Network switching subsystem
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Network switching subsystem (NSS) (or GSM core network) is the component of a GSM system that carries out call switching and mobility management functions for mobile phones roaming on the network of base stations. It is owned and deployed by mobile phone operators and allows mobile devices to communicate with each other and telephones in the wider public switched telephone network (PSTN). The architecture contains specific features and functions which are needed because the phones are not fixed in one location.
The NSS originally consisted of the circuit-switched core network, used for traditional GSM services such as voice calls, SMS, and circuit switched data calls. It was extended with an overlay architecture to provide packet-switched data services known as the GPRS core network. This allows mobile phones to have access to services such as WAP, MMS, and the Internet.
Mobile switching center (MSC) 
The mobile switching center (MSC) is the primary service delivery node for GSM/CDMA, responsible for routing voice calls and SMS as well as other services (such as conference calls, FAX and circuit switched data).
The MSC sets up and releases the end-to-end connection, handles mobility and hand-over requirements during the call and takes care of charging and real time pre-paid account monitoring.
In the GSM mobile phone system, in contrast with earlier analogue services, fax and data information is sent directly digitally encoded to the MSC. Only at the MSC is this re-coded into an "analogue" signal (although actually this will almost certainly mean sound encoded digitally as PCM signal in a 64-kbit/s timeslot, known as a DS0 in America).
There are various different names for MSCs in different contexts which reflects their complex role in the network, all of these terms though could refer to the same MSC, but doing different things at different times.
The Gateway MSC (G-MSC) is the MSC that determines which visited MSC the subscriber who is being called is currently located at. It also interfaces with the PSTN. All mobile to mobile calls and PSTN to mobile calls are routed through a G-MSC. The term is only valid in the context of one call since any MSC may provide both the gateway function and the Visited MSC function, however, some manufacturers design dedicated high capacity MSCs which do not have any BSSs connected to them. These MSCs will then be the Gateway MSC for many of the calls they handle.
The visited MSC (V-MSC) is the MSC where a customer is currently located. The VLR associated with this MSC will have the subscriber's data in it.
The anchor MSC is the MSC from which a handover has been initiated. The target MSC is the MSC toward which a Handover should take place. A mobile switching centre server is a part of the redesigned MSC concept starting from 3GPP Release 4.
Mobile switching centre server (MSCS) 
The mobile switching centre server is a soft-switch variant of the mobile switching centre, which provides circuit-switched calling, mobility management, and GSM services to the mobile phones roaming within the area that it serves. MSS functionality enables split between control (signalling) and user plane (bearer in network element called as media gateway/MG), which guarantees better placement of network elements within the network.
MSS and MGW media gateway makes it possible to cross-connect circuit switched calls switched by using IP, ATM AAL2 as well as TDM. More information is available in 3GPP TS 23.205.
Other GSM core network elements connected to the MSC 
The MSC connects to the following elements:
- The home location register (HLR) for obtaining data about the SIM and mobile services ISDN number (MSISDN; i.e., the telephone number).
- The base station subsystem (BSS) which handles the radio communication with 2G and 2.5G mobile phones.
- The UMTS terrestrial radio access network (UTRAN) which handles the radio communication with 3G mobile phones.
- The visitor location register (VLR) for determining where other mobile subscribers are located.
- Other MSCs for procedures such as handover.
Procedures implemented 
Tasks of the MSC include:
- Delivering calls to subscribers as they arrive based on information from the VLR.
- Connecting outgoing calls to other mobile subscribers or the PSTN.
- Delivering SMSs from subscribers to the short message service centre (SMSC) and vice versa.
- Arranging handovers from BSC to BSC.
- Carrying out handovers from this MSC to another.
- Supporting supplementary services such as conference calls or call hold.
- Generating billing information.
Home location register (HLR) 
The home location register (HLR) is a central database that contains details of each mobile phone subscriber that is authorized to use the GSM core network. There can be several logical, and physical, HLRs per public land mobile network (PLMN), though one international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI)/MSISDN pair can be associated with only one logical HLR (which can span several physical nodes) at a time.
Another important item of data associated with the SIM are the MSISDNs, which are the telephone numbers used by mobile phones to make and receive calls. The primary MSISDN is the number used for making and receiving voice calls and SMS, but it is possible for a SIM to have other secondary MSISDNs associated with it for fax and data calls. Each MSISDN is also a primary key to the HLR record. The HLR data is stored for as long as a subscriber remains with the mobile phone operator.
