|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|(1S,2S,3S,4R)-3-[(1S)-1-acetamido-2-ethyl-butyl]-4- (diaminomethylideneamino)-2-hydroxy-cyclopentane- 1-carboxylic acid|
|Half-life||7.7 to 20.8 hour in patients with normal renal function|
|Molecular mass||328.40722 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Peramivir (trade name Rapivab) is an antiviral drug developed by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of influenza. Peramivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor, acting as a transition-state analogue inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase and thereby preventing new viruses from emerging from infected cells.
In October 2009, the FDA issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the use of peramivir based on safety data from Phase 1, Phase 2, and limited Phase 3 trial data. The emergency use authorisation for peramivir expired in June 2010. On 19 December 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved peramivir to treat influenza infection in adults.
Peramivir has also been approved in Japan and South Korea and is available in Japan as Rapiacta and in South Korea as Peramiflu. It is currently the only intravenous option for treating swine flu.
An intramuscular peramivir Phase 2 study for seasonal influenza in 2008–2009 found no effect for the primary endpoint of improvement in the median time to alleviation of symptoms in subjects with confirmed, acute, uncomplicated influenza infection versus placebo.
In October 2009, it was reported that the experimental antiviral drug peramivir had been "life saving" effective in intravenous treating 8 serious cases of swine flu. On October 23, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization for Peramivir, allowing the use of the drug in intravenous form for hospitalized patients only in cases where the other available methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable; for instance, if oseltamivir resistance develops and a person is unable to take zanamivir via the inhaled route. The U.S. government (department of Health and Human Services) gave BioCryst Pharmaceuticals more than $77 million to finish the Phase III clinical development of peramivir. In 2009 the department of Health and Human Services had already given about $180 million to the program. Biocryst also donated 1200 courses of treatment to the US department of Health and Human Services. The Emergency Use Authorization expired on June 23, 2010. In 2011 a phase 3 trial found the median durations of influenza symptoms were the same with 1 intravenous injection of peramivir against 5 days of oral oseltamivir for people with seasonal influenza virus infection.
In 2012 BioCryst reported that it should halt enrollment on its study for intravenous peramivir in potentially life threatened people after an interim analysis led trial monitors to conclude that it would be futile to continue and the trial should be terminated. The difference between peramivir and control group (oral oseltamivir) for the primary endpoint clinical or virologic was small. In 2013 the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA/HHS) released new funding under the current $234.8 million contract to enable completion of a New Drug Application filing for intravenous (i.v.) peramivir.
According to a research report published in June 2011, a new variant of swine flu had emerged in Asia with a genetic adaptation (a S247N neuraminidase mutation) giving some resistance to oseltamivir and zanamivir, but no significant reduction in sensitivity to peramivir. But a H274Y virus mutation showed resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir, but not to zanamivir, and only in N1 neuraminidases. Ultimately 3,2% (19/599) of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses collected between 2009 and 2012 had highly reduced peramivir inhibition due to the H275Y NA mutation.
- Thorlund, Kristian; Awad, Tahany; Boivin, Guy; Thabane, Lehana (2011). "Systematic review of influenza resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors". BMC Infectious Diseases 11 (1): 134. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-134.
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- Drugs.com: FDA Approves Rapivab
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- Kohno, S.; Yen, M.-Y.; Cheong, H.-J.; Hirotsu, N.; Ishida, T.; Kadota, J.-i.; Mizuguchi, M.; Kida, H.; Shimada, J. (8 August 2011). "Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind Study Comparing Single-Dose Intravenous Peramivir with Oral Oseltamivir in Patients with Seasonal Influenza Virus Infection". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 55 (11): 5267–5276. doi:10.1128/AAC.00360-11.
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- Hurt, A.C. (9 June 2011). "Increased detection in Australia and Singapore of a novel influenza A(H1N1)2009 variant with reduced oseltamivir and zanamivir sensitivity due to a S247N neuraminidase mutation". Eurosurveillance.
- Hirschler, Ben (2011-06-10). "Swine flu starting to show resistance to drugs". Reuters.
- McKimm-Breschkin, JL (Jan 2013). "Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance.". Influenza and other respiratory viruses. 7 Suppl 1: 25–36. doi:10.1111/irv.12047. PMID 23279894.
- Leang, Sook-Kwan; Kwok, Simon; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; Hurt, Aeron C. (March 2014). "Peramivir and laninamivir susceptibility of circulating influenza A and B viruses". Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 8 (2): 135–139. doi:10.1111/irv.12187.
- "BioCryst Files Peramivir NDA for the Treatment of Influenza". BioCryst Pharmaceuticals. 2013-12-20.
- FDA Approval for Peramivir
- Peramivir: Requirements for Administration under EUA
- BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
- Peramivir CDC/FDA EUA request form
- Peramivir Phase III Clinical Trials
- Peramivir Emergency Use Authorization Disposition Letter and Question and Answer Attachment
- A Novel Anti-viral Drug for Influenza, RAPIACTA Launch