Naval Battle of Casablanca

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Naval Battle of Casablanca
Part of Operation Torch
Jeanbart.jpg
Jean Bart at Casablanca under attack by aircraft from USS Ranger.
Date 8–16 November 1942
Location off Casablanca, French Morocco, Atlantic Ocean
Result American victory
Belligerents
 United States  Vichy France
 Nazi Germany
Commanders and leaders
United States Henry Kent Hewitt Vichy France Félix Michelier
Nazi Germany Ernst Kals
Strength
1 aircraft carrier
1 escort carrier
1 battleship
3 heavy cruisers
1 light cruiser
14 destroyers
15 troopships
347 landing craft
unknown aircraft
Vichy France:
1 battleship (partially armed)
1 light cruiser
2 flotilla leaders
7 destroyers
8 sloops
11 minesweepers
11 submarines
unknown aircraft
unknown shore batteries
Germany:
~2 submarines
unknown aircraft
Casualties and losses
4 troopships sunk
~150 landing craft sunk
4-5 aircraft destroyed
1 battleship damaged
2 destroyers damaged
1 oiler damaged
~174 killed
unknown wounded
France1 light cruiser grounded and burnt out for total loss
4 destroyers sunk
5 submarines sunk
7 aircraft destroyed
shore batteries destroyed
1 battleship damaged
unknown destroyers damaged
2 submarines damaged
1 destroyer grounded
2 flotilla leaders grounded
1 submarine grounded
~462 killed
~200 wounded
Germany1 submarine sunk
unknown human losses

  • Ten French freighters and liners were sunk during the battle.
  • The French submarine, La Sybille, was lost at sea during the battle.
  • The French submarine, Le Tonnant, was scuttled off Cadiz as result of battle damage.

The Naval Battle of Casablanca was a series of naval engagements fought between American ships covering the invasion of North Africa and Vichy French ships defending the neutrality of French Morocco in accordance with the Second Armistice at Compiègne during World War II.[1] The last stages of the battle consisted of operations by German U-boats which had reached the area the same day the French troops surrendered.[note 1] Allied military planners anticipated an all-American force assigned to seize the Atlantic port city of Casablanca might be greeted as liberators. An invasion task force of 102 American ships carrying 35,000 American soldiers approached the Moroccan coast undetected under cover of darkness. French defenders interpreted the first contacts as a diversionary raid for a major landing in Algeria; and regarded the surrender of six Moroccan divisions to a small commando raiding force as a clear violation of French obligations to defend Moroccan neutrality under the Second Armistice at Compiègne.[6] An escalating series of surprised responses in an atmosphere of mistrust and secrecy caused loss of four U.S. troopships and death of 462 men aboard 24 French ships opposing the invasion.[7]

Background[edit]

Morocco was a colony of France at the time of World War II. The French government at Vichy had surrendered to Germany after the Battle of France, signing an Armistice with Nazi Germany. General Charles de Gaulle led French forces opposed to the surrender and to the Vichy government, continuing the war on the side of Great Britain and the Allies. The Vichy regime—which controlled Morocco—was thus officially neutral, but in practical terms the Armistice obliged Vichy to resist any attempt by France′s erstwhile allies to seize French territory or equipment for use against Germany. British forces had attacked the French at Mers-el-Kébir for refusing to surrender to them or join the Allies, leading to much ill-will between France and Britain. The U.S. government had previously recognized the Vichy regime as legitimate. Military planning for Operation Torch in 1942 emphasized American troops in the initial landing forces on the basis of intelligence estimates they would be less vigorously opposed than British soldiers.[8]

American forces[edit]

Troopship convoy UGF 1 left Chesapeake Bay on 23 October 1942 and was joined on 26 October by a covering force of battleships and cruisers sailing from Casco Bay and on 28 October by the aircraft carriers USS Ranger, Sangamon, Suwannee, Chenango, and Santee sailing from Bermuda. These ships were screened by 38 American destroyers.[9] The resulting Task Force 34 (TF 34) included 102 ships for the invasion of Morocco under the command of Rear Admiral Henry Kent Hewitt aboard the flagship heavy cruiser USS Augusta. As TF 34 sailed, the British submarine HMS Seraph landed Major General Mark W. Clark near Algiers to meet with pro-American French military officers stationed in Algeria. French officers shared information about defensive arrangements; but the Americans did not share critical invasion details of timing, strength and distribution of forces.[10] No information was provided to key French leaders including Armed Forces Commander in Chief Admiral François Darlan, North African Commander in Chief General Alphonse Juin, or Moroccan Resident General Charles Noguès.[11]

Casablanca from space.

