OBC': BJP". The Times of India. 23 April 2014.
- "BJP plays Modi caste card to run down Nitish". Hindustan Times. 18 June 2013.
- "OBC વડાપ્રધાન હોવા જોઈએ ભાજપ હવે જ્ઞાાતિનું કાર્ડ ઉતરશે". Gujarat Samachar (in Gujarati). 6 May 2014.
- Illaih, Kancha (27 October 2002). "The Rise Of Modi". Outlook.
- Marino 2014, p. 15.
- Jose, Vinod K. (1 March 2012). "The Emperor Uncrowned". The Caravan. pp. 2–4. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Mehta, Harit (18 September 2011). "On Race Course road?". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014.
- "Affidavit of Narendra Modi for 2014 Indian General Elections (Varanasi)". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Marino 2014, p. 16.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, p. 82.
- "Modi's life dominates publishing space (Election Special)". New Kerala. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- Marino 2014, p. 24.
- Unnithan, Sandeep (2014). "The man behind Modi: Lakshmanrao Inamdar". India Today. Ahmedabad. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Mukhopadhyay, Nilanjan (2014). "Narendra Modi: The making of the political leader". Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Pathak, Anil (2 October 2001). "Modi's meteoric rise". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Debasree (2014). "Will former tea vendor be India's next PM?". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- "Narendra Modi's 'wife' Jashodaben finally speaks, 'I like to read about him (Modi)... I know he will become PM'". The Financial Express. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Narendra Modi: From tea vendor to PM candidate". India Today. 13 September 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Bodh, Anand (17 February 2014). "I am single, so best man to fight graft: Narendra Modi". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
- "Jashodaben is my wife, Narendra Modi admits under oath". The Times of India. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- Marino 2014, pp. 30–33.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, pp. 128–129.
- "Narendra Modi invited to Ramakrishna Mission's headquarter in Belurmath". The Economic Times (The Times Group). 26 May 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, p. 131.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, p. 138.
- Marino 2014, p. 35.
- Marino 2014, p. 48.
- "Modi proves to be an astute strategist". Hindustan Times. 23 December 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Guha 2008, p. 493–494.
- Kochanek 2007, p. 205.
- Marino 2014, p. 43.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, p. 150.
- "From Vadnagar to 7 RCR: Modi's meteoric rise". Rediff News. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Patel, Aakar. "The poetic side of Narendra Modi". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Gujarat not enamoured by poet Narendra Modi". The Times of India (The Times Group). 28 June 2004. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Mishra, Mayank (20 July 2013). "Did Narendra Modi make Gujarat Vibrant?". Business Standard. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- Mukhopadhyay 2013, pp. 68–69.
- Venkatesan, V. (13 October 2001). "A pracharak as Chief Minister". Frontline (New Delhi). Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Gujarat Assembly Elections 2012: Narendra Modi profile". Zee News. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Mehta, Harit (1 April 2014). "Six-year banishment led to Narendra Modi's metamorphosis". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- Marino 2014, p. 78.
- Marino 2014, p. 79.
- Phadnis, Aditi (2009). Business Standard Political Profiles of Cabals and Kings. Business Standard Books. pp. 116–21. ISBN 978-81-905735-4-2.
- Bunsha, Dionne (13 October 2001). "A new oarsman". Frontline. Archived from the original on 28 August 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Narendra Modi – Leading the race to 7 RCR". Zee News. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Setting a record: A look at 12 years of Narendra Modi's rule in Gujarat". Firstpost. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Dasgupta, Manas (7 October 2001). "Modi sworn in Gujarat CM amidst fanfare". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- Venkatesan, V. "A victory and many pointers". Frontline. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Eleven sentenced to death for India Godhra train blaze". BBC News. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Burke, Jason (22 February 2011). "Godhra train fire verdict prompts tight security measures". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Hampton, Janie (2002). Internally Displaced People: A Global Survey. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 978-1853839528.
