||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (July 2012)|
|Directed by||Clive Barker|
|Produced by||Gabriella Martinelli
|Written by||Clive Barker|
by Clive Barker
|Music by||Danny Elfman|
|Editing by||Mark Goldblatt
|Studio||Morgan Creek Productions|
|Distributed by||20th Century Fox|
|Running time||102 minutes|
Nightbreed (also Night Breed on publicity material) is a 1990 fantasy horror film written and directed by Clive Barker, based on his 1988 novella Cabal. The film features Craig Sheffer, Anne Bobby, and David Cronenberg. The story centers in a community or "tribe" of monsters and outcasts - known as the "Nightbreed" - that hides from humanity.
Nightbreed was a commercial and critical failure. In several interviews, Barker protested that the film company tried to sell it as a standard slasher film, and that the powers-that-be had no real working knowledge of Nightbreed's story. Since its initial theatrical release, Nightbreed has achieved cult status.
Barker has expressed disappointment with the final cut and longs for the recovery of the reels so it might be re-edited. Behind the scenes footage of some of the lost scenes has been uncovered and can be seen at Barker's Revelations website.
||This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (December 2012)|
Aaron Boone dreams of a city called Midian, a place where monsters are accepted. At the request of girlfriend Lori, Boone is seeing psychotherapist Dr. Phillip K. Decker, who convinces Boone that he committed a series of murders. In reality, Decker is a serial killer who has murdered several families. He gives Boone a bottle of lithium (actually LSD) and twenty four hours to turn himself in. While in a hallucinogenic haze, Boone is hit by a truck and taken to a hospital.
In the hospital, Boone overhears the drug-addled cries of Narcisse, who is waiting for the monsters to take him to Midian. Narcisse, led to believe Boone is a messenger from Midian sent to test him, gives Boone directions before tearing the skin from his face with a pair of razors, in order to show his "true face". Boone makes his way to Midian, a city standing under a massive graveyard. Before long, Boone encounters Kinski and Peloquin, two denizens of Midian. Kinski says they should take him below but Peloquin states Boone is a "natural" and as such is merely "meat for the beast". Boone insists that he is a murderer and belongs with the monsters, but Peloquin can smell innocence and confirms that whoever told Boone he was a killer had lied. Peloquin bites Boone on the shoulder intending to devour him, but Boone escapes --only to run into Decker and a squad of police officers. Boone is gunned down by the police as a direct result of Decker's assertion that he was armed. At the morgue, Boone comes back to life due to Peloquin's bite, becoming a Nightbreed. He returns to Midian, where Narcisse has also returned, no worse for wear despite his self-inflicted injuries. Boone is schooled in the laws of Midian and inducted into Midian's society by Dirk Lylesburg, leader of the Nightbreed. He is then made to touch the blood of Baphomet, the deity of Midian.
Seeking to understand why Boone left her, Lori resolves to investigate Midian. She befriends a woman named Sheryl Anne and drives out to the cemetery. Leaving Sheryl Anne at the car, Lori wanders into the cemetery. She finds a dying creature in the sunlight, and at the pleading request of a Nightbreed woman named Rachel, takes it into the shadows, where it transforms into a little girl- Rachel's daughter Babette. Lori asks after Boone, only to be rebuffed by Lylesburg, who assures her that Boone is now Nightbreed and no longer part of her world. Lori tries making her way into Midian but is scared off by Peloquin. As she leaves the cemetery, Lori is greeted by the sight of Sheryl Anne's corpse and her killer, Decker. He tries killing Lori in an attempt to bring Boone out of hiding. Before he can kill Lori, Boone appears. Decker stabs him only to learn that Boone cannot be killed due to his transformation. Decker escapes and Boone takes Lori into Midian. Rachel tells Lori the history of Midian: the monsters of lore were peaceful beings, hunted to near-extinction by fearful humans. Boone and Lori are banished from Midian by Lylesburg for risking the exposure of the Nightbreed.
Decker interrogates a mechanic who once wanted to join the Nightbreed and learns that not all of them all immortal. He then murders the residents of the hotel where Boone and Lori are staying. Boone finds the murder scene. Unable to control his thirst for blood, Boone begins drinking. The police find Boone and take him into custody. At Decker's urging, the local police and a militia led by Police Captain Eigerman plan to attack Midian. They release a drunken priest named Ashberry to be God's servant in the battle. While they prepare for the oncoming battle, Lori, Rachel and Narcisse break into the police precinct and free Boone. Lori, at first horrified by Boone's transformed appearance, nonetheless assures Boone that she loves him. The four return to Midian where Boone convinces the Nightbreed to fight back against the humans, in direct rebellion of Lylesburg's pacifism.
