North American NA-64 Yale

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NA-64/NA-64 P-2/Yale I
North American NA.64 Yale CWH Hamilton MDF 0350.jpg
Restored North American NA.64 Yale at the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum in Hamilton, Ontario
Role Trainer
Manufacturer North American Aviation
First flight 12 February 1940[1]
Introduction 1940
Retired 1 October 1946 (RCAF)[1][2]
1949 (Armee de l'air)
Status museum/warbird
Primary users Royal Canadian Air Force
Armée de l'Air & Aeronavale
Luftwaffe
Produced 1940
Number built 230
Developed from North American BT-14
Developed into North American Harvard

The North American NA-64 (NA-64 P-2 or NAA-64 P-2 in French service, Yale in Canadian service) is a low-wing single piston engine monoplane advanced trainer aircraft that was built for the French Armée de l'Air and Aeronavale and served with the Royal Canadian Air Force and Luftwaffe during World War II.

Design and development[edit]

Ordered as a follow-on to the NA-57 as a two-seat advanced trainer, the NA-64 P-2/NAA-64 P-2 represented a major structural improvement, with a longer all-metal fuselage replacing the fabric covered fuselage of the NA-57. As well as metal skin replacing the fabric on the fuselage, the fin was changed from having a corrugated skin to being a smooth stressed skin structure and was moved slightly aft, lengthening the rear fuselage while the engine was moved forward to maintain the center of gravity. The rudder was also changed from the rounded shape used previously to one with a roughly triangular shape with the broadest part being at the bottom to improve handling at high angles of attack. In one respect however, it was a step backwards from its immediate predecessor, the BT-14, with which it is often confused, in that the earlier straight wings were used with the result that in RCAF service, when compared to the later and more powerful Harvard II it was flown alongside, it had different handling characteristics and lower performance.[3]

Operational history[edit]

France[edit]

French Air Force NAA-64 in service after World War 2, in French controlled Morocco with a replacement rudder.

The NA-64 P-2 was built for the French Armée de l'Air and Aéronavale in 1939–1940, which ordered 200 and 30 respectively. Of these, 111 had been delivered before France surrendered to the Germans after the Battle of France.[2] In France, the NA-64, like the NA-57 before it, was known as the North,[4] and was designated as NAA-64 P-2 (abbreviated from North American Aviation modèle 64 perfectionnement, 2 places (North American Aviation model 64 advanced trainer, 2 seats)[4]) but were sometimes attached to reconnaissance units. A small number escaped the Germans to be used by the Vichy French Air Force. Two examples in North Africa survived into the postwar years, having been operated alongside NA-57s, the last only being retired in 1949.

Canada[edit]

RCAF Yale shortly after being taken on strength as an intermediate trainer, at Camp Borden.

The remaining 119 undelivered aircraft were bought up by the British Purchasing Commission and transferred to the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan between August and September 1940,[2] and all were operational by November[5] The type was named the Yale Mk.I[note 1] following British naming practice of naming trainers after education institutions and US-supplied aircraft after American locations, in this case, Yale University, and were used initially as intermediate pilot trainers taking pilots from the de Havilland Tiger Moth and Fleet Finch to the much faster and more complex North American Harvard,[4] until this category was dispensed with as being unnecessary. They were then relegated for use as airborne wireless radio trainers, along with the contemporary Fleet Fort intermediate trainer in 1943.[6][7] Prior to service entry, the throttle and engine mixture controls were modified from the system used by the French whereby the throttle was pulled back to increase power, and the mixture control pulled back to lean out the mixture, to the system used on the Harvard.[5] The Yale appeared in the movie Captains of the Clouds. The RCAF sold all surviving examples off as scrap in 1946 but over 30 survive today as a result of a large number of them being bought surplus by a single farmer, with about 15 currently in airworthy condition.

Germany[edit]

The NAA-64s captured from the French were used by the German Luftwaffe for all types of flight training, from basic flying to advanced fighter tactics. Dive bomber schools and target tug units and even combat squadrons all used the NAA-64, as they were designated by the Luftwaffe, from the tail markings of the French examples. At least one was used by the Zirkus Rosarius to familiarize German aircrew with the handling of American aircraft before they evaluated captured aircraft.[5]

Operators[edit]

Yale 3416, which appeared in the movie, Captains of the Clouds
 Canada
The first North American NAA-64 P-2 NX13397 before delivery. Due to the fall of France, this aircraft was instead delivered to Canada as a Yale Mk.I, and still exists.
 France
North American NAA-64 in its shipping crate for delivery to France. Most of those that made it to France had not even been unpacked when the Germans overran northern France.
 Germany
 United Kingdom

Survivors/aircraft on display[edit]

Ex-RCAF North American NA-64 Yale painted to represent a USAAC BT-14, in a diorama at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio

There are many surviving NA-64 Yales today because of Ernie Simmons, a farmer from near Tillsonburg, Ontario. Simmons bought 39 Yales in 1946,[25] along with Fairey Swordfish and Westland Lysanders[26] and kept them on his farm until he died in 1970.[27][28] Most were auctioned the same year, and many have been restored by museums and warbird enthusiasts. All surviving Yales are from the Simmons collection. Two examples have been subsequently lost, a major hangar fire took the Musée de l'air et de l'espace's NA-64 3415/64-2224, and 3454/64-2165 was destroyed as the result of a flying accident. Several Yales have been painted or partially modified as BT-14s Additionally, over a dozen are privately owned in Canada, the US, and Europe or are not accessible, and additional airframes may be held by some museums as a source of spares.[citation needed]

RCAF
Serial
NAA
Serial
Museum/organization Location Status Notes
3349 64-2171 Imperial War Museum Duxford Duxford, England airworthy [29]
3350 64-2206 Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum Hamilton, Ontario airworthy [30]
3361 64-2183 Milestones of Flight Museum Lancaster, California as BT-14 [31]
3367 64-2175 Sherwood Park, Alberta Sherwood Park, Alberta static [32]
3381 64-2194 Commemorative Air Force Midland, Texas as BT-14
3383 64-3037 Legend Of Aces Aviation Brighton, Michigan restoration
3390 64-3033 Bomber Command Museum of Canada Nanton, Alberta restoration [32]
3396 64-2161 Commonwealth Air Training Plan Museum Brandon, Manitoba restoration
3397 64-2150 Pima Air & Space Museum Tucson, Arizona static [33]
3399 64-2160 Canadian Harvard Aircraft Association Tillsonburg, Ontario airworthy [34]
3400 64-2149 Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum Hamilton, Ontario airworthy [35]
3404 64-2157 Bomber Command Museum of Canada Nanton, Alberta restoration [36]
3406 64-2144 Eric Downing Maryland Heights, Missouri airworthy
3411 64-2167 Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum Hamilton, Ontario static [37]
3416 64-2169 Guelph Airpark Guelph, Ontario static [38]
3417 64-2168 National Museum of the United States Air Force Dayton, Ohio as BT-14 [39]
3430 64-2223 Western Canada Aviation Museum Winnipeg, Manitoba static [40]
3450 64-2214 Commemorative Air Force Midland, Texas as BT-14
3456 64-2221 Legend Of Aces Aviation Brighton, Michigan restoration
3458 64-3024 Reynolds-Alberta Museum Wetaskiwin, Alberta static [41]
3463 64-2207 Texas Air Museum San Antonio, Texas as BT-14[42] [43]
unknown unknown Musée aéronautique de Presqu'île côte d'Amour La Baule-Escoublac, France restoration [44]

Specifications[edit]

3 view line drawing of North American NA-64 Yale trainer

Data from North American Aviation, Manuel de Pilotage de l'Avion NA-64 P-2 (Avion de Perfectionnement), 1940, pp.8-9

General characteristics

  • Crew: two (instructor and student)
  • Length: 28 ft 4 in (8.64 m) [45]
  • Wingspan: 40 ft 1.4 in (12.228 m)
  • Height: 8 ft 10.5 in (2.705 m) [45]
  • Wing area: 241.67 sq ft (22.452 m2)
  • Empty weight: 3,324 lb (1,508 kg) [45]
  • Gross weight: 4,500 lb (2,041 kg) [45]
  • Max takeoff weight: 4,291 lb (1,946 kg) normal weight per NAA
  • Fuel capacity: 104 gallons/394L including 16.5 US gallon/2.45L reserve tank
  • Oil capacity 9.5 US gallon/36L[46]
  • Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind[45][47] radial engine, 420 hp (310 kW)
  • Propellers: 2-bladed Hamilton Standard 2D30 hub & 6101A-12 blades, 9 ft 0 in (2.74 m) diameter [48]

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 166 mph (267 km/h; 144 kn) sea level
  • Cruise speed: 146 mph (127 kn; 235 km/h) 64% power
  • Never exceed speed: 300 mph; 261 kn (483 km/h) [49]
  • Range: 730 mi (634 nmi; 1,175 km) cruising speed
  • Combat range: 475 mi (413 nmi; 764 km) maximum speed
  • Endurance: 5 hrs at cruising speed, 2 hours 48 minutes at maximum speed
  • Service ceiling: 17,500 ft (5,334 m) full load
  • Rate of climb: 1,120 ft/min (5.7 m/s)
  • Time to altitude: 11.36 min to 10,000 ft (3320 m)
  • Wing loading: 17.76 lb/sq ft (86.7 kg/m2)
  • Power/mass: 10.22lbs/hp

Armament

  • light bombs (French and German examples only)