Examples of other data stored in the HLR against an IMSI record is:
- GSM services that the subscriber has requested or been given.
- GPRS settings to allow the subscriber to access packet services.
- Current location of subscriber (VLR and serving GPRS support node/SGSN).
- Call divert settings applicable for each associated MSISDN.
The HLR is a system which directly receives and processes MAP transactions and messages from elements in the GSM network, for example, the location update messages received as mobile phones roam around.
Other GSM core network elements connected to the HLR 
The HLR connects to the following elements:
- The G-MSC for handling incoming calls
- The VLR for handling requests from mobile phones to attach to the network
- The SMSC for handling incoming SMSs
- The voice mail system for delivering notifications to the mobile phone that a message is waiting
- The AuC for authentication and ciphering and exchange of data (triplets)
Procedures implemented 
The main function of the HLR is to manage the fact that SIMs and phones move around a lot. The following procedures are implemented to deal with this:
- Manage the mobility of subscribers by means of updating their position in administrative areas called 'location areas', which are identified with a LAC. The action of a user of moving from one LA to another is followed by the HLR with a Location area update procedure.
- Send the subscriber data to a VLR or SGSN when a subscriber first roams there.
- Broker between the G-MSC or SMSC and the subscriber's current VLR in order to allow incoming calls or text messages to be delivered.
- Remove subscriber data from the previous VLR when a subscriber has roamed away from it.
- Responsible for all SRI related queries (i.e. for invoke SRI, HLR should give sack SRI or SRI replay).
Authentication centre (AuC) 
The authentication centre (AuC) is a function to authenticate each SIM card that attempts to connect to the GSM core network (typically when the phone is powered on). Once the authentication is successful, the HLR is allowed to manage the SIM and services described above. An encryption key is also generated that is subsequently used to encrypt all wireless communications (voice, SMS, etc.) between the mobile phone and the GSM core network.
If the authentication fails, then no services are possible from that particular combination of SIM card and mobile phone operator attempted. There is an additional form of identification check performed on the serial number of the mobile phone described in the EIR section below, but this is not relevant to the AuC processing.
Proper implementation of security in and around the AuC is a key part of an operator's strategy to avoid SIM cloning.
The AuC does not engage directly in the authentication process, but instead generates data known as triplets for the MSC to use during the procedure. The security of the process depends upon a shared secret between the AuC and the SIM called the Ki. The Ki is securely burned into the SIM during manufacture and is also securely replicated onto the AuC. This Ki is never transmitted between the AuC and SIM, but is combined with the IMSI to produce a challenge/response for identification purposes and an encryption key called Kc for use in over the air communications.
Other GSM core network elements connected to the AuC 
The AuC connects to the following elements:
- The MSC which requests a new batch of triplet data for an IMSI after the previous data have been used. This ensures that same keys and challenge responses are not used twice for a particular mobile.
Procedures implemented 
The AuC stores the following data for each IMSI:
- the Ki
- Algorithm id. (the standard algorithms are called A3 or A8, but an operator may choose a proprietary one).
When the MSC asks the AuC for a new set of triplets for a particular IMSI, the AuC first generates a random number known as RAND. This RAND is then combined with the Ki to produce two numbers as follows:
- The Ki and RAND are fed into the A3 algorithm and the signed response (SRES) is calculated.
- The Ki and RAND are fed into the A8 algorithm and a session key called Kc is calculated.
The numbers (RAND, SRES, Kc) form the triplet sent back to the MSC. When a particular IMSI requests access to the GSM core network, the MSC sends the RAND part of the triplet to the SIM. The SIM then feeds this number and the Ki (which is burned onto the SIM) into the A3 algorithm as appropriate and an SRES is calculated and sent back to the MSC. If this SRES matches with the SRES in the triplet (which it should if it is a valid SIM), then the mobile is allowed to attach and proceed with GSM services.
After successful authentication, the MSC sends the encryption key Kc to the base station controller (BSC) so that all communications can be encrypted and decrypted. Of course, the mobile phone can generate the Kc itself by feeding the same RAND supplied during authentication and the Ki into the A8 algorithm.
The AuC is usually collocated with the HLR, although this is not necessary. Whilst the procedure is secure for most everyday use, it is by no means crack proof. Therefore a new set of security methods was designed for 3G phones.
