||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia. (April 2011)|
The Plaza Guillermo Baca in downtown Parral, showing the Searcher of Dreams Fountain and the Cathedral Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe, seat of the Diocese of Parral
|Municipality||Hidalgo del Parral|
|Founded||July 14 of 1631|
|• Mayor||César Omar Dajlala Amaya (PRI)|
|Elevation||1,620 m (5,310 ft)|
|Time zone||MST (UTC-7)|
Hidalgo del Parral, is a city and seat of the municipality of Hidalgo del Parral in the Mexican state of Chihuahua. It is located in the southern part of the state, 220 kilometres (140 mi) from the state capital, the city of Chihuahua, Chih. As of 2010, the city of Hidalgo del Parral had a population of 104,836, up from 101,147 at the 2005 census. The municipality includes numerous very small outlying communities in addition to the city. The city was founded as San José del Parral. The name was changed after independence from Spain, in honour of Fr Miguel Hidalgo, widely considered the 'Father of the Country'.
- 1 History
- 2 Notable sites
- 3 Notable events
- 4 Food
- 5 Sports
- 6 Notable people from Parral
- 7 Climate
- 8 Sister cities
- 9 References
- 10 External links
According to legend, Juan Rangel de Biezma came here in 1629, picked up a rock on the “Cerro la Prieta” (La Prieta Hill), licked it and proclaimed “There is a mineral deposit here.” This deposit produced silver for 340 years.
Parral was once a bustling center for silver mining. As early as 1567, the silver mines at Santa Barbara were established in the territory of the Conchos Indians. However, in 1631, a vast new silver strike was made in what is now southern Chihuahua. Later, in 1640, it was declared "Capital of the World" by monarch, Philip IV of Spain, at the very height of the Spanish Empire, that included territories in Eastern Asia, Italy, and the Low Countries.
The strike in Parral led to a large influx of Spaniards and Indian laborers into the area of Tarahumara country north of Santa Barbara. However, the steadily increasing need for labor in the Parral mines, according to Professor Spicer, led to the "forcible recruitment, or enslavement, of non-Christian Indians...the influx of new people and the resulting development of Spanish society no doubt placed increased pressure upon the native population in the region. The large area of southern Chihuahua inhabited by the Conchos Indians included the highway between the mining districts of Parral, Cusihuiriachic, and Chihuahua." After the end of the silver mining boom, Parral was almost completely abandoned in the early 1930s (although the surrounding district continues to be mined for silver and base metals.) It is now a small city mainly dedicated to commerce.
In the 20th Century, in the twenties La Prieta mine was under the American Smelting Co. American company as it was granted for the extraction of silver and other minerals. As such administration, the extraction were of higher profits and much of the staff were foreign. At the end of the mining boom in silver, Parral was almost completely abandoned in 1930. (Although the surrounding districts will continue mining and silver mining and boteos minerals. Nowadays Parral is a small town dedicated to trade.
All mineral including silver, that was extracted was sent to E.U. for final processing where the Asarco company would sell it to both Mexico and the U.S. and other countries.
Currently, Parral is a medium-sized town in the state of Chihuahua and is an important regional center for trade between the southern regions of northern Chihuahua and Durango.
Urban development has been slow due to the lack of potable water and its complex physical geography; its intricate network of streets and alleys are distinctive features of the city and it is these features that make it even preserve its colonial style.
Parral is often associated with several historical figures, including Mexican revolutionary leader Pancho Villa, who was assassinated on July 20, 1923, and initially buried there, and border ruffian "Dirty" Dave Rudabaugh, a sometime friend and foe of Billy the Kid.
El Palacio de Alvarado
It belonged to one of the most prominent families in Parral, descendants of Pedro Alvarado owning the silver mine called “La Palmilla.” This family was rich enough to offer the President Porfirio Díaz to pay the national external debt. The palace was constructed by Federico Amérigo Rouvier and it is now a museum and cultural center. It has preserved much of the original European-made furniture. The walls of the patio were painted by Italian painter Antionio Decanini between 1946 and 1948.