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ As there was no Yale Mk.II, the Mk.I part of the designation was rarely used.
  1. ^ a b Smith, 2000, p.29
  2. ^ a b c Hagedorn, 1997, p.48
  3. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.37
  4. ^ a b c Fletcher, 1990, p.36
  5. ^ a b c d e Fletcher, 1990, p.38
  6. ^ a b c Fletcher, 1990, p.42
  7. ^ a b c d e Fletcher, 1990, p.45
  8. ^ a b Fletcher, 1990, p.40
  9. ^ a b c Fletcher, 1990, p.172
  10. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.170
  11. ^ a b Fletcher, 1990, p.171
  12. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.43
  13. ^ "EOM 82 Niger", www.traditions-air.fr (in French), retrieved March 2014 
  14. ^ Peter D Evans, "LEMB Stammkennzeichen Database", The LEMB Stammkennzeichen Database Project, retrieved March 2014 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "stamm Dx+xx" The LEMB Stammkennzeichen Database Project accessed March 2014
  16. ^ a b "stamm Nx+xx" The LEMB Stammkennzeichen Database Project accessdate:March 2014
  17. ^ a b c d e stamm Rx+xx accessdate:March 2014
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i stamm Vx+xx accessdate:March 2014
  19. ^ a b c Cx+xx accessdate:March 2014
  20. ^ a b stamm Kx+xx accessdate:March 2014
  21. ^ stamm Hx+xx accessdate:March 2014
  22. ^ stamm Px+xx accessdate:March 2014
  23. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.41
  24. ^ Restoration of North American NA-64 Yale 3383 accessdate:March 2014
  25. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.48
  26. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.49
  27. ^ Fletcher, 1990, p.51
  28. ^ "The Ernie Simmons Story." Spitfire Emporium. Retrieved: 24 December 2011.
  29. ^ Aeroflight - Duxford accessdate:1 April 2014
  30. ^ North American Yale 3350 accessdate:31 March 2014
  31. ^ Milestones of Flight Air Museum: accessdate:31 March 2014
  32. ^ a b Canadian Warplanes preserved in Alberta accessdate:1 April 2014
  33. ^ Pima Air & Space Museum - Yale accessdate:31 March 2014
  34. ^ "NA-64 Yale." Canadian Harvard Aircraft Association. Retrieved: 24 December 2011.
  35. ^ North American Yale 3400 accessdate:31 March 2014
  36. ^ Bomber Command Museum of Canada - North American NA-64 Yale accessdate:31 March 2014
  37. ^ North American Yale 3411 accessdate:31 March 2014
  38. ^ Aircraft 3416 Photo accessdate:2 April 2014
  39. ^ Fact Sheet: North American BT-14 (NA-64) accessdate:31 March 2014
  40. ^ Western Canada Aviation Museum – Winnipeg accessdate:2 April 2014
  41. ^ Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame - Wetaskiwin, Alberta accessdate:1 April 2014
  42. ^ Currently painted as Luftwaffe example, but with BT-14 nose.
  43. ^ Texas Air Museum - North American NA-64
  44. ^ Musee Aeronautique Presqu'ile Cote d'Amour accessdate:1 April 2014
  45. ^ a b c d e Canadian Wings.com accessdate: March 2014
  46. ^ North American Aviation, 1940, p.29
  47. ^ North American Aviation, 1940, p.22
  48. ^ North American Aviation, 1940, p.28
  49. ^ North American Aviation, 1940, pp.17

Bibliography[edit]

  • Fletcher, David C; MacPhail, Doug (1990). Harvard! the North American Trainers in Canada. San Josef BC/Dundee ON: DCF Flying Books. ISBN 0-9693825-0-2. 
  • Fletcher, David (1995). "North American Yale". Random Thoughts (International Plastic Modellers Society of Canada) 17 (2): 31. 
  • Griffin, John A. (1969). Canadian Military Aircraft Serials & Photographs 1920 - 1968. Publication No. 69-2. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. 
  • Hagedorn, Dan (1997). North American NA-16/AT-6/SNJ (WarbirdTech Volume 11). North Branch, MN: Speciality Press. ISBN 0-933424-76-0. 
  • Kostenuk, S.; Griffin, J. (1977). RCAF Squadron Histories and Aircraft: 1924–1968. Toronto, ON: Samuel Stevens, Hakkert & Co. ISBN 978-0888665775. 
  • Milberry, Larry; Halliday, Hugh A. (1990). The Royal Canadian Air Force at War, 1939-1945. Toronto, ON: CANAV Books. ISBN 978-0921022046. 
  • North American Aviation (1940). Manuel de Pilotage de l'Avion NA-64 P-2 (Avion de Perfectionnement). Rapport No 1552. Inglewood, CA: North American Aviation. 
  • Skaarup, Harold A. (2000). Canadian Warbird and War Prize Survivors, Updated Edition. Lincoln, NE: Writers Club Press. ISBN 978-0595122165. 
  • Smith, Peter Charles (2000). North American T-6: SNJ, Harvard and Wirraway. Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press. ISBN 1-86126-382-1. 

External links[edit]