- "Gujarat Riot Death Toll revealed". BBC News. 11 May 2005. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- Campbell, John; Seiple, Chris; Hoover, Dennis R. et al., eds. (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Religion and Security. Routledge. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.
- "Army too helpless as violence mounts". The Economic Times. 1 March 2002. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Curfew imposed in 26 cities". The Hindu. 1 March 2002. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Sengupta, Somini (28 April 2009). "Shadows of Violence Cling to Indian Politician". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 August 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "Modi wanted Godhra bodies to come to A'bad". The Times of India. 22 August 2004. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Decision to bring Godhra victims' bodies taken at top level". The Hindu. 10 February 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Timeline: Zakia Jafri vs Modi in 2002 Gujarat riots case". Hindustan Times. 26 December 2013. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "National Human Rights Commission vs. State of Gujarat & Ors. – Writ Petition (Crl.) No. 109/2003". Supreme Court of India. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Jakia Nasim Ahesan & Anr. vs. State of Gujarat & Ors. – SLP (Crl) No. 1088 of 2008". Supreme Court of India. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Mahapatra, Dhananjay (3 December 2010). "SIT clears Narendra Modi of willfully allowing post-Godhra riots". The Times of India. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Proceed against Modi for Gujarat riots: amicus". The Hindu. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "SIT rejects amicus curiae's observations against Modi". The Hindu. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Khan, Saeed; Kaushik, Humanshu (26 December 2013). "2002 Gujarat riots: Clean chit to Modi, court rejects Zakia Jafri's plea". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Chris Ogden. 2012. A Lasting Legacy: The BJP-led National Democratic Alliance and India's Politics Journal of Contemporary Asia Vol. 42, Iss. 1, 2012
- Pandey, Gyanendra (November 2005). Routine violence: nations, fragments, histories. Stanford University Press. pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-8047-5264-0.
- Baruah, Bipasha (2012). Women and Property in Urban India. University of British Columbia Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7748-1928-2.
- Nussbaum, Martha Craven. The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future. Harvard University Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-0-674-03059-6.
- Soni, Nikunj (21 February 2012). "For Maya Kodnani, riots memories turn her smile into gloom". DNA India. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Maya Kodnani led mob to carry out Naroda riot: Gujarat govt to HC". The Economic Times. 21 February 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Naroda Patiya riots: Former minister Maya Kodnani gets 28 years in jail". NDTV. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Narendra Modi government now rethinks death penalty for ex-aide Maya Kodnani". NDTV. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Modi government does U-turn on death penalty for Kodnani, Bajrangi". The Hindu. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Modi gets cold feet on death for Kodnani". Hindustan Times. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Fisher, Max (16 May 2014). "Who is Narendra Modi and why is the world afraid of him leading India?". Vox. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Barry, Ellen (7 April 2014). "Wish for Change Animates Voters in India Election". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Kishwar, Madhu Purnima (8 April 2014). "Narendra Modi on the Role of NDTV during the 2002 Riots". Manushi. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Congress demands Modi's resignation over Bannerjee report". Rediff.com. 3 March 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2007.
- "BJP national exec rejects Modi's resignation". Rediff.com. 12 April 2002. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Gujarat Assembly dissolved, early poll sought". The Economic Times. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Modi resigns; seeks Assembly dissolution". The Hindu. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 9 May 2006.
- "Statistical Report on General Election, 2002 to the Legislative Assembly of Gujarat" (PDF). New Delhi: Election Commission of India. p. 228. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Gujarat IB officers transferred for putting Modi's controversial speech on record". Rediff. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 17 September 2002.
- Brasted, Howard V. (2005). Lahoud, Nelly; Johns, A. H., eds. Islam in World Politics. Routledge. p. 119. ISBN 978-0415324113.
the successful anti-Muslim campaign run in Gujarat in December 2002 by its provincial chief minister Narendra Modi – a hardline Hindu nationalist preacher turned politician – has ominous implications.
- Corbridge, Stuart; John Harriss, Craig Jeffrey (2012). India Today: Economy, Politics and Society. Polity Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0745661124.