El Hotel Hidalgo
La Casa de la Familia Griensen (the Griensen Family House)
This is where Elisa Griensen was born. She distinguished herself in Parral history by fighting against a contingent of U.S. soldiers sent to capture Pancho Villa after he crossed the border and attacked Columbus, New Mexico.
The Francisco Villa Museum
The Francisco Villa Museum is a historical building located on the street near the spot where Villa’s enemies waited days for him to pass and ultimately assassinated him in 1923. Every year in July, his death is reenacted here.
This was a beautiful and luxurious palace (during the era), with a beautiful baroque style; decorated in the facade with many beings from the Nordic mythology, that once belonged to the Stallforth family —- who along with the Alvarado family, became the town's main benefactors, contributing much to its infrastructure.
The annual staging of the Murder of Francisco Villa, a recreation using props from the era, in the exact place of the historical event.
The annual Cabalgata Villista, is a long-distance horse ride with statewide massive participation and a spectacular visual event as thousands of horses enter the city(see Cavalcade).
In addition to its diverse and rich History, Parral is famous for its traditional foods. Parral was recently named as one of the “Ten Gastronomic Marvels of Mexico,” primarily for its artisan confectioneries dulces de leche. These include a wide variety of candies and pastries from old recipes based on milk, sugar, and natural fruits. Some other notable recipes with a touch of Parral are enchiladas, rayadas, barbacoa, steaks and cabrito (goat).
Dulces de leche
Dulces de leche are cooked-milk confections found nationwide in Mexico; Parral has been historically acclaimed since the 1930s because of the distinctive flavor of its dulces de leche—candys made with nuts like pecans, peanuts, hazelnuts, and fruits such as apricot, pineapple, coconut and others. Parral's candies have been shipped around the world; interesting destinations include Vatican City, Washington DC, and London.
These traditional confections arrived in Parral in the early 20th century. The origin of recipes is unknown, although it is believed that they arrived in southern Mexico from Europe during the colonial times. Then, these recipes were transferred to later generations.
One of the most famous confectionery artisans in Parral was Don Pablo Rodriguez, founder of La Gota de Miel. Don Pablito (as the Parralenses knew him) was born in Teocaltiche, Jalisco in the late 19th century. He and his wife arrived to Parral in the early 20th century, after working for several years in the State of Coahuila as a baker and a cook in the Hacienda del Rosario (now Parras de la Fuente) for Francisco Madero and Mercedes González (parents of President Francisco I. Madero). It is believed that their recipes might have acquired some influence from professional chefs also working in the hacienda at the time.
Several local artisans in Parral had recently—in the late 1990s—attempted to imitate Don Pablito's original recipe without success.
Enchiladas are a specialty Mexican plate also found nationwide, and Parral is traditionally famous for its delicious enchiladas. They are a rolled maize tortilla stuffed with meat and covered with a tomato and chile sauce. Enchiladas can be filled with a variety of ingredients, including meat, cheese, beans, potatoes, vegetables, or seafood.
These other tradition in Parral, started in the early 20th century and they gained notoriety in the mid-late 20th century. Enchiladas originated in Mexico. Anthropological evidence suggests that the indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico traditionally ate corn tortillas folded or rolled around small fish. Writing at the time of the Spanish conquistadors, Bernal Díaz del Castillo documented a feast enjoyed by Europeans hosted by Hernán Cortés in Coyoacán. In the 19th century, as Mexican cuisine was being memorialized, enchiladas were mentioned in the first Mexican cookbook, El cocinero mexicano (The Mexican Chef), published in 1831, and in Mariano Galvan Rivera's Diccionario de Cocina, published in 1845. Probably, as with the dulces de leche, this recipes arrived to Parral from immigrants from the south of Mexico.
Among the most famous cookers of enchiladas in Parral was Doña Cuca, near the historical Calicanto bridge.
Barbacoa is meat from cattle or sheep slowly cooked over an open fire or, more traditionally, in a hole dug in the ground covered with maguey leaves; although the interpretation is loose, in the present day it may refers to meat steamed until tender.