A3 Algorithm is used to encrypt Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) cellular communications. In practice, A3 and A8 algorithms are generally implemented together (known as A3/A8, see COMP128). An A3/A8 algorithm is implemented in Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards and in GSM network Authentication Centres. It is used to authenticate the customer and generate a key for encrypting voice and data traffic, as defined in 3GPP TS 43.020 (03.20 before Rel-4). Development of A3 and A8 algorithms is considered a matter for individual GSM network operators, although example implementations are available.
Visitor location register (VLR) 
The visitor location is a database of the subscribers who have roamed into the jurisdiction of the MSC (Mobile Switching Center) which it serves. Each main base station in the network is served by exactly one VLR, hence a subscriber cannot be present in more than one VLR at a time.
The data stored in the VLR has either been received from the HLR, or collected from the MS (Mobile station). In practice, for performance reasons, most vendors integrate the VLR directly to the V-MSC and, where this is not done, the VLR is very tightly linked with the MSC via a proprietary interface. Whenever an MSC detects a new MS in its network, in addition to creating a new record in the VLR, it also updates the HLR of the mobile subscriber, apprising it of the new location of that MS. If VLR data is corrupted it can lead to serious issues with text messaging and call services.
Data stored include:
- IMSI (the subscriber's identity number).
- Authentication data.
- MSISDN (the subscriber's phone number).
- GSM services that the subscriber is allowed to access.
- access point (GPRS) subscribed.
- The HLR address of the subscriber.
Other GSM core network elements connected to the VLR 
The VLR connects to the following elements:
- The V-MSC to pass required data for its procedures; e.g., authentication or call setup.
- The HLR to request data for mobile phones attached to its serving area.
- Other VLRs to transfer temporary data concerning the mobile when they roam into new VLR areas. For example, the Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI).
Procedures implemented 
The primary functions of the VLR are:
- To inform the HLR that a subscriber has arrived in the particular area covered by the VLR.
- To track where the subscriber is within the VLR area (location area) when no call is ongoing.
- To allow or disallow which services the subscriber may use.
- To allocate roaming numbers during the processing of incoming calls.
- To purge the subscriber record if a subscriber becomes inactive whilst in the area of a VLR. The VLR deletes the subscriber's data after a fixed time period of inactivity and informs the HLR (e.g., when the phone has been switched off and left off or when the subscriber has moved to an area with no coverage for a long time).
- To delete the subscriber record when a subscriber explicitly moves to another, as instructed by the HLR.
Equipment identity register (EIR) 
The equipment identity register is often integrated to the HLR. The EIR keeps a list of mobile phones (identified by their IMEI) which are to be banned from the network or monitored. This is designed to allow tracking of stolen mobile phones. In theory all data about all stolen mobile phones should be distributed to all EIRs in the world through a Central EIR. It is clear, however, that there are some countries where this is not in operation. The EIR data does not have to change in real time, which means that this function can be less distributed than the function of the HLR. The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of the mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized or defective mobile stations. Some EIR also have the capability to log Handset attempts and store it in a log file.
Other support functions 
Connected more or less directly to the GSM core network are many other functions.
Billing centre (BC) 
The billing centre is responsible for processing the toll tickets generated by the VLRs and HLRs and generating a bill for each subscriber. It is also responsible for generating billing data of roaming subscriber.
Short message service centre (SMSC) 
The short message service centre supports the sending and reception of text messages.
Multimedia messaging service centre (MMSC) 
Voicemail system (VMS) 
The voicemail system records and stores voicemails.
Lawful interception functions 
According to U.S. law, which has also been copied into many other countries, especially in Europe, all telecommunications equipment must provide facilities for monitoring the calls of selected users. There must be some level of support for this built into any of the different elements. The concept of lawful interception is also known, following the relevant U.S. law, as CALEA. Generally Lawful Interception implementation is similar to the implementation of conference call. While A and B are talking with each other, C can join the call and listen silently.
See also 
- The GPRS core network with the rest of the GSM core network.
- Base station subsystem
- COMP128 - An implementation of A3/A8.
- 3GPP - Wiki on 3GPP
- 3GPP - the standardisation body for GSM and UMTS
- GSM Networks: Protocols, Terminology and Implementation - a PDF eBook by Gunnar Heine