During the battle, Ashberry learns that there are women and children among the Nightbreed and tries stopping the attack, but is beaten by Eigerman. Ashberry finds the statue of Baphomet. He drops his cross and Bible and swears allegiance, but is splashed and severely burned by the blood of Baphomet and transformed. Boone learns from Lylesburg that Baphomet is going to destroy Midian. He tells Lylesburg to release the Berserkers, a monstrous, feral breed that were imprisoned due to their insanity. Lylesburg attempts to open the cages but is killed, leaving Boone to release them. The Beserkers turn the tide of the battle. Decker confronts Boone and is killed. Boone then goes to Baphomet, who says that Boone has caused the destruction of Midian, but also that this was foretold. Baphomet charges Boone with finding a new home for the Nightbreed and renames him Cabal. Boone makes his way out of Midian with Lori. The remaining Nightbreed meet in a barn. Boone says his goodbyes to Narcisse promising to find a place where they will be safe.
In the ruins of Midian, Ashberry stands in front of Decker's corpse and states that he wants to exact vengeance on Baphomet and the Breed. He takes some of Baphomet's blood and presses it to Decker's wound. Decker springs back to life with a scream.
Alternate ending 
In an alternate ending, used in The Cabal Cut of the film, the Nightbreed await Boone in a barn whilst Boone says his goodbyes to Lori, as he must find a new home for the Nightbreed. Boone promises to return to her, but Lori, fearing she will become old whilst Boone will retain his youth, stabs herself. Boone resurrects Lori, making her Nightbreed.
Captain Eigerman wanders the underground remains where he stumbles upon the transformed Ashberry, who desires revenge. Eigerman shares this desire, but Ashberry rejects him, killing Eigerman and starting his hunt for the Nightbreed.
- Craig Sheffer as Aaron Boone/Cabal
- Anne Bobby as Lori Winston
- David Cronenberg as Dr. Philip K. Decker
- Charles Haid as Police Captain Eigerman
- Hugh Quarshie as Detective Joyce
- Hugh Ross as Narcisse
- Bernard Henry as Baphomet
- Doug Bradley as Dirk Lylesberg
- Catherine Chevalier as Rachel
- Bob Sessions as Pettine
- Malcolm Smith as Ashberry
- Debora Weston as Sheryl Ann
- Oliver Parker as Peloquin
- Nicholas Vince as Kinski
- Simon Bamford as Ohnaka
Clive Barker always loved monsters and felt that "there's a corner of all of us that envies their powers and would love to live forever, or to fly, or to change shape at will. So, when I came to make a movie about monsters, I wanted to create a world we'd feel strangely at home in". He was interested in creating a "horror mythology from the ground up" and developing characters that would live on in sequels. As he finished writing the novella Cabal, he realized that it would make a good film that he would direct himself. He originally envisioned a trilogy of films.
Nightbreed was the first of a planned three-picture deal Barker had with Morgan Creek, Joe Roth's production company, that included an adaptation of Son of Celluloid and a sequel to Nightbreed. The first compromise Barker made was to change the title of the film from Cabal to Nightbreed because Morgan Creek insisted on a more commercial title and thought that the original one did not mean anything. He was given a budget of $11 million which was a considerable increase from the $2 million he had to work with on Hellraiser. His goal was to make the Star Wars of horror films. The monsters in the book are represented impressionistically over two or three paragraphs and the challenge Barker faced was to visualize them in much greater detail for the film.
For the film, Barker used three soundstages at Pinewood Studios and shot on location in Calgary, Canada. Bob Keen and his crew had two months to play around with ideas before doing any modeling work. They used computer-controlled animatronics but only where necessary. Towards the end of principal photography, Barker brought Star Wars concept artist Ralph McQuarrie in to paint mattes for the Necropolis sequences and design the history of the Breed in a symbolic way on an enormous mural across a 60-foot space on the set at Pinewood to be used in the opening credits.