December 2002, the BJP – led by Narendra Modi, who conducted a vicious campaign, making many stridently anti-Muslim statements
- Hardgrave, Jr., Robert L. (2005). "Hindu Nationalism and the BJP: Transforming Religion and Politics in India". In Dossani, Rafiq; Rowen, Henry S. Prospects For Peace in South Asia. Stanford University Press. pp. 210–211. ISBN 9780804750851.
In the campaign, Modi fused religion and politics and, as a spur to anti-Muslim sentiment, made Islamic terrorism and its ties to Pakistan a central plank in the BJP platform" etc
- "Modi wins Maninagar seat by 75,333 votes". Times of India. TNN. 15 December 2002. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Narendra Modi sworn in as Gujarat CM". Rediff. 22 December 2002. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- Umat, Ajay (9 February 2013). "Once Hindutva twins, Narendra Modi and PravinTogadia no longer conjoined". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Religious leaders demand rebuilding of temples". DNA India. Press Trust of India. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Dasgupta, Manas (4 April 2002). "Vajpayee's advice to Modi". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Vajpayee, Advani differed over Modi's resignation". India Today. 20 March 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Tellis, Ashley J.; Wills, Michael (September 2007). Domestic political change and grand strategy. National Bureau of Asian Research. pp. 193–4. ISBN 978-0-9713938-8-2.
- Yogendra, Kanwar (13 June 2004). "Not removing Modi was a mistake, says Vajpayee". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Naqvi, Saba (22 December 2008). "When fear didn't enter the booth". Outlook India. pp. 26–28. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "Mahatma on lips, Modi fights Centre". The Telegraph (Kolkata, India). 19 July 2006. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
- "Now, Amar Singh says Afzal Guru must be hanged". The Indian Express. 4 November 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Mohan, Vishwa (10 February 2013). "Afzal Guru hanged, remains in Tihar; no last wish, refused to eat". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Modi wants 3-layer ring to secure coast". The Times of India. 28 November 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Narendra Modi wins Maninagar by 70,000 votes". Hindustan Times. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "BJP adds 5 seats in Gujarat Assembly by-polls". Deccan Herald. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Shah, Tushaar (2011). Business Standard India 2011. Business Standard Books. pp. 195–199. ISBN 978-93-80740-04-1.
- Mahurkar, Uday (4 June 2010). "A green rising". India Today. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Gujarat, Maharashtra record highest growth in farm sector". The Hindu. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Shah, Tushaar; Gulati, Ashok; Hemant, P.; Shreedhar, Ganga; Jain, R. C. (December 2009). "Secret of Gujarat's Agrarian Miracle after 2000". Economic and Political Weekly 44 (52): 45–55. JSTOR 25663939. (subscription required)
- Mishra, Mayank (20 July 2013). "Did Narendra Modi make Gujarat Vibrant?". Business Standard. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- Shah, Tushar; Verma, Shilp (22 February 2008). "Co-Management of Electricity and Groundwater: An Assessment of Gujarat's Jyotirgram Scheme". Economic and Political weekly 43: 59–66. JSTOR 40277613.
- "Good interest for developing SEZ, non-SEZ areas in GIFT city". The Economic Times. 11 January 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- GIFT Project Update July 2012 – Building and Construction Authority, Government of Singapore
- Bobbio, Tommaso (2012). "Making Gujarat Vibrant: Hindutva, development and the rise of subnationalism in India". Third World Quarterly 33 (4): 657–672. doi:10.1080/01436597.2012.657423. (subscription required)
- Ibrahim, Farhana (25 August 2007). "Capitalism, Multiculturalism and Tolerance: A Perspective on'Vibrant Gujarat". Economic and Political Weekly: 3446–3449. JSTOR 4419936. (subscription required)
- Mehta, Nalin (15 October 2010). "Ashis Nandy vs. the state of Gujarat: authoritarian developmentalism, democracy and the politics of Narendra Modi". South Asian History and Culture 1 (4): 577–596. doi:10.1080/19472498.2010.507028. (subscription required)
- Shah, Ghanshyam (June 2013). "Politics of Governance: A Study of Gujarat". Studies in Indian Politics 1 (1): 65–77. doi:10.1177/2321023013482788. (subscription required)
- Pathak, Vikas (11 August 2013). "Gujarat looks at marketing human development now". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Land Acquisition act is a fraud, ought to be scrapped: Supreme Court". The Economic Times. Press Trust of India. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (June 2013). "Gujarat Elections: The Sub-Text of Modi’s ‘Hattrick’—High Tech Populism and the ‘Neo-middle Class’". Studies in Indian Politics 1 (1): 79–95. doi:10.1177/2321023013482789.