French forces[edit]

In 1942, Casablanca was the principal Vichy-controlled port on the Atlantic (all of France′s Atlantic coast having been occupied by Germany since 1940) and the most important Vichy-controlled naval base after Toulon. Naval gunners manned the El Hank coastal artillery battery of four 7.6 in (190 mm) guns and four 5.3 in (130 mm) guns; and one quadruple 15 in (380 mm) gun turret of the modern battleship Jean Bart was operational, although the battleship remained incomplete following escape from the Saint-Nazaire shipyards during the German invasion of 1940. One light cruiser, two flotilla leaders, seven destroyers (two already damaged by collision), eight sloops, 11 minesweepers, and 11 submarines were in port on the morning of 8 November.[12]

Most French personnel attending General Clark′s pre-invasion meeting were army officers. Information subsequently conveyed in pre-invasion contact with army personnel stationed in Morocco was interpreted as a request for recommendations. No pre-invasion contact has been documented with Vice Admiral Michelier, who commanded naval forces responsible for the defense of Casablanca. Admiral Michelier was not yet in the confidence of North African officers in contact with the Americans, since he had been a member of the Armistice Commission until assuming his Casablanca post less than a month before the invasion.[13]

Prelude[edit]

French defenders were placed on alert status when Algerian invasion convoys were detected passing through the Strait of Gibraltar.[14] Destinations remained unclear, and TF 34 remained undetected as it split into three groups on 7 November. Concealed by darkness, a northern group (six troopships and two cargo ships escorted by the battleship USS Texas, the light cruiser USS Savannah and six destroyers)[15] prepared to land 9,000 troops of the 60th infantry Regiment reinforced with 65 light tanks to seize the Port Lyautey airfield; and a southern group (four troopships and two cargo ships escorted by the battleship USS New York, the light cruiser USS Philadelphia and six destroyers)[16] prepared to land 6,500 troops of the 47th Infantry Regiment reinforced with 90 medium and light tanks near the phosphate port of Safi to cover the southern approaches to Casablanca, while the center group prepared to land the Casablanca occupation force of 19,500 troops of the 3rd Infantry Division[17] reinforced with 79 light tanks near Fedala 15 mi (24 km) northeast of Casablanca.[18] Naval coastal defense batteries flanked both ends of the Fedala landing beach with four 5.3 in (130 mm) guns at Point Blondin to the east and three 4 in (100 mm) and two 2.95 in (75 mm) guns in Fedala on the point sheltering the western end of the beach.[19]

Battle[edit]

8 November[edit]

Center group troopships USS William P. Biddle, Leonard Wood, Joseph T. Dickman, Tasker H. Bliss, Hugh L. Scott, Joseph Hewes, Edward Rutledge, Charles Carroll, Thomas Jefferson, Ancon, Elizabeth C. Stanton, Thurston, Arcturus, Procyon, and Oberon[17] anchored 8 mi (7.0 nmi; 13 km) off Fedala at midnight. Loaded landing craft rendezvoused and left the line of departure at 06:00.[note 2] Fedala coast defense batteries were alerted by the noise of landing craft engines and illuminated the beach approaches with searchlights but the searchlights were extinguished when the landing craft support boats opened fire with machine guns. Three-thousand-five hundred American troops were ashore by dawn; but early morning mist concealed the size of the invasion force. Fedala coast defense batteries opened fire on the landing craft shortly after 07:00.[note 2][20] At 07:20,[note 2] Admiral Hewitt authorized four American destroyers supporting the landing craft to open fire on the French shore batteries.[21] French gunners damaged the destroyers USS Ludlow and Murphy,[22] and at 07:25[note 2] the destroyers were defended by the heavier guns of the cruisers Augusta and Brooklyn screening the troopships.[23] Ludlow and Wilkes silenced the Point Blondin battery, while Augusta silenced the Fedala battery. Murphy, Wainwright, and other U.S. vessels engaged two French aircraft just before 07:00 on 8 November, ultimately driving them off.[22]

The heavy cruiser USS Wichita under fire off Casablanca.

