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The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e Tāvūs (Persian: تخت طاووس) in Persian, is the name originally given to a Mughal throne of India, which was later adopted and used to describe the thrones of the Persian rulers from Nader Shah.
The name comes from the shape of a throne, having the figures of two peacocks standing behind it, their tails being expanded and the whole so inlaid with sapphires, rubies, emeralds, pearls and other precious stones of appropriate colours as to represent life, created for the Mughal Badshah Shah Jahan of India in the 17th century. It stood in his imperial capital Delhi's public audience hall, the Divān-i'-Ām. Shāh Jahān had the famous Kūh-i Nūr diamond placed in this throne.
The French jeweler Tavernier, who saw Delhi in 1665, described the throne as of the shape of a bed (a "takhteh" or platform), 6 ft. by 4 ft., supported by four golden feet, 20 to 25 in. high, from the bars above which rose twelve columns to support the canopy; the bars were decorated with crosses of rubies and emeralds, and also with diamonds and pearls. In all there were 108 large rubies on the throne, and 116 emeralds, but many of the latter had flaws. The twelve columns supporting the canopy were decorated with rows of splendid pearls, and Tavernier considered these to be the most valuable part of the throne. Estimates of its value varied between Rs. 40 million (Bernier) and Rs. 100 million (Tavernier).
Nādir Shāh invaded the Mughal Empire in 1738, and returned to Persia in 1739 with the original Peacock Throne as well as many other treasures, amounting to a very large reduction in Indian wealth, taken from the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shāh.
According to an article by the Sunday Tribune,
- It was, accordingly, ordered that, in addition to the jewels in the imperial jewel house, rubies, garnets, diamonds, rich pearls and emeralds in all weighing 230 kg should be brought for the inspection of the Emperor and they should be handed over to Bebadal Khan, the superintendent of the goldsmith’s department. There was also to be given to him 1150 kg of pure gold... The throne was to be three yards in length, two-and-a-half in breadth and five in height and was to be set with the above mentioned jewels. The outside of the canopy was to be of enamel work with occasional gems, the inside was to be thickly set with rubies, garnets and other jewels, and it was to be supported by 12 emerald columns. On the top of each pillar there were to be two peacocks, thick-set with gems and between each two peacocks a tree set with rubies and diamonds, emeralds and pearls. The ascent was to consist of three steps set with jewels of fine water". Of the 11 jewelled recesses formed around it for cushions, the middle one was intended for the seat it for Emperor. Among the historical diamonds decorating it were the famous Kohinoor (186 carats), the Akbar Shah (95 carats), the Shah (88.77 carats), the Jehangir (83 carats) and the second largest spinel ruby in the world — the Timur ruby (283 carats). A-20 couplet poem by the Mughal poet-laureate Qudsi, praising the Emperor in emerald letters was embedded in the throne. On March 12, 1635, Emperor Shah Jahan ascended for the first time the newly completed Peacock Throne. The French jeweller and traveller, Jean Baptiste Tavennier, who had the opportunity to examine the throne at close quarters, confirms the court chronicler’s description... Its place in the two fortress-palaces of Delhi and Agra was usually at the Hall of Private Audience known as Diwan-I-Khas, although it was kept at the Hall of Public Audience known as the Diwan-I-Am when larger audience were expected.
After Nādir Shāh was assassinated in 1747, the original Peacock Throne disappeared from the records, stolen or dismantled in the chaos that ensued. Rumors were generated claiming that the throne was given to the Ottoman Sultan. However, later Iranian thrones were erroneously referred to as Peacock Thrones, although they resemble a chair rather than a platform. An example of such a throne is the Naderi throne, built in 1812 for Fath Ali Shah Qajar. Another Iranian throne, built in 1836 for Muhammad Shāh Qājar, is in fact in the shape of platform and sports legs that uncannily resemble the Indian Mughal paintings of the original Peacock Throne, and may indeed incorporate parts of the original throne. This throne, however, was known as the Takht-i Khurshīd, or the "Sun Throne" (after a radiant sun disk affixed to it headboard). In time, this throne has come to commandeer the name of the legendary Peacock Throne, although only the legs and some other unspecified parts may belong to the original throne.
Although the Qājars referred to their throne as the Peacock Throne, the Pahlavī throne was a reconstruction of the Achemenid throne. Since then, the term Peacock Throne has consistently been misused to refer to the throne of the Pahlavi monarchy.
Rhetorical usage 
The Peacock Throne is a flexible English term. It is also a rhetorical trope. Depending on context, the Peacock Throne can be construed as a metonymy, which is a rhetorical device for an allusion relying on proximity or correspondence, as for example referring to actions of the Mughal ruler or the shah or as "actions of the throne." The throne is also understood as a synecdoche, which is related to metonymy and metaphor in suggesting a play on words by identifying a closely related conceptualization, e.g.,
- referring to a part with the name of the whole, such as "the throne" for the mystic process of transferring monarchic authority, e.g.,
- "The bitter example of their own family history would sooner or later have driven Dara and Shuja and Aurangzeb and Murad to contend for the Peacock Throne with desperate fury."
- referring to the whole with the name of a part, such as "the throne" for the serial symbols and ceremonies of enthronement.
- referring to the general with the specific, such as "the throne" for kingship.
- referring to the specific with the general, such as "the throne" for the truncated reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi or equally as well for the ambit of the Mughal or Persian monarchy.
See also 
- National emblem
- ""The Way of the Master – The Great Artists of India, 1100–1900" @ Museum Rietberg in Zurich". Eloge de l'Art par Alain Truong. April 30, 2011.
- Swany, K.R.N. "As priceless as the Peacock Throne," The Tribune (India). January 30, 2000.
- Mehmet Onder - Antika - The Turkish Journal of Collectable Art, May 1985, Issue: 2
- Hansen, Waldemar. (1986). The Peacock Throne, p. 198.
- Williams, David. (1858). The preceptor's assistant, or, Miscellaneous questions in general history, literature, and science, p. 153.
- Curzon, George Nathaniel. (1892). Persia and the Persian Question.'Longmans, Green & Co. [http://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/oclc/3444074 OCLC 3444074
- Hansen, Waldemar. (1986). The Peacock Throne: The Drama of Mogul India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass . 10-ISBN 81-208-0225-X; 13-ISBN 978-81-208-0225-4; OCLC 18734087
- Williams, David. (1858). The preceptor's assistant, or, Miscellaneous questions in general history, literature, and science. London: By Simpkin, Marshall. OCLC 63065688
- The Imperial Jewels of Iran
- Nadir Shah throne, history
- Nadir Shah throne
- The Peacock Throne
- The Naderi Throne, later throne modeled after the Peacock Throne
- The Naderi Throne
- KN Diamond With the UK