Barker was contractually obligated to deliver an R-rated film and could not make it as gory as his previous picture Hellraiser. Barker previewed the first cut of Nightbreed with a temporary soundtrack that did not go well as people were confused by the characters' motives. He made some changes and the second test screening was much more successful. However, the ending with Decker's death was not well received and Barker changed it. In late July 1989, the studio announced that the release date for Nightbreed was being pushed back from its original autumn 1989 date to early February 1990 instead. The press release cited "the complex demands of the film's ground-breaking post-production optical effects", but this also included McQuarrie's mural and matte paintings, and a week of additional shooting in late August that would see key parts of the narrative re-shot. Barker shot extra scenes over three days in Los Angeles in late 1989 which included additional scenes with David Cronenberg which expanded and clarified his character. Barker's original version ran two-and-a-half hours and Fox asked for almost an hour to be cut prompting editor Richard Marden to leave the project in protest. Nightbreed was cut to two hours and then again to 102 minutes.
|Nightbreed (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)|
|Film score by Danny Elfman|
|Released||March 20, 1990|
|Producer||Danny Elfman and Steve Bartek|
|Danny Elfman chronology|
|5.||"Meat For The Beast"||2:10|
|12.||"Party In The Past"||0:51|
|13.||"Then Don't Say It!"||1:28|
|15.||"Boone Gets A Taste"||2:44|
|17.||"Mayhem In Midian"||1:43|
|22.||"Country Skin (Performed by Michael Stanton)"||4:15|
The score was composed by Danny Elfman and conducted by Shirley Walker, who also wrote the additional cue "Charge of the Berserkers" for the films climax and received an onscreen credit. Elfman said of his score, "Once again it was time for me to stretch out... Combining dark/fun/sweet/tribal all into one. The great joy in the score for me, other than working for Clive Barker, was being able to use the children's voices and a whole slew of ethnic drums and instruments together with an orchestra, in an attempt to bring a unique musical tone to the film." Barker said "Danny is an extraordinary talent. The most uncompromised portion of that entire movie is the score."
In an article on Danny Elfman, described as a rising composer in Hollywood who had just scored Tim Burton's Batman and was about to score Warren Beatty's Dick Tracy, Entertainment Weekly's Ron Givens noted that Nightbreed wouldn't get as much attention as these two big-budget movies, yet Givens praised Elfman's "needle-sharp crescendos and creepy choral plainchants" and added: "Seldom has scary-movie music been so spiritual."
The song "Country Skin" is a country-and-western rendition of the Oingo Boingo song "Skin" (which appears on the 1990 album Dark at the End of the Tunnel), it was written by Elfman and performed by country singer Michael Stanton. It can be heard in the film, played on a radio. It was available as a bonus track on the CD and Cassette version of the soundtrack.
According to Barker, the studio did not promote it well with posters that misinterpreted the content. When he saw the way they were selling Nightbreed, he "freaked out and said, 'What you doing? This isn't the movie, and was given all kinds of excuses ... 'Well, there isn't time to change it, we have to release it now'". The head of marketing at Morgan Creek never watched all the way through because it "disgusted and distressed" him, according to Barker. The studio did not understand it, it had no movie stars, it was violent, and it had elements of fantasy and horror which they saw as a weakness while Barker saw it as a strength. They ended up marketing Nightbreed as a slasher film with television teasers that were confusing and did not represent it. The trailer was sent to the MPAA and it was rejected 12 times. They forbid any monster footage and it was cut down to someone being terrorized with a razor which constituted only five minutes of Barker's film. Looking back, Barker realized that Fox was better at promoting films like White Men Can't Jump but "not so good at selling the quirky stuff".
The studio argued that there was no point showing Nightbreed to critics because the people who see horror films do not read reviews. Therefore, the film had to be sold to the lowest common denominator. They refused to preview the film for critics which angered them.
Critical response 
Nightbreed was not well received by critics. Review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes reports 38% of critics gave the film positive write-ups based on 13 reviews, with a rating of 5.0 out of 10. In his review for the Toronto Star, Henry Mietkiewicz wrote “Nightbreed might have been a monster movie milestone, if Clive Barker's directorial abilities had kept pace with his skill as a master of British horror fiction. Unfortunately, Nightbreed probably will be remembered as much for its haphazard plotting and underdeveloped characters as its delightfully daring concept”. Derek Malcolm wrote in his review for The Guardian that “it is neither direct nor subtle enough as a piece of film-making. It is difficult to suggest that evil is human and monsters have souls within the context of a mountain of special effects. The result is patchy in the extreme and not always capable of transcending a genre that has become less and less intriguing as less and less is left to the imagination”.
