5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a term used in some research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G does not describe any particular specification in any official document published by any telecommunication standardization body.
Although updated standards that define capabilities beyond those defined in the current 4G standards are under consideration, those new capabilities are still being grouped under the current 4G standards.
A new mobile generation has appeared approximately every 10th year since the first 1G system, Nordic Mobile Telephone, was introduced in 1981. The first 2G system started to roll out in 1992, the first 3G system first appeared in 2001 and 4G systems fully compliant with IMT Advanced were standardized in 2012. Some sources state that a new generation of 5G standards will not be implemented by the ITU until approximately 2020.[dead link]
The development of the 2G (GSM) and 3G (IMT-2000 and UMTS) standards took about 10 years from the official start of the R&D projects, and development of 4G systems started in 2001 or 2002. However, still no transnational 5G development projects have officially been launched, and some industry representatives have expressed scepticism towards 5G.
New mobile generations are typically assigned new frequency bands and wider spectral bandwidth per frequency channel (1G up to 30 kHz, 2G up to 200 kHz, 3G up to 5 MHz, and 4G up to 40 MHz), but skeptics argue that there is little room for new frequency bands or larger channel bandwidths. From users point of view, previous mobile generations have implied substantial increase in peak bitrate (i.e. physical layer net bitrates for short-distance communication). However, no source suggests 5G peak download and upload rates of more than the 1 Gbps to be offered by ITU-R's definition of 4G systems. If 5G appears, and reflects these prognoses, the major difference from a user point of view between 4G and 5G techniques must be something else than increased maximum throughput; for example lower battery consumption, lower outage probability (better coverage), high bit rates in larger portions of the coverage area, cheaper or no traffic fees due to low infrastructure deployment costs, or higher aggregate capacity for many simultaneous users (i.e. higher system level spectral efficiency). Those are the objectives in several of the research papers.
Key concepts suggested in scientific papers discussing 5G and beyond 4G wireless communications are:
- Pervasive networks providing ubiquitous computing: The user can simultaneously be connected to several wireless access technologies and seamlessly move between them (See Media independent handover or vertical handover, IEEE 802.21, also expected to be provided by future 4G releases. See also multihoming.). These access technologies can be 2.5G, 3G, 4G, or 5G mobile networks, Wi-Fi, WPAN, or any other future access technology. In 5G, the concept may be further developed into multiple concurrent data transfer paths.
- Group cooperative relay: A major issue in beyond 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in between several base stations. In current research, this issue is addressed by cellular repeaters and macro-diversity techniques, also known as group cooperative relay, as well as by beam division multiple access.
- Cognitive radio technology, also known as smart-radio: allowing different radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently by adaptively finding unused spectrum and adapting the transmission scheme to the requirements of the technologies currently sharing the spectrum. This dynamic radio resource management is achieved in a distributed fashion, and relies on software-defined radio. See also the IEEE 802.22 standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks.
- Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks (DAWN), essentially identical to Mobile ad hoc network (MANET), Wireless mesh network (WMN) or wireless grids, combined with smart antennas, cooperative diversity and flexible modulation.
- Vandermonde-subspace frequency division multiplexing (VFDM): a modulation scheme to allow the co-existence of macro-cells and cognitive radio small-cells in a two-tiered LTE/4G network.
- IPv6, where a visiting care-of mobile IP address is assigned according to location and connected network.
- High-altitude stratospheric platform station (HAPS) systems. 
- Wearable devices with AI capabilities.
- One unified global standard.
- Real wireless world with no more limitation with access and zone issues.
- User centric (or cell phone developer initiated) network concept instead of operator-initiated (as in 1G) or system developer initiated (as in 2G, 3G and 4G) standards
- World wide wireless web (WWWW), i.e. comprehensive wireless-based web applications that include full multimedia capability beyond 4G speeds.
- Massive Dense Networks also known as Massive Distributed MIMO providing green flexible small cells 5G Green Dense Small Cells
- In 2008, the South Korean IT R&D program of "5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation" was formed.
- On 8 October 2012, the UK's University of Surrey secured £35M for new 5G research centre, joint funded between the British government's UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) and a consortium of key international mobile operators and infrastructure providers –including Huawei, Samsung, Telefonica Europe, Fujitsu Laboratories Europe, Rohde & Schwarz, and Aircom International– it will offer testing facilities to mobile operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and radio spectrum whilst delivering faster than current 4G speeds, with aspirations for the new technology to be ready within a decade.
