Panarthropoda

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Panarthropoda
Temporal range: Cambrian - Recent
31-Velvet Worm.JPG
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
(unranked): Panarthropoda
Nielsen, 1997
Phyla
  • Arthropoda
  • Onychophora
  • Tardigrada

Panarthropoda is a taxon combining the phyla Arthropoda, Tardigrada, and Onychophora.[1] Not all studies support it,[2] but most do, including neuroanatomical,[3] mitogenomic[4] and palaeontological[5] studies. Originally, they were considered to be closely related to the annelids, grouped together as the Articulata, but newer studies place them among the Ecdysozoa.

Common characteristics of the Panarthropoda include the presence of legs and claws, a ventral nervous system, and a segmented body.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Telford, M. J (2008). "The evolution of the Ecdysozoa". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363 (1496): 1529–1537. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2243.  edit
  2. ^ Dunn, C. W.; Hejnol, A.; Matus, D. Q.; Pang, K.; Browne, W. E.; Smith, S. A.; Seaver, E.; Rouse, G. W.; Obst, M.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Sørensen, M. V.; Haddock, S. H. D.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.; Okusu, A.; Kristensen, R. M. B.; Wheeler, W. C.; Martindale, M. Q.; Giribet, G. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749. doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID 18322464.  edit
  3. ^ Persson, Dennis K. (2012). "Neuroanatomy of Halobiotus crispae (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae): Tardigrade brain structure supports the clade panarthropoda". Journal of Morphology 273 (11): 1227–1245. doi:10.1002/jmor.20054.  edit
  4. ^ Rota-Stabelli, O.; Kayal, E.; Gleeson, D.; Daub, J.; Boore, J.; Telford, M.; Pisani, D.; Blaxter, M.; Lavrov, D. (2010). "Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda". Genome biology and evolution 2: 425–440. doi:10.1093/gbe/evq030. PMC 2998192. PMID 20624745.  edit
  5. ^ Ou, Qiang (2012). "Cambrian lobopodians and extant onychophorans provide new insights into early cephalization in Panarthropoda". Nature Communications 3: 1261. doi:10.1038/ncomms2272.  edit