- Sen, Amartya (22 July 2013). "I don't want Narendra Modi as my PM: Amartya Sen". The Indian Express. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Bhagwati, Jagdish; Panagariya, Arvind (2013). "Reforms and Their Impact on Health and Education". Why Growth Matters:How Economic Growth in India Reduced Poverty and the Lessons for Other Developing Countries. New York City: PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610392723. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
- "Big win for Narendra Modi, defeats Shweta Bhatt by huge margin". NDTV. Press Trust of India. 20 December 2012.
- Ghassem-fachandi, Parvis (2012). Pogrom in Gujarat: Hindu Nationalism and Anti-Muslim Violence in India. Princeton University Press. p. 198. ISBN 9780691151779.
- 1. "Action continues: Narendra Modi makes lotus bloom again in Gujarat". DNA India. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
2. "Gujarat results 2012 Live :Modi's claim for PM's post gets stronger". Samay Live. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- "BJP sweeps Gujarat bypolls, RJD trumps JD(U) in Bihar". The Hindu. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Bhowmick, Nilanjana (5 March 2013). "Why Wharton Canceled Narendra Modi's Speech". Time. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "LIVE: Anandiben Patel named new Gujarat chief minister – IndiaToday – May 21 2014l". Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "BJP banking on Modi effect". The Hindu. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Srivastava, Ritesh (30 August 2011). "Election 2009 dissected: How parties cut the vote pie". Zee News. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "Narendra Modi inducted into BJP Parliamentary Board, Rajnath rejigs team". The Economic Times. 31 March 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "Parliamentary Board". Bharatiya Janata Party. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Narendra Modi set appointed as Chairman of BJP's Central Election Campaign Committee". The Economic Times. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
- "Advani grabs lifeline, meekly withdraws resignation". The Times of India. 12 June 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "BJP announces Modi as prime ministerial candidate". The Hindu. 14 September 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "It's official: Modi picked for Varanasi, Jaitley for Amritsar". The Times of India. 16 March 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- "Narendra Modi files nomination in Vadodara after grand roadshow". NDTV. 9 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Kunwar, D S (27 April 2013). "Sadhus want Narendra Modi declared NDA's PM candidate". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- "Academic brawl: Bhagwati-Panagariya pitch for Modi while Amartya Sen backs Nitish". The Economic Times. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Dutta, Saptarishi. "Modi Sticks to His ‘Minimum Government, Maximum Governance’ Mantra". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
- "Modi's Vadodara victory margin not highest-ever". Business Standard. 16 May 2014.
- "Lok Sabha polls: Narendra Modi wins big from Varanasi, Vadodara". Zee News. 16 May 2014.
- "Election Results 2014: Narendra Modi Wins By Huge Margin in Vadodara". NDTV. 16 May 2014.
- "Election Results 2014: Ab Ki Baar, Modi Sarkaar. BJP+ set for more than 300 seats.". NDTV. 16 May 2014.
- "President appoints Narendra Modi as Prime Minister, Oath taking ceremony on May 26". Office of President of India. 20 May 2014. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Narendra Modi appointed PM, swearing-in on May 26". The Indian Express. Press Trust of India. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Modi thanks Vadodara, looks forward to serve Ganga". Hindustan Times. Press Trust of India. 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Sharma, Swati (25 June 2014). "White House losing Twitter war to India’s Narendra Modi". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Narendra Modi appointed Prime Minister, swearing in on May 26". The Times of India. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Swami, Praveen (22 May 2014). "In a first, Modi invites SAARC leaders for his swearing-in". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "PM accepts India's invite to Modi's oath-taking". DAWN. 24 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Jacob, Jayanth (24 May 2014). "Not SAARC meeting officially, but almost at Modi's swearing-in". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- TNN (24 May 2014). "Pak PM Nawaz Sharif to attend Narendra Modi's swearing-in ceremony". Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "Sharif, Rajapaksa, Hasina invited to Modi's swearing-in ceremony". Hindustan Times. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- Narendra Modi saves Rs 125 crore by keeping Cabinet small | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis
- "Japanese vendors keen on Gujarat: Suzuki tells Modi". Business Standard. 25 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "Gujarat now India's SEZ: Modi". The Indian Express. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Modi visits Dalian port in China, meets city Mayor". One India. 8 September 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Modi shines like a diamond; frees jailed traders in China". One India. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "China frees 13 diamond traders, Narendra Modi pats his own back". Mumbai Mirror. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "No entry for Modi into US: visa denied". The Times of India. 18 March 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Mann, James (2 May 2014). "Why Narendra Modi Was Banned From the U.S.". Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- Burke, Jason (22 October 2012). "UK government ends boycott of Narendra Modi". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "Germany delinks Narendra Modi's image from human rights issues". NDTV. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Readout of the President’s Call with Prime Ministerial Candidate Narendra Modi of India". Whitehouse.gov. May 16, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
- Cassidy, John (16 May 2014). "What Does Modi's Victory Mean for the World?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Narendra Modi invites Pak investment, offers energy solutions". The News International. 20 September 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Pakistan 'backs Narendra Modi' as India's next prime minister". The Daily Telegraph. 21 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Roche, Elizabeth (20 May 2014). "Narendra Modi and the art of Twiplomacy". Live Mint. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "'Modi's invitation to SAARC leaders was a masterstroke'". Rediff.com. 26 May 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Narendra Modi has a 'Full' Diplomatic Calender Ahead: Bhutan, Japan, US". The Times of India. 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Modi thanks guardian deities, Kings for Bhutan visit success". Zee News. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- "Prime Minister on a 5 day visit to Japan". Firstpost. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2014.
- "List of Documents signed during the State Visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to India". Press Bureau of India. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "English rendering of the Remarks by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi at the Press Briefing with President Xi Jinping of China". Press Bureau of India. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "US describes Modi visit as extraordinarily succesful". Economic times. 4 Oct 2014. Retrieved 4 Oct 2014.
- "Narendra Modi calls for International Yoga Day". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- Harding, Luke (18 August 2013). "Profile: Narendra Modi". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "The Hawk in Flight". Outlook India. 24 December 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Aakar, Patel (19 December 2012). "Narendra Modi, smart politician and average poet". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- "Crowd puller Modi". Hindustan Times. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- "Vaghela no match for crowd-puller Modi". Deccan Herald. 17 September 2011. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- Dasgupta, Manas (14 November 2002). "Modi, Waghela crowd-pullers". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- "Narendra Modi urges Mumbai's businessmen to set up shop in Gujarat". NDTV. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
The auditorium had a capacity of only 2,000 people, but, according to Niranjan Hiranandani, IMC president, there were no less than 7,000 people gathered at the venue, many sitting on the floor or standing.
