|Original author(s)||Ryan Dahl|
|Developer(s)||Node.js Developers, Joyent, Github Contributors|
|Initial release||May 27, 2009|
|Stable release||0.10.35 / December 24, 2014|
|Preview release||0.11.15 / January 20, 2015|
|Operating system||OS X, Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows (older versions require Cygwin), webOS|
Node.js provides an event-driven architecture and a non-blocking I/O API that optimizes an application's throughput and scalability. These technologies are commonly used for real-time web applications.
Dahl was inspired to create Node.js after seeing a file upload progress bar on Flickr. The browser did not know how much of the file had been uploaded and had to query the Web server. Dahl desired an easier way.
npm, a package manager for Node.js libraries, was introduced in 2011.
In January 2012, Dahl stepped aside, promoting coworker and npm creator Isaac Schlueter to manage the project.
In January 2014, Schlueter announced Timothy J Fontaine would be Node.js's new project lead.
Node.js applications usually run single-threaded, although multi-threaded execution is supported on Node.js 0.10+ from JXcore. Node.js is based on single-threaded execution, although Node.js uses multiple threads for file and network events.
Node.js can be compiled locally or downloaded as a pre-compiled binary. Applications are executed from the command line with the command: "node <application name>.js"
Node.js operates on a single thread, using non-blocking I/O calls, allowing it to support tens of thousands of concurrent connections, without worrying about the cost of context-switching between threads. The design of sharing a single-thread between all the requests means it can be used to build highly concurrent applications. The design goal of a Node.js application is that any function performing I/O must use a callback.
A downside of this approach is that Node.js doesn't allow scaling with the number of CPU cores of the machine it is running on.
Npm is the pre-installed package manager for the Node.js server platform. It is used to install Node.js programs from the npm registry. By organizing the installation and management of third-party Node.js programs, it helps developers build faster. npm is not to be confused with the commonJS require() statement. It is not used to load code: instead, it is used to install code and manage code dependencies from the command line. The packages found in the npm registry can range from simple helper libraries like underscore.js to task runners like Grunt.
Node.js registers itself with the operating system so that it is notified when a connection is made. When a connection is made, the operating system will issue a callback. Within the Node.js runtime, each connection is a small heap allocation. Traditionally, relatively heavyweight OS processes or threads handled each connection. Node.js, however, uses an event loop, instead of processes or threads, to scale to millions of connections happening at the same time. In contrast to other event-driven servers, Node.js's event loop does not need to be called explicitly. Instead callbacks are defined, and the server automatically enters the event loop at the end of the callback definition. Node.js exits the event loop when there are no further callbacks to be performed.
Node.js has a developer community primarily centered on two mailing lists and the IRC channel #node.js on freenode. The community gathers at NodeConf, an annual developer conference focused on Node.js.
In December 2014, Fedor Indutny started io.js, a fork of Node.js. Due to internal conflict over Joyent's governance, io.js was created as an open governance alternative with a separate technical committee.
- Desktop IDEs
- Atom (free open-source)
- Brackets (free open-source)
- Sublime Text (commercial)
- JetBrains IntelliJ IDEA (commercial)
- JetBrains WebStorm (commercial)
- Microsoft Visual Studio with Node.js Tools for Visual Studio (commercial)
- Microsoft Visual Studio with TypeScript (commercial)
- Nodeclipse Enide Studio (free open-source, Eclipse-based)
- NoFlo – flow-based programming environment integrated with GNOME APIs
- Online code editors
- Runtimes and debuggers
- Microsoft Visual Studio (commercial) with Node.js Tools for Visual Studio (free)
- Microsoft WebMatrix (free)
- Application Performance Management
Similar environments available for other programming languages include:
- Tornado and Twisted for Python
- Perl Object Environment for Perl
- libevent for C
- Akka for Java and Scala
- EventMachine for Ruby
- vibe.d for D
- Luvit for Lua
- io.js, the openly governed fork of Node.js
Node.js has been used to design and implement MVC frameworks such as:
- Compound (formerly known as Railway)
- Yahoo! Mojito
- SpiderMonkey (software)
- Server-side scripting
- Twisted (software)
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- Industry Usage, Node.js Website
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- "Ryan Dahl at JSConf EU 2009".
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- "Porting Node to Windows". Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Dahl, Ryan. "New gatekeeper". Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Schlueter, Isaac (January 15, 2014). "The Next Phase of Node.js". Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Hughes-Croucher, Tom; Wilson, Mike (2012). Up and Running with Node.js. Up and Running (1st ed.). Sebastopol: O'Reilly. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-4493-9858-3.
I was concerned about the ability to program advanced push features into the website like I had seen in Gmail
- Synodinos, Dio (December 13, 2010). "Deep inside Node.js with Ryan Dahl". InfoQ. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Finley, Klint (April 7, 2011). "NodeConf Schedule Announced". ReadWriteHack. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Krill, Paul (Dec 4, 2014). "Why io.js Decided to Fork Node.js". JavaWorld. Retrieved Dec 15, 2014.
- "Node.js Tools for Visual Studio". Codeplex. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- "Bergius: Flowhub and the GNOME Developer Experience". LWN.net. 2014-05-02. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- Mike Kopp (2014-11-27). "There’s a new kid in town: node.js monitoring". blog.ruxit.com. Retrieved 2014-11-28.
- Hughes-Croucher, Tom; Wilson, Mike (April 2012), Up and Running with Node.js (First ed.), O'Reilly Media, p. 204, ISBN 978-1-4493-9858-3
- Ornbo, George (September 2012), Sams Teach Yourself Node.js in 24 Hours (First ed.), SAMS Publishing, p. 440, ISBN 978-0-672-33595-2
- Teixeira, Pedro (October 2012), Professional Node.js (First ed.), John Wiley & Sons, p. 408, ISBN 978-1-1182-2754-1
- Randal L. Schwartz and Aaron Newcomb (9 January 2013). "Episode 237: Node.js". http://twit.tv/show/floss-weekly (Podcast). TWiT.tv. Event occurs at 1:08:13. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
- Ribeiro Pereira, Caio (July 2013), Aplicações web real-time com Node.js (First ed.), Casa do Código, p. 143, ISBN 978-85-66250-14-5
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