The French submarines Amazone, Antiope, Meduse, Orphee and La Sybille sortied to defensive patrol stations at 07:00.[24] At 07:50,[note 2] French fighters rose to intercept a force of bombers from Ranger and Suwanee. The French fighters were engaged by fighters from Ranger in a dogfight that felled seven French and four[23] or five[24] American planes. Bombs started falling on Casablanca Harbor at 0804.[note 2] Ten civilian freighters and liners were sunk[24] and French submarines Amphitrite. Oreade, and La Psyche were destroyed at their moorings before they could get underway.[22] The American covering force of USS Massachusetts (BB-59), Wichita and Tuscaloosa screened by destroyers Mayrant, Rhind, Wainwright, and Jenkins appeared offshore and Massachusetts′ 16 in (410 mm) guns were added to the bombardment.[24] The El Hank battery observed gunfire from the covering force and straddled Massachusetts with its first salvo. The operational turret aboard the incomplete battleship Jean Bart also opened fire and was targeted by Massachusetts. Her fifth salvo jammed the turret rotating mechanism on Jean Bart. The covering force then targeted El Hank Battery from 08:40[25] to 09:25.[note 2][23]

Massachusetts nine 16-inch guns (shown firing in the Pacific) gave United States forces a significant naval artillery advantage at Casablanca.

While the covering force engaged El Hank Battery west of Casablanca, seven ships of the French 2nd Light Squadron sortied from Casablanca harbor at 09:00[24] under cover of a smoke screen to attack the troopships anchored off Fedala to the east.[23] The French destroyer Malin sortied with destroyers Fougueux and Boulonnais. At 09:20, the French squadron was strafed by fighter planes from Ranger.[24] French gunners sank a landing craft and scored hits on Ludlow.[26] Milan beached after being damaged by gunfire from Wilkes,[27][28] Wichita, and Tuscaloosa.[22] Massachusetts and Tuscaloosa engaged the French destroyers Fougueux at 10:00 and Boulonnais at 10:12.[28] Fougueux sank at 10:40.[26] The French light cruiser Primauguet sortied with flotilla leader destroyer Albatros and destroyers Brestois and Frondeur. Engaged by Massachusetts, the Primauguet force was outgunned; Primauguet had been under refit and was not fully operational but returned fire nonetheless. The French flotilla was also engaged by Augusta and Brooklyn from 11:00 to 11:20.[28] Albatros beached to avoid sinking. The remaining ships returned to Casablanca harbor where Primauguet beached and burnt out and the two destroyers capsized. Forty-five crew members were killed aboard Primauguet, and more than 200 more wounded. The French submarine Amazone missed Brooklyn with a salvo of torpedoes.[22][27] La Sybille disappeared on a patrol station between Casablanca and Fedala, but the cause of her destruction remains uncertain.[22][29] Surviving French submarines Sidi Ferruch and Le Conquerant sortied without torpedoes to avoid destruction in the harbor. Le Tonnant managed to load a few torpedoes before leaving.

Augusta sank Boulonnais[22] at noon[26] and the only French destroyer remaining operational was L'Alcyon.[23][26] Three small French warships emerged from Casablanca harbor in the early afternoon to rescue sailors from the sunken destroyer Fougueux, but the rescue ships were turned back by shellfire from the American covering force.[note 3] Workmen had repaired Jean Bart′s turret by sundown, and El Hank Battery remained operational. Nearly half of the 347 American landing craft had been destroyed, and fewer than 8,000 troops had been landed. Five French submarines still stalked the invasion fleet.[30]

10 November[edit]

The French mineweepers Commandant Delage and La Gracieuse sortied at 10:00 to open fire on American troops advancing from Fedala to the outskirts of Casablanca.[31] The cruiser Augusta and destroyers Edison and Tillman chased the minesweepers back into Casablanca harbor before being forced to retreat by gunfire from Jean Bart.[31] Nine dive bombers from Ranger[32] hit Jean Bart with two 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs and sank her at 16:00.[29] Jean Bart settled into the harbor mud with decks awash.[33] French submarines Le Tonnant, Meduse and Antiope launched unsuccessful torpedo salvos at Ranger, Massachusetts and Tuscaloosa, respectively.[22][27] Meduse was crippled by counterattacks and beached off Cape Blanc.[31]

