Persimmon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Persimmon
Persimmon flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Ebenaceae
Genus: Diospyros
Species

See text

Persimmons are the edible fruit of a number of species of trees in the genus Diospyros. Diospyros is in the family Ebenaceae. The most widely cultivated species is the Asian persimmon, Diospyros kaki. In color the ripe fruit of the cultivated strains range from light yellow-orange to dark red-orange depending on the species and variety. They similarly vary in size from 1.5 to 9 cm (0.5 to 4 in) in diameter, and in shape the varieties may be spherical, acorn-, or pumpkin-shaped.[1] The calyx generally remains attached to the fruit after harvesting, but becomes easy to remove once the fruit is ripe. The ripe fruit has a high glucose content. The protein content is low, but it has a balanced protein profile. Persimmon fruits have been put to various medicinal and chemical uses.

Like the tomato, persimