11 October 1902|
Sitabdiara,Saran, Bihar, India
|Died||8 October 1979
Patna, Bihar, India
|Other names||JP , Jayaprakash, Loknayak|
|Organization||Indian National Congress, Janata Party|
|Political movement||Indian Independence movement, Sarvodaya movement, Indian emergency|
Jayaprakash Narayan (11 October 1902 – 8 October 1979), widely known as JP Narayan, Jayaprakash, or Loknayak, was an Indian independence activist and political leader, remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s and for giving a call for peaceful Total Revolution. His biography, Jayaprakash, was written by his nationalist friend and an eminent writer of Hindi literature, Ramavriksha Benipuri. In 1999, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, in recognition of his social work. Other awards include the Magsaysay award for Public Service in 1965. The airport of Patna is also named after him.
Early life 
Jayprakash Narayan was born on 11 October 1902 in the village of Sitabdiara , Bihar, India. He came from a Kayastha family. He was Harsu Dayal and Phul Rani Devi’s fourth child. When Narayan was 9 years old he left his village to enroll in 7th class of the collegiate school at Patna. He was a serious student and by 1918 completed school and undertook the ‘State Public Matriculation Examination’ and won a District merit scholarship to Patna college.
Narayan was not very religious but he began to read regularly some of the most basic Hindu scriptures starting with Bhagavada Gita, deriving heroic inspiration from the great battle of the Mahabharata described in the book which enlightens the concept that the essence of man is immortal. Narayan then also acquired a "Swadeshi” (indigenous) attitude, using handmade village shoes instead of the British manufactured ones and cleaning them with Indian mustard oil instead of with British shoe polish. He dressed himself in a Kurta, a home-spun, hand-woven material and an ascetically short dhoti.
At 18, Narayan was married to Braj Kishore Prasad’s daughter Prabhavati Devi, a freedom fighter in her own right.
Sandip Das, a biographer, says that
Returning from the US in late 1929 as a supporter of Marxist theories, Narayan joined the Indian National Congress on the invitation of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1929; Mahatma Gandhi became his mentor in the Congress. He shared the same house at Kadam Kuan in Patna with his close friend and nationalist Ganga Sharan Sinha (Shrivastava). with whom he shared the most cordial and lasting friendship.
After being jailed in 1932 for civil disobedience against British rule, Narayan was imprisoned in Nasik Jail, where he met Ram Manohar Lohia, Minoo Masani, Achyut Patwardhan, Ashok Mehta, Yusuf Desai and other national leaders. After his release, the Congress Socialist Party, or (CSP), a left-wing group within the Congress, was formed with Acharya Narendra Deva as President and Narayan as General secretary.
When Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement in August, 1942, Yogendra Shukla scaled the wall of Hazaribagh Central Jail along with Jayaprakash Narayan, Suraj Narayan Singh, Gulab Chand Gupta, Ramnandan Mishra and Shaligram Singh with a view to starting an underground movement for freedom. As Jayaprakash Narayan was ill then, Yogendra Shukla walked a distance to Gaya with Jayaprakash Narayan on his shoulders.
Bihar Movement and Total Revolution 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2011)|
Narayan returned to prominence in State politics in the late 1960s. In 1974, he led the students' movement in the state of Bihar which gradually developed into a popular people's movement known as the Bihar movement. It was during this movement that JP gave a call for peaceful Total Revolution. Together with V. M. Tarkunde, he founded the Citizens for Democracy in 1974 and the People's Union for Civil Liberties in 1976, both NGOs, to uphold and defend civil liberties.
When Indira Gandhi was found guilty of violating electoral laws by the Allahabad High Court, Narayan called for Indira to resign, and advocated a program of social transformation which he termed Sampoorna kraanti (Total Revolution). Instead she proclaimed a national Emergency on the midnight of June 25, 1975, immediately after Narayan had called for the PM's resignation and had asked the military and the police to disregard unconstitutional and immoral orders; JP, opposition leaders, and dissenting members of her own party (the 'Young Turks') were arrested on that day.
Jayaprakash Narayan attracted a gathering of 100,000 people at the Ramlila grounds and thunderously recited Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar''s wonderfully evocative poetry: Singhasan Khaali Karo Ke Janata Aaati Hai.
Narayan was kept as detenu at Chandigarh even after he had asked for a month's parole for mobilising relief in areas of Bihar gravely affected by flood. His health suddenly deteriorated on October 24, and he was released on November 12; diagnosis at Jaslok Hospital, Bombay, revealed kidney failure; he would be on dialysis for the rest of his life.
After Indira revoked the emergency on January 18, 1977 and announced elections, it was under JP's guidance that the Janata Party (a vehicle for the broad spectrum of the anti-Indira Gandhi opposition) was formed. The Janata Party was voted into power, and became the first non-Congress party to form a government at the Centre. On the call of Narayan many youngsters joined the JP movement.
Narayan died in Patna, Bihar, on 8 October 1979, three days before his 77th birthday, due to effects of diabetes and heart ailments. In March 1979, while he was in hospital, his death had been erroneously announced by the Indian prime minister, causing a brief wave of national mourning, including the suspension of parliament and regular radio broadcasting, and the closure of schools and shops. When he was told about the gaffe a few weeks later, he smiled.
Jayaprakash was married to Prabhavati Devi, daughter of lawyer and nationalist Brij Kishore Prasad in October 1920. Prabhavati was very independent-minded and on Gandhiji’s invitation, went to stay at his ashram while Jayaprakash continued his studies.
- Bharat Ratna, 1999 (Posthmus)for Public Affairs 
- Rashtrabhushan Award of FIE Foundation, Ichalkaranji
- Why Socialism, 1936
- War Circulars, 1-4 CSP, Lucknow
- Inside Lahore Fort, Sahityalaya Patna 1947
- Nation Building in India — JP Narayan
- Three Basic Problems of India. From Socialism to Sarvodaya, Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, Varansi 1957
- A Plea for Reconstruction of Indian Polity, Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, Varansi 1959
- Swaraj for the People, Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, Varansi 1961
- Sarvodaya Answer to Chinese Aggression, Sarvodaya Prachuralaya Tanjore 1963
- Face to Face, Navchetna Prakashan, Varansi 1970
- Prison Diary, Samajwadi Yuvjan Sabha Calcutta 1976 and Popular Prakashan, Bombay 1977.
- Towards Struggle, edited by Yusuf Meherally, Padma Publications, Bombay 1946,47
- Socialism,Sarvodaya and Democracy, edited by Bimal Prasad, Asia Publishing House Bombay 1964
- Communitarian Society and Panchayti Raj, edited by Brahmanand Navchetna Prakashan Varansi 1970
- Nation-Building in India, edited by Brahmanand Navchetna Prakashan Varansi 1974
- Towards Revolution, edited by Bhargava and Phadnis, Arnold-Heinemann New Delhi 1975
- J.P’s Jail Life (A Collection of Personal Letters) translated by G S Bhargava, Arnold-Heinemann New Delhi 1977
- Towards Total Revolution, edited by Brahmanand Popular Prakashan Bombay 1978
- J P:Profile of a non-conformist, Interviews by Bhola Chatterji, Minerva Associates, Calcutta, 1979
- To All Fighters of Freedom II, A Revolutionary’s Quest-selected writings of Jayprakash Narayan, edited by Bimal Prasad Oxford University Press New Delhi 1980
- Concept of Total Revolution: An Introductory Essay(JP and social change) by Bimal Prasad
- "J.P. Narayan". Janta Dal Secular.
- "JP Narayan". Janta Dal Secular. Retrieved 19 May 2013.
- "JP's village gets power 65 yrs after Independence". Zeenews. 22 April 2012.
- Das, Sandip (2005). Jayaprakash Narayan: A Centenary Volume. Mittal Publications. p. 109. ISBN 978-81-8324-001-7. Retrieved 2013-03-13.
- Das, Sandip (2005). Jayaprakash Narayan: A Centenary Volume. Mittal Publications. p. 239. ISBN 978-81-8324-001-7. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
- Das, Sandip (2005). Jayaprakash Narayan: A Centenary Volume. Mittal Publications. p. 230. ISBN 978-81-8324-001-7. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
- Ralhan, O.P. (2002). Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 17998 (at pages 73–74). ISBN 978-81-7488-865-5.
- Srivastava, N.M.P. (1988). Struggle for Freedom: Some Great Indian Revolutionaries. K.P.Jayaswal Research Institute, Government of Bihar, Patna.
- Harish Khare (2001-05-16). "Obligations of a lameduck". The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-01-02.
- McRobie, George (30 June 2003). "Surur Hoda: Trade unionist who spread the message of Mahatma Gandhi". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2012-01-06.
- Datta-Ray, Sunanda K. "Inconvenient Prophet". India Today. Archived from the original on 2009-01-31. Retrieved 2012-01-06.
- Vaidya, Prem. "Jayaprakash Narayan — Keeper of India's Conscience". LiberalsIndia.com. Retrieved 2012-08-16.
- Correspondent, NDTV (January 24, 2011). "List of all Bharat Ratna award winners". ndtv.com. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
Further reading 
- Red Fugitive: Jayaprakash Narayan by H L Singh Dewans Publications Lahore 1946
- Life and Time of Jayaprakash Narayan by J S Bright Dewans Publications Lahore 1946
- Jayaprakash Narayan: A Political Biography by Ajit Bhattacharyajea Vikas Publications New Delhi 1975
- J.P: His Biography, Allan and Wendy Scarfe, Orient Longmans New Delhi 1975
- Jayaprakash: Rebel Extraordinary, by Lakshmi Narayan Lal, Indian Book Company New Delhi 1975
- Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan, by Suresh Ram Macmillan Co. Delhi 1974
- Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan by Farooq Argali Janata Pocket Books Delhi 1977.
- Bimal Prasad (editor). 1980. A Revolutionary's Quest: Selected Writings of Jayaprakash Narayan. Oxford University Press, Delhi ISBN 0-19-561204-3
- Jai Prakash Narain, Jayaprakash Narayan, Essential Writings, 1929-1979: A Centenary Volume, 1902–2002, Konark Publishers (2002) ISBN 81-220-0634-5
- Dr. Kawaljeet, J.P.'s Total Revolution and Humanism (Patna: Buddhiwadi Foundation, 2002). ISBN 81-86935-02-9
- Dr. Ramendra (editor), Jayaprakash Vichar Sankalan [Hindi] (Patna: Rajendra Prakashan, 1986).
- Satyabrata Rai Chowdhuri, Leftism in India: 1917-1947 (London and New Delhi: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
- A plea for the reconstruction of Indian polity
- Total revolution
- On Hindu revivalism
- Magsaysay award acceptance speech; Citation
- JP's visit to an RSS camp, as told by Sita Ram Goel in "Perversion of India's Political Parlance"
- JP information from Gandhi museum