11 November[edit]

Casablanca surrendered on 11 November. That day German submarines were able to reach the troopships before they completed offloading cargo.[33] In the early evening, U-173 torpedoed the destroyer Hambleton, the oiler Winooski and the troopship Joseph Hewes; around 100 men went down with Joseph Hewes. At this time, Bristol spotted a surfaced submarine and engaged with her deck guns and finally with depth charges, but is not believed to have sunk the French submarine. Sidi Ferruch was sunk by Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo bombers from Suwanee on 11 November.[22][31]

Final actions[edit]

U-130—under Ernst Kals—torpedoed the troopships Tasker H. Bliss, Hugh L. Scott, and Edward Rutledge on the afternoon of 12 November, killing 74 additional American service men.[34] All four troopships sank, but the oiler and destroyer were repaired. French submarines Amazone and Antiope reached Dakar, and Orphee returned to Casablanca after the city surrendered.[27] Le Conquerant was sunk on 13 November by two VP-92 PBY Catalina flying boats off Villa Cisneros.[35] Le Tonnant was scuttled off Cadiz on 15 November.[27] On 16 November, U-173 was sunk off Casablanca by American destroyers.

Order of battle[edit]

French 2nd Light Squadron[edit]

Name Class Displacement Speed Guns Torpedoes Notes
Primauguet Duguay-Trouin-class light cruiser 7,249 tons[36] 33 knots 8 × 155 mm (6.1 in) 12
Albatros Aigle-class destroyer 2,441 tons[37] 36 knots 5 × 138 mm Mle 1927 guns 6
Milan Aigle-class destroyer 2,441 tons[37] 36 knots 5 × 138 mm Mle 1927 guns 6
Boulonnais Adroit-class destroyer 1378 tons[38] 33 knots 4 × 130 mm (5.1 in) 6

[39]

Brestois Adroit-class destroyer 1378 tons[38] 33 knots 4 × 130 mm (5.1 in) 6
Fougueux Adroit-class destroyer 1378 tons[38] 33 knots 4 × 130 mm (5.1 in) 6
Frondeur Adroit-class destroyer 1,378 tons[38] 33 knots 4 × 130 mm (5.1 in) 6
Alcyon Adroit-class destroyer 1378 tons[38] 33 knots 4 × 130 mm (5.1 in) 6 did not sortie
Simoun Bourrasque-class destroyer 1,319 tons[38] 33 knots 4 × 130 mm (5.1 in) 6 repairing collision damage - did not sortie
Tempête Bourrasque-class destroyer 1,319 tons[38] 33 knots 4 × 130 mm (5.1 in) 6 repairing collision damage - did not sortie

American covering force[edit]

Name Class Displacement Speed Guns Torpedoes Launched Notes
Massachusetts South Dakota-class battleship 35000 tons[40] 28 knots 9 × 16"/45 cal
20 × 5"/38 cal
(none) 23 September 1941[40] Defeated half-armed French battleship Jean Bart in gun duel, sank a floating dry dock and up to seven merchant ships in the harbor.

Engaged French 2nd Light Squadron, sank at least one destroyer, assisted in engaging light cruiser and other destroyers.

