Peramivir

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Peramivir
Peramivir.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(1S,2S,3S,4R)-3-[(1S)-1-acetamido-2-ethyl-butyl]-4- (diaminomethylideneamino)-2-hydroxy-cyclopentane- 1-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Legal status ?
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100% (IV)
Half-life 7.7 to 20.8 hour in patients with normal renal function
Excretion renal
Identifiers
CAS number 229614-55-5 N
ATC code None
PubChem CID 151164
ChemSpider 133234 YesY
UNII 9ZS94HQO3B N
ChEMBL CHEMBL332608 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C15H28N4O4 
Mol. mass 328.40722 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Peramivir is an experimental antiviral drug developed by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of influenza. It has been authorized for the emergency use of treatment of certain hospitalized patients with known or suspected 2009 H1N1 influenza.[1]

Peramivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor, acting as a transition-state analogue inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase and thereby preventing new viruses from emerging from infected cells.

Peramivir is an investigational neuraminidase inhibitor medication that has variable activity against influenza A and B viruses as reported in human and animal studies with small sample sizes.[2]

In October 2009, the FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the use of peramivir based on safety data from Phase 1, Phase 2, and limited Phase 3 trial data. The emergency use authorisation for peramivir expired in June 2010.[3]

Peramivir has been approved in Japan and South Korea and is available in Japan as RAPIACTA (R) and in South Korea as PERAMIFLU. It is currently the only intravenous option for treating swine flu. The drug is in Phase III studies in US.[4][5]

History[edit]

An intramuscular peramivir Phase 2 study for seasonal influenza in 2008-2009 found no effect for the primary endpoint of improvement in the median time to alleviation of symptoms in subjects with confirmed, acute, uncomplicated influenza infection versus placebo.

In October 2009, it was reported that the experimental antiviral drug peramivir had been "life saving" effective in intravenous treating 8 serious cases of swine flu.[6] On October 23, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization for Peramivir, allowing the use of the drug in intravenous form for hospitalized patients only in cases where the other available methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable;[7] for instance, if oseltamivir resistance develops and a person is unable to take zanamivir via the inhaled route. The U.S. government (department of Health and Human Services) gave BioCryst Pharmaceuticals more than $77 million to finish the Phase III clinical development of peramivir. In 2009 the department of Health and Human Services had already given about $180 million to the program.[8] Biocryst also donated 1200 courses of treatment to the US department of Health and Human Services.[9] The Emergency Use Authorization expired on June 23, 2010. In 2011 a phase 3 trial found the median durations of influenza symptoms were the same with 1 intravenous injection of peramivir against 5 days of oral oseltamivir for people with seasonal influenza virus infection.[10]

In 2012 BioCryst reported that it should halt enrollment on its study for intravenous peramivir in potentially life threatened people after an interim analysis led trial monitors to conclude that it would be futile to continue and the trial should be terminated. The difference between peramivir and control group (oral oseltamivir) for the primary endpoint clinical or virologic was small.[11] In 2013 the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA/HHS) released new funding under the current $234.8 million contract to enable completion of a New Drug Application filing for intravenous (i.v.) peramivir.[12]

According to a research report published in June 2011, a new variant of swine flu had emerged in Asia with a genetic adaptation (a S247N neuraminidase mutation) giving some resistance to oseltamivir and zanamivir, but no significant reduction in sensitivity to peramivir.[13][14] But a H274Y virus mutation showed resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir, but not to zanamivir, and only in N1 neuraminidases.[15] Ultimately 3,2% (19/599) of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses collected between 2009 and 2012 had highly reduced peramivir inhibition due to the H275Y NA mutation.[16]

BioCryst Pharmaceuticals submitted a new drug application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for intravenous peramivir in December 2013.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Peramivir authorized for Emergency use". LifeHugger. 2009-12-04. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  2. ^ "Antiviral Drug Resistance among Influenza Viruses Guidance on the Use of Influenza Antiviral Agents". CDC. 
  3. ^ Thorlund, Kristian; Awad, Tahany; Boivin, Guy; Thabane, Lehana (2011). "Systematic review of influenza resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors". BMC Infectious Diseases 11 (1): 134. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-134. 
  4. ^ "Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Peramivir in Subjects With Uncomplicated Acute Influenza". National Institutes of Health. 2007-03-16. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  5. ^ "Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Peramivir in Adults With Acute Serious or Potentially Life-Threatening Influenza". National Institutes of Health. 2007-03-28. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  6. ^ "Life-Saving H1N1 Drug Unavailable to Most". CBS Evening News (Atlanta, GA, USA: CBS Interactive). 2009-10-19. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  7. ^ "Emergency Use Authorization Granted For BioCryst's Peramivir". Reuters. 2009-10-24. 
  8. ^ "Feds hand BioCryst $77M for anti-viral trial". Fierce biotech. September 21, 2009. 
  9. ^ "FDA Authorizes Emergency Use of Intravenous Antiviral Peramivir for 2009 H1N1 Influenza for Certain Patients, Settings". Reuters. 2009-10-24. 
  10. ^ Kohno, S.; Yen, M.-Y.; Cheong, H.-J.; Hirotsu, N.; Ishida, T.; Kadota, J.-i.; Mizuguchi, M.; Kida, H.; Shimada, J. (8 August 2011). "Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind Study Comparing Single-Dose Intravenous Peramivir with Oral Oseltamivir in Patients with Seasonal Influenza Virus Infection". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 55 (11): 5267–5276. doi:10.1128/AAC.00360-11. 
  11. ^ "BioCryst scraps $235M late-stage flu drug program backed by feds". Fierce Biotech. November 8, 2012. 
  12. ^ "BioCryst to File Peramivir NDA Supported by BARDA/HHS Funding". Fierce Biotech. July 11, 2013. 
  13. ^ Hurt, A.C. (9 June 2011). "Increased detection in Australia and Singapore of a novel influenza A(H1N1)2009 variant with reduced oseltamivir and zanamivir sensitivity due to a S247N neuraminidase mutation". Eurosurveillance. 
  14. ^ Hirschler, Ben (2011-06-10). "Swine flu starting to show resistance to drugs". Reuters. 
  15. ^ McKimm-Breschkin, JL (Jan 2013). "Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance.". Influenza and other respiratory viruses. 7 Suppl 1: 25–36. doi:10.1111/irv.12047. PMID 23279894. 
  16. ^ Leang, Sook-Kwan; Kwok, Simon; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian G.; Hurt, Aeron C. (March 2014). "Peramivir and laninamivir susceptibility of circulating influenza A and B viruses". Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 8 (2): 135–139. doi:10.1111/irv.12187. 
  17. ^ "BioCryst Files Peramivir NDA for the Treatment of Influenza". BioCryst Pharmaceuticals. 2013-12-20. 

External links[edit]