Peace Research Institute Oslo
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History and governance 
PRIO was founded in 1959 by a group of Norwegian researchers, among these Johan Galtung. The institute was an affiliate of the Norwegian Institute for Social Research in Oslo in 1959 and became an independent institute in 1966. It was one of the first centres of peace research in the world, and it is Norway’s only peace research institute. The institute's director since 2009 is Kristian Berg Harpviken, with Inger Skjelsbæk as deputy director. Since 2005, the institute has been located in the former gas works building in central Oslo.
PRIO is an independent foundation, governed by a seven-member board. The board includes two PRIO employees, two members appointed by the Research Council of Norway, one member appointed by the Institute for Social Research, one by the University of Oslo, and one by the Nordic International Studies Association.
Previous PRIO directors are, chronologically, Johan Galtung (1959–69), Asbjørn Eide (1970, 1980–81), Helge Hveem (1971), Nils Petter Gleditsch (1972, 1977–78), Kjell Skjelsbæk (1973–74), Ole Kristian Holthe (1975–76), Tord Høivik (1979–80, 1984–86), Marek Thee (1981–83), Sverre Lodgaard (1986–92), Hilde Henriksen Waage (const., 1992–93), Dan Smith (1993–2001), Stein Tønnesson (2001–09), and Kristian Berg Harpviken (2009–present). Since Galtung's resignation in 1969, the institute staff elected a leader for one year at a time. In 1986 this was changed to a three-year period, and again in 1993 to a maximum of two consecutive four-year periods.
PRIOs first chairman of the board was Erik Rinde (1966–79), director of Institute for Social Research. He was succeeded by Torstein Eckhoff (1979–1986), Bernt Bull (1987–94), Frida Nokken (1995-2000), Helge Pharo (2000–2003), Øyvind Østerud (2004–06), and Bernt Aardal (2007–present).
The institute's purpose, as formulated in the statutes, is "to engage in research concerning the conditions for peaceful relations between nations, groups and individuals." Researchers come from a variety of disciplines in the social sciences and humanities, including political science, sociology, anthropology, psychology, human geography, history, history of religion, and philosophy. Output from the research is primarily published as articles in peer-reviewed academic journals.
Approximately 15 percent of the institute's budget is made up of a core grant from the Research Council of Norway, and the remaining 85 per cent is funded on project basis. The two largest project funders are the Research Council of Norway and the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Other funders include the European Union, the World Bank, and the Norwegian Ministry of Defence. In 2009, PRIO initiated the founding of the US based Peace Research Endowment.
In Oslo, PRIO hosts the Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers. This is a joint initiative of PRIO, the Norwegian Red Cross and the Norwegian Church Aid to help block the spread of small arms to areas where they are likely to be used in warfare, armed violence or human rights abuses.
The staff comprises a core group of 40-50 full-time researchers and support staff. In addition, there are researchers with a part-time affiliation with PRIO, visiting scholars, interns and students. PRIO co-operates with the Australian National University and with the University of Stellenbosch in offering master programmes in international studies.
Research centres 
Centre for the Study of Civil War 
Since 2003, PRIO has hosted the Centre for the Study of Civil War, one of the original 13 "Centres of Excellence" in Norway. The director is Scott Gates.
Cyprus Centre 
The institute maintains a centre in Nicosia, Cyprus, known as the PRIO Cyprus Centre. Through its network, projects and dialogue forums, the PRIO Cyprus Centre aims to foster cooperation between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and strengthen regional cooperation in the Eastern Mediterranean at large.
PRIO Annual Peace Address 
Initiated in 2010, the PRIO Annual Peace Address intends to create awareness, stir public debate and increase understanding about the conditions for peace in the world. Inviting researchers and other people with strong views on peace-related topics, the idea is to challenge the peace research community by suggesting new measures and bringing new perspectives on peace and war.
- 2010: Jon Elster: Justice, Truth, Peace
- 2011: John Lewis: The Role of Nonviolence in the Struggle for Liberation
- 2012: Azar Gat: Peace for Our Time?
See also 
- Forr, Gudleiv. (2009). Strid og fred. Fredsforskning i 50 år: PRIO 1959-2009. Oslo: Pax
- PRIO statutes (2007). Retrieved November 20, 2009 from http://www.prio.no/upload/31/PRIO_Statutes_2007.pdf