Wichita (unique) 10000 tons[41] 34 knots 9 × 8"/55 cal
8 × 5"/38 cal
(none) 16 November 1937[41]
Tuscaloosa New Orleans-class heavy cruiser 9975 tons[42] 32 knots 9 × 8"/55 cal
8 × 5"/25 cal
(none) 15 November 1933[42]
Mayrant Benham-class destroyer 1500 tons[43] 36 knots 4 × 5"/38 cal 16 14 May 1938[43]
Rhind Benham-class destroyer 1500 tons[43] 36 knots 4 × 5"/38 cal 16 28 July 1938[43]
Wainwright Sims-class destroyer 1570 tons[44] 38 knots 5 × 5"/38 cal 12 1 June 1939[44]
Jenkins Fletcher-class destroyer 2050 tons[45] 37 knots 5 × 5"/38 cal 10 21 June 1942[45]
Augusta Northampton-class cruiser 9050 tons[46] 32 knots 9 × 8"/55 cal
8 × 5"/25 cal
(none) 1 February 1930[46] operated independently as Task Force 34 flagship
Brooklyn Brooklyn-class cruiser 9700 tons[47] 33 knots 15 × 6"/47
8 × 5"/25 cal
(none) 30 November 1936[47] assigned as escort for center group troopships
engaged 2nd Light Squadron
Rowan Benham-class destroyer 1500 tons[43] 36 knots 4 × 5"/38 cal 16 5 May 1938[43] screened center group troopships off Fedala
engaged 2nd Light Squadron[48]
Woolsey Gleaves-class destroyer 1620 tons[44] 37 knots 4 × 5"/38 cal 10 12 February 1941[49] screened center group troopships off Fedala[17]
Ludlow Gleaves-class destroyer 1620 tons[44] 37 knots 4 × 5"/38 cal 10 11 November 1940[49] screened center group troopships off Fedala
engaged Point Blondin Battery
engaged 2nd Light Squadron[50]
Edison Gleaves-class destroyer 1620 tons[44] 37 knots 5 × 5"/38 cal 10 23 November 1940[49] screened center group troopships off Fedala[17]
Wilkes Gleaves-class destroyer 1620 tons[44] 37 knots 5 × 5"/38 cal 10 31 May 1940[45] screened center group troopships off Fedala
engaged Fedala Battery
engaged 2nd Light Squadron[50]
Swanson Gleaves-class destroyer 1620 tons[44] 37 knots 5 × 5"/38 cal 10 2 November 1940[45] screened center group troopships off Fedala
engaged Fedala Battery
engaged 2nd Light Squadron[50]
Bristol Gleaves-class destroyer 1,620 tons[44] 37 knots 5 × 5"/38 cal 10 25 July 1941[45] screened center group troopships off Fedala[17]
Boyle Benson-class destroyer 1,620 tons[44] 37 knots 4 × 5"/38 cal 5 15 June 1942[49] screened center group troopships off Fedala[17]
Murphy Benson-class destroyer 1620 tons[44] 37 knots 4 × 5"/38 cal 5 29 April 1942[49] screened center group troopships off Fedala
engaged Point Blondin Battery[21]
Tillman Gleaves-class destroyer 1630 tons[44] 37 knots 4 × 5"/38 cal 5 20 December 1941[45] screened center group troopships off Fedala[17]
Ranger (unique) 14500 tons[51] 29 knots 8 × 5"/25 cal (none) 25 February 1933[51] provided air cover for center group while operating 130 mi (210 km) offshore of Casablanca,[52] her bombers sank Jean Bart 10 Nov 42
Suwannee Sangamon-class escort carrier 11400 tons[53] 18 knots 2 × 5"/51 cal (none) 24 September 1942[53] provided air cover for center group while operating 130 miles (200 km) offshore of Casablanca[52]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Robert Cressman, in his book USS Ranger:the Navy's first flattop from keel to mast, 1934-1946, recounts the sinking of three transports by U-130 on 12 November.[2] U-130 was one of the submarines ordered to investigate early reports of invasion convoys on 2 November[3] after sailing from France on 29 October.[4] All were delayed by battle damage or mechanical difficulties.[3] U-130 approached the Fedala troopship anchorage after Casablanca had surrendered by sailing along the Moroccan coast on the evening of 11 November[5]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Morocco observed Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) time; but, at 7° 35′ West, Casablanca was 30 minutes behind the prime meridian. Astronomical sunrise was 06:54 GMT on the day of the invasion. TF 34's clocks were apparently set to UTC-1. The commencement of Massachusetts′ shelling of Casablanca harbor is reported as 08:04 by Auphan & Mordal, but 07:04 by USN sources Karig and Potter & Nimitz. Times specified in those references have been adjusted to GMT to conform to other references and clarify the sequence of events.