During colonial and post-colonial times, Parral was famous because of its delectable barbacoa or birria de hoyo. Such barbacoa contained ingredients as laurel (bay leaf), garlic, maguey, onions, and other condiments. It was one of the luscious foods of the executives, foreigners, and miners working in the silver mines at Parral.
Parral has one of the best clubs of Judo throughout Latin America: Judokan Parral. It is a Judo academy in one of the most isolated places in Mexico,and Gabriel González. Among the most recognized alumni of Judokan is Vanessa Zambotti. She is an Olympic judo-fighter with international experience. She started practicing the sport at Judokan Parral (for her complete history see: ). (The history of how judo started in Parral is needed here)
Judokan is increasingly becoming one of the most important culturks for future generations—who follow the sport closely—in the North of Mexico. Right now, some historians are working on achieving oral testimonies and photographs to sketch part of northern Mexico popular history, and they will include the impact of judo among practitioners (this needs verification and further elaboration).
Parral is famous, primarily in the North of Mexico, for its baseball team Los Mineros de Parral (The complete history of baseball in Parral goes here).
Notable people from Parral
- Gloria and Nellie Campobello, ballet dancers and choreographers. Born in Ocampo, Durango, spent their childhood in Parral.
- Consuelo Duval, actress."Biografía" (in Spanish). Retrieved October 22, 2009.
- The Fernández Family, renown family and members of the community. Descendants of Don Francisco Fernández and Doña Matilde Arguelles de Fernández.
- Fernanda Familiar, journalist."Semblanza" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved October 22, 2009.
- Manuel Gómez Morín, politician. Founding member of the National Action Party. Born in Batopilas, Chihuahua, then moved to Parral.
- Juan Gómez-Quiñones, historian, professor of history, poet, and activist. Co-editor of the Plan de Santa Bárbara.
- Linda Helú Atta, Carlos Slim's mother.
- Humberto Mariles, show jumping champion in the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, where he won gold medals both in Individual Jumping and in Team Jumping.
- Carlos Montemayor, novelist, poet, essayist and literary critic.
- Antonio Ortiz Mena, politician and economist. Director of the Mexican Social Security Institute from 1952 to 1958, Secretary of Finance and Public Credit from 1958 to 1970, president of the Inter-American Development Bank from 1971 to 1988.
- José Fernando Ramírez, historian.
- Rafael Rangel Sostmann, rector of the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey.
- Aurora Reyes Flores, painter, first female exponent of Mexican muralism.
- Alfredo Ripstein, film producer.
- Jesús Gabriel Sandoval Chávez, professional boxer.
- Vanessa Zambotti, judoka. Gold medalist in the Pan American Games, Rio de Janeiro 2007.
Parral has an altitude-moderated semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh/BSk) with rainfall limited to heavy thunderstorms during the hot summer months. During the dry season from October to May, days range from mild to hot and nights from chilly to mild. Frosts are common though not persistent in the winter.
|Climate data for Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.0
|Average high °C (°F)||18.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||9.9
|Average low °C (°F)||1.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−15.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||7.8
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||1.7||1.4||0.6||1.4||2.8||7.0||12.8||13.0||9.4||3.8||1.8||1.7||57.4|
|Avg. snowy days||0.46||0.20||0.07||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.11||0.40||1.24|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||188||214||212||295||276||233||272||249||220||209||232||192||2,792|
|Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional|
|Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (snowy days)|
- "Hidalgo del Parral". Catálogo de Localidades. Secretaría de Desarrollo Social (SEDESOL). Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- Aldana, Alejandro (February 2008). "Parral: El Ganador de la 10 maravillas gastronomicas de Mexico". Guía México Desconocido 372: 60–69.
- "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981-2000" (in Spanish). Comision Nacional Del Agua. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Parral 1922-2003" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- "Normales climatológicas para Hidalgo del Parral, Chihuahua" (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
- Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática
- Municipio de Hidalgo del Parral Official website
- Parral Chihuahua
-  Parral images