- On 12 May 2013, Samsung Electronics stated that they have developed the world's first "5G" system. The core technology has a maximum speed of tens of Gbps (gigabits per second). In testing, the transfer speeds for the “5G” network sent data at 1.056 Gbps to a distance of up to 2 kilometers.
See also 
- Head-mounted display (HMD)
- IEEE 802.11u authentication
- IEEE P1905 hybrid networking
- OpenFlow/OpenRadio for sharing backhaul.
- Ultra-wideband (UWB)
- Virtual retinal display
- Web 2.0
- Web 3.0
- Xichun Li, Abudulla Gani, Rosli Salleh, Omar Zakaria, The Future of Mobile Wireless Communication Networks, International Conference on Communication Software and Networks, February 2009, ISBN 978-0-7695-3522-7.
- Akhtar, Shakil (August 2008) . Pagani, Margherita, ed. 2G-5G Networks: Evolution of Technologies, Standards, and Deployment (PDF) (Second ed.). Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States: IGI Global. pp. 522–532. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-014-1.ch070. ISBN 978-1-60566-014-1. Archived from the original on 2011-06-02. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
- Emerging Wireless Technologies; A look into the future of wireless communications – beyond 3G, SAFECOM (A U.S. Department of Homeland Security program) "Since the general model of 10 years to develop a new mobile system is being followed, that timeline would suggest 4G should be operational some time around 2011."
- Interview with Ericsson CTO: There will be no 5g - we have reached the channel limits, Daily News and Analysis, 23 May 2011.
- Abdullah Gani, Xichun Li, Lina Yang, Omar Zakaria, Nor Badrul Anuar, Multi-Bandwidth Data Path Design for 5G Wireless Mobile Internets, WSEAS Transactions on Information Science and Applications archive, Volume 6, Issue 2, February 2009. ISSN:1790-0832.
- The Korean IT R&D program of MKE/IITA: 2008-F-004-01 "5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation".
- Tomorrow's 5g cell phone; Cognitive radio, a 5g device, could forever alter the power balance from wireless service provider to user, Infoworld Newsletters / Networking, February 28, 2003
- Cornelia-Ionela Badoi, Neeli Prasad, Victor Croitoru and Ramjee Prasad, 5G based cognitive radio, Wireless Personal Communications, Volume 57, Number 3, 441–464, DOI: 10.1007/s11277-010-0082-9, Springer.
- Leonardo S. Cardoso, Marco Maso, Mari Kobayashi and Mérouane Debbah, Orthogonal LTE two-tier Cellular Networks, 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). p. 1-5 , July 2011.
- Shingo Ohmori, Yasushi Yamao and Nobuo Nakajima, The Future Generations of Mobile Communications Based on Broadband Access Technologies, IEEE communications magazine. Vol. 38, no. 12, p. 134-142, December 2000.
- G.M. Djuknic, J. Freidenfelds and Y. Okunev, Establishing wireless communications services via high-altitude aeronautical platforms: a concept whose time has come?, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 35, No. 9, Sep. 1997, pp. 128 - 135.
- Toni Janevski, 5G Mobile Phone Concept, Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 2009 6th IEEE [1-4244-2308-2].
- Kelly, Spencer (13 October 2012 time: 00:09:11-00:09:39). "BBC Click Programme - Kenya". BBC News Channel. Retrieved 15 October 2012. "Some of the world biggest telecoms firms have joined forces with the UK government to fund a new 5G research centre. The facility, to be based at the University of Surrey, will offer testing facilities to operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and radio spectrum, while delivering faster speeds than current 4G technology that's been launched in around 100 countries, including several British cities. They say the new tech could be ready within a decade."
- "The University Of Surrey Secures £35M For New 5G Research Centre". University of Surrey. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "5G research centre gets major funding grant". BBC Online. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- Philipson, Alice (9 October 2012). "Britain aims to join mobile broadband leaders with £35m '5G' research centre". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "삼성전자, 5세대 이동통신 핵심기술 세계 최초 개발". 12 May 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "5G Is Already Ridiculously Fast". 12 May 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
4th Generation (4G)
|Mobile Telephony Generations||Succeeded by
6th Generation (6G) (a future standard)