  3. ^ Potter and Nimitz refer to a destroyer and two sloops, and Auphan and Mordal identify the destroyer as L'Alcyon. Cressman identifies the three ships as the 1969-ton colonial sloop La Grandiere with second class sloops La Gracieuse and Commandant Delage. La Grandiere was about the size of a destroyer with three 14 cm (5.5 in) guns and a maximum speed of 15 knots. Jane's Fighting Ships refers to the second class sloops as 20-knot, 630-ton minesweepers armed with two 9 cm (3.5 in) guns.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Auphan&Mordal(1976)p.210
  2. ^ Cressman, Robert (2003). USS Ranger: the Navy's first flattop from keel to mast, 1934-46. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's. p. 291. ISBN 978-1-57488-720-4. 
  3. ^ a b Blair (1998) p.88
  4. ^ Blair (1998) p.736
  5. ^ Blair (1998) p.110>
  6. ^ Potter & Nimitz (1960) pp.568-574
  7. ^ Auphan & Mordal(1976) pp.210, 228-9 & 236
  8. ^ Potter&Nimitz(1960)p.567
  9. ^ Blair(1998)p.92
  10. ^ Potter&Nimitz(1960)pp.568-571
  11. ^ Auphan&Mordal(1976)pp.212-215
  12. ^ Auphan&Mordal(1976)p.228
  13. ^ http://alamer.fr/index.php?NIUpage=31&Param1=1615 ALAMER
  14. ^ Auphan&Mordal(1976)pp.212-218
  15. ^ Karig(1946)p.191
  16. ^ Karig(1946)p.184
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Karig(1946)p.201
  18. ^ Potter&Nimitz(1960)pp.571-2
  19. ^ Auphan&Mordal(1976)p.231
  20. ^ Potter&Nimitz(1960)pp.572-575
  21. ^ a b Karig(1946)p.203
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cressman(2000)p.129
  23. ^ a b c d e Potter&Nimitz(1960)p.575
  24. ^ a b c d e f Auphan&Mordal(1960)p.230
  25. ^ Karig(1946)p.206
  26. ^ a b c d Auphan&Mordal(1976)p.233
  27. ^ a b c d e Rohwer&Hummelchen(1992)p.175
  28. ^ a b c Brown(1995)p.72
  29. ^ a b Auphan&Mordal(1976)p.235
  30. ^ Potter&Nimitz(1960)p.576
  31. ^ a b c d Cressman(2000)p.130
  32. ^ Karig(1946)p.209
  33. ^ a b Potter&Nimitz(1960)p.577
  34. ^ Cressman (2000) p.131
  35. ^ Auphan&Mordal(1976)p.236
  36. ^ Masson (1969) p.90
  37. ^ a b Masson (1969) p.112
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Masson (1969) p.124
  39. ^ Masson (1969) p.126
  40. ^ a b Silverstone (1968) p.28
  41. ^ a b Silverstone(1968)p.79
  42. ^ a b Silverstone (1968) p.71
  43. ^ a b c d e f Silverstone (1968) p.124
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Silverstone (1968) p.126
  45. ^ a b c d e f Silverstone(1968) p.135
  46. ^ a b Silverstone (1968) p.67
  47. ^ a b Silverstone (1968) p.85
  48. ^ Karig(1946)p.207
  49. ^ a b c d e Silverstone (1968) p.129
  50. ^ a b c Karig (1946) pp.201, 203 & 207
  51. ^ a b Silverstone (1968) p.38
  52. ^ a b Potter & Nimitz (1960) p.574
  53. ^ a b Silverstone (1968) p.55

References[edit]

  • Auphan, Paul and Mordal, Jacques, The French Navy in World War II (1976) Greenwood Press ISBN 0-8371-8660-9
  • Blair, Clay, Hitler's U-Boat War: The Hunted 1942-1945 (1998) Random House ISBN 0-679-45742-9
  • Brown, David, Warship Losses of World War II (1995) Naval Institute Press ISBN 1-55750-914-X
  • Cressman, Robert J. The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II (2000) Naval Institute Press ISBN 1-55750-149-1
  • Kafka, Roger and Pepperburg, Roy L. Warships of the World (1946) Cornell Maritime Press
  • Karig, Walter, CDR, USNR Battle Report: The Atlantic War (1946) Farrar & Rinehart
  • Le Masson, Henri The French Navy (volume 1) (1969) Doubleday & Company
  • Potter, E.B. and Nimitz, Chester W. Sea Power (1960) Prentice-Hall
  • Preston, Antony Jane's Fighting Ships of World War II (1996) Random House ISBN 0-517-67963-9
  • Rohwer, Jurgen and Hummelchen, Gerhard Chronology of the War at Sea 1939-1945 (1992) Naval Institute Press ISBN 1-55750-105-X
  • Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company