However, Entertainment Weekly magazine's Ty Burr gave the film a "B" rating, writing "From the film's gothic sets, fantastic makeup, and nightmarish plot line, it's clear that Barker owes as much to Poe and Lovecraft as to classic Hollywood screamers like Island of Lost Souls. But Barker's most perverse touch is that he makes these creatures the good guys (no wonder the PR flacks were bamboozled). Despite their grotesque appearance, they're a more colorful and engaging bunch than the emissaries of the normal world. Barker piles on more subversive subtext than his story can bear — it's a monster movie, after all — but his daft, Grand Guignol vision has real power. The quality that freaked out the studio, Barker's ambition, is precisely what makes Nightbreed so impressive." 
Box office 
Nightbreed was released on February 16, 1990 in 1,488 theaters, grossing $3.7 million on its opening weekend. It went on to make $8.8 million in North America, below its $11 million budget.
|Award||Category||Recipients and nominees||Outcome|
|Saturn Awards||Best Horror Film||Nightbreed||Nominated|
|Best Director||Clive Barker||Nominated|
|Best Make-Up||Bob Keen, Geoffrey Portass||Nominated|
|Amsterdam Fantastic Film Festival||Silver Scream Award||Clive Barker||Won|
|Avoriaz Fantastic Film Festival||Special Jury Award||Clive Barker||Won|
|Fantasporto||Critics' Award||Clive Barker||Won|
|International Fantasy Film Award||Best Film - Clive Barker||Nominated|
Comic books 
In 1990, to tie in with the film's box office release, Epic Comics produced a four-issue adaptation of the film, which included significant differences from the finished movie, more closely related to Clive Barker's original script. The comic book continued to run past the end of the movie, ultimately stretching to twenty five issues before it was cancelled. A two part Hellraiser vs Nightbreed: Jihad graphic novel was also produced, featuring the Cenobites as agents of order against their chaotic nemeses, the Nightbreed. Nightbreed returned in 1992, as a short story in the second issue of the four issue Epic anthology series.
Video games 
Two videogames based on the film were released on the Commodore Amiga shortly after the movie's release. The first one, a traditional action game, was released for the Amiga, Atari ST, Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC and DOS. The games were intended to be released as a trilogy. The first game released was titled "Nightbreed, The Action Game", and, as the name suggests, it was an action type game based on the film. Loosely following the same plot, it intersperses various action sequences. The second was called "Nightbreed, The Interactive Movie", and it was based on the film as well, but there was less gameplay involved and it was more of an interactive movie type game. Due to the poor success ratings of both games, the third game was never made.
Extended cut 
In 2009, Mark Miller, co-head of Barker's production company, Seraphim Films, helped track down the missing footage that was cut out of the director's cut of Nightbreed. Miller discovered, after talking to a production executive at the studio, that the footage was never actually lost but readily accessible. When asked, a studio executive said that there was not a big enough audience to warrant the studio spending money on a new, extended cut of the film. A VHS copy of Barker's 145 minute version of the film's mid-1989 workprint was recently discovered. It does not feature any of the re-shoots of Decker's murders. An extended 159-minute cut version, from another VHS found in July 2009, was premiered on March 27, 2010 as part of the HorrorHound Weekend in Indianapolis. This new version adds almost a whole hour that was cut from the theatrical release, including a musical score and more animation. In an interview, Barker said that he hopes to bring back Danny Elfman "and give us just a little bit of extra music for it."
In early 2012, Russell Cherrington, a senior lecturer in film and video production at the University of Derby, created a composite cut of the film using the footage found on both VHS tapes as well as the Warner Bros DVD. This version is the most complete version of Barker's film available and has been dubbed The Cabal Cut. The cut runs 155 minutes long and was shown at this year's "Mad Monster Party" in North Carolina with actors Craig Sheffer and Anne Bobby attending.
Occupy Midian 
The "Mad Monster Party" projection of the Cabal Cut led to a renewal of interest among fans, especially on the Internet. A new petition was created and social networks were used to raise awareness for the extended cut and to encourage producers to release it. This would be colloquially known as "Occupy Midian", a term coined by actress Anne Bobby.
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- Your Sinclair: Nightbreed
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- Clive Barker's Nightbreed: The Making of the Film; Clive Barker, Mark Salisbury, John Gilbert; ISBN 0-00-638136-7
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- Extensive interview with Clive Barker about Cabal and Nightbreed.