Operation United Shield

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Operation United Shield
Part of United Nations Operation in Somalia II and Civil war in Somalia
Logo-Operation United Shield.jpg
Official Logo for Operation United Shield
Operational scope Tactical
Location Somalia
Planned 9 January 1992
Planned by United States Central Command
Objective safe evacuation of personnel of UNOSOM I, UNITAF, and UNOSOM II
Date 9 January 1995 – 3 March 1995
Executed by United States Navy
Pakistan Navy
Italian Navy
Outcome Successful
Casualties None

Operation United Shield was the codename of the multinational military operation that was conducted 9 January 1995 to 3 March 1995. Commanded by the United States, the Combined Task Force (CTF) comprising the navies of Pakistan, Italy and the United States were tasked with to ensure the safe evacuation of all United Nations Peacekeeping troops, combining the armies of United Kingdom, Pakistan, France, Malaysia, and the United States including the U.S. Marines, from Somalia. The six USN combatant vessels assisted by the two Italian and two Pakistan Navy combatant vessels, successfully evacuated the UN forces from Somalia and successfully executed the operation after securing the tactical and strategic objectives of the course of mission.

Timeline of United Nations involvement in Somalia[edit]

Background and leadership of Operation United Shield[edit]

The political situation in Somalia deteriorated throughout 1993 and 1994, until it was determined that UN peacekeeping forces were in unacceptable jeopardy. On 10 January 1995 the Pentagon hello announced that 4,000 US CENTCOM personnel (including 2,600 U.S. Marines) would be deployed to Somalia for Operation United Shield to assist in the final withdrawal of United Nations peacekeeping troops from Somalia. At that time, the peacekeeping force remaining in Somalia consisted of a total of approximately 2,500 troops from Pakistan and Bangladesh. The decision came in response to a request from the U.N. for American protection of its peacekeeping forces serving in the war-torn African nation. The United Nations Security Council established 31 March 1995 as the deadline for the departure of all its forces participating in U.N. operations in Somalia.[4]

LtGen Anthony Zinni (Commanding General, I Marine Expeditionary Force) was given command of the operation, which was to ensure the safe execution of an amphibious withdrawal. General Zinni, who served as Director for Operations for UNITAF during Operation Restore Hope in 1992-1993, knew most of the top Somali leaders at the time of Operation United Shield.

The commanders utilized a 4,000 man air-ground task force to cover the withdrawal and prevent further casualties, while a seaborne coalition of American, Italian, Pakistani, French, British, and Malaysian naval vessels waited just off the coast of Mogadishu to accept the withdrawing forces.

Execution of Operation United Shield[edit]

  • 7 January 1995: LtGen Anthony Zinni (Commanding General, I Marine Expeditionary Force) assembled a Combined Task Force consisting of air, ground, naval, psychological, and special operations forces. Coalition forces from Italy, France, United Kingdom, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh joined the CTF, under LtGen Zinni's command.
  • 17 January 1995: CTF headquarters flew to Singapore and embarked aboard USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3).
  • 7 February 1995: USS Belleau Wood and its accompanying ships arrived on station at Mogadishu.
  • 27–28 February 1995: Just before midnight, Mogadishu time, an amphibious landing began. During this operation, which lasted a little over four hours, the U.S. put a mechanized force consisting of about 1,800 US Marines and 350 Italian Marines, along with 150 pieces of military equipment ashore. These men and machines (including LCUs LAVs, AAVs, and LCACs) were employed to rapidly secure Mogadishu International Airport and New Port (the seaport facility). The entire amphibious landing was complete by 0430 on the morning of 28 February.[5]
  • 28 February 1995: The UNOSOM II command was relieved, and the CTF began withdrawing the UNOSOM II forces.
  • 3 March 1995: 73 hours after the beginning of the amphibious landing, 2,422 United Nations troops, approximately 3,800 CTF troops and over a hundred combat vehicles had been withdrawn without any loss of life among any of the coalition forces.
  • 6 March 1995: the CTF redeployed to their respective home stations.
  • 17 March 1995: the CTF was disestablished.

Factors critical to the success of Operation United Shield[edit]

By the time the Landing Force went ashore, the UNOSOM forces had consolidated and withdrawn to New Port and Mogadishu International Airport.[6]

The most critical stage of Operation United Shield began when the ground combat element (GCE) of the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) conducted an amphibious landing on "green beach," near Mogadishu International Airport. The infantry element, Kilo Company of the 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines, (31st MEUSOC) and Battalion Landing Team 3/1, conducted their initial landing in the early morning hours of 1 March 1995,[7] and within hours the bulk of the infantry battalion had passed through the United Nation’s perimeter and secured the New Port shipping facility and an area known as "No Man's Land", between the New Port and the UN-occupied Mogadishu International Airport, north of green beach.

Two US Navy CH-53E Super Stallion Helicopters from Helicopter Combat Support Squadron Four played a vital role in placing troops in key areas throughout Mogadishu and then picking up members of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force and flying them out to the US Ships off shore.

Naval Ships Involved in the Combined Task Force[edit]

American[edit]

Italian[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

  • PNS Shamsher, a combatant warship, equipped with anti-ships missiles and surface guns, commanded by then-Captain Noman Bashir (later four-star admiral), Commanding Officer)
  • PNS Nasr, a replenishment ship (Captain A.Z. Safvi, Commanding Officer)
  • PNS Ghazi 134— a submarine charged with intelligence management gathering, commanded by Commander Adnan Nazir, Commanding Officer).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b United Nations: UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN SOMALIA I
  2. ^ U.S. Central Command: US CENTCOM History
  3. ^ Bush, George H., Address to the Nation on the Situation in Somalia, 4/12/92
  4. ^ a b Operation United Shield at Global Security
  5. ^ DefenseLink, U.S. Department of Defense: UNITED SHIELD Press briefing, 28 February 1995
  6. ^ DefenseLink, U.S. Department of Defense: UNITED SHIELD Press briefing, 2 March 1995
  7. ^ Deployments - Somalia - Operation United Shield - Background