- "Crowd-pulling ability not enough to qualify for PM's post: Uma". The Indian Express (New Delhi). 16 May 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- "Modi's world second most followed politician on Twitter, Facebook". Times of India. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Narendra Modi on Google Hangout, Ajay Devgn to host event". The Times of India. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "People ask, Narendra Modi answers on Google Plus Hangout". CNN-IBN. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- Ramaseshan, Radhika (2 July 2013). "Boomerang warning in article on 'polarising' Modi". The Telegraph (Kolkata). Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Malik, Ashok (8 November 2012). "Popular but polarising: can Narendra Modi be PM?". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Bajaj, Vikas (22 December 2012). "In India, a Dangerous and Divisive Technocrat". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "NaMo, Ram the new mantra on Dalal Street!". The Economic Times. 15 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Bhattacharya, Suryatapa; Seervai, Shanoor (8 August 2014). "Is Modi India’s Best-Dressed Prime Minister Ever?". blogs.wsj.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Jenkins, P. Nash (6 June 2014). "India’s New Prime Minister Is the Country’s Latest Fashion Icon". time.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Sharma, Swati (6 June 2014). "Here’s what Narendra Modi’s fashion says about his politics - The Washington Post". The Washington Post (Washington DC: WPC). ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Kidwai, Rasheed; Ramaseshan, Radhika (12 October 2009). "Nothing casual about it". telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Friedman, Vanessa (3 June 2014). "Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India: A Leader Who Is What He Wears". runway.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- staff (26 September 2014). "Row over ‘Modi kurta’ label ends". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Swaroop, Vijay (9 April 2014). "Modi uncut: tailor who stitches for BJP leader". hindustantimes.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Ahuja, Snigdha (1 August 2014). "Troy Costa: Meet Prime Minister Narendra Modi's new designer". hindustantimes.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Agence France-Presse (27 September 2014). "US gets an eyeful of new India as dapper Modi struts his stuff - The Nation". nationmultimedia.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Modi dons denims keeping pace with Gujarat - The Hindu". thehindu.com. 7 December 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- staff (10 June 2014). "Modi is what he wears: NYT's absurd interpretation of the PM's kurta". firstpost.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Narendra Modi to be presented 'Gujarat Ratna' today". The Times of India. 18 March 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- "Twitter's Modi Express steams past 600,000 followers". One India. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- "Making Up For Lost Time". India Today. 12 February 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
- "Modi wins fDi personality of the year award". Sify. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
- "Why Narendra Modi is India's Most Loved and Loathed Politician". Time. 16 March 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Zakaria, Fareed (23 April 2014). "The 100 Most Influential People: Narendra Modi". Time (US). Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Modi is Asia's most followed leader on Twitter". 11 July 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "The World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- "The 30 Most Influential People on the Internet". Time. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- Sardesai, Rajdeep. 2014: The Election That Changed India (2014) excerpt
- Sridharan, Eswaran. "Behind Modi's Victory." Journal of Democracy (2014) 24#4 pp: 20-33. Online
- Fernandes, Vivian (2014). Modi: Leadership, governance and Performance. Orient Publishing. ASIN B00JUIMUBA.
- Kamath, M.V.; Randeri, Kalindi (2013). The Man of the Moment: Narendra Modi. Vikas. ISBN 978-9325968387.
- Kishwar, Madhu Purnima (2014). Modi, Muslims and Media: Voices from Narendra Modi's Gujarat. Manushi Publications. ISBN 978-81-929352-0-1.
- Mahurkar, Uday (2014). Centrestage: Inside the Narendra Modi Model of Governanace. Random House India. ASIN B00JR3PQ64.
- Marino, Andy (2014). Narendra Modi: A Political Biography. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 978-93-5136-217-3.
- Mitta, Manoj (2014). The Fiction of Fact-Finding: Modi & Godhra. HarperCollins Publishers India. ISBN 978-93-5029-187-0.
- Mukhopadhyay, Nilanjan (2013). Narendra Modi: The Man, The Times. Westkabd. ASIN B00C4PGOF4.
- Nag, Kingshuk (2013). The NaMo Story - A Political Life. Roli Books. ISBN 978-8174369383.
- Nussbaum, Martha Craven (2008). The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03059-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Narendra Modi.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Narendra Modi|
- Official website (Prime Minister's office)
- Official website (personal)
- Official page on Bharatiya Janata Party's website
- Collected news and commentary at the Indian Express
- Collected news and commentary at the Times of India
- Collected news and commentary at the NDTV
|Chief Minister of Gujarat
|Prime Minister of India
Murli Manohar Joshi
|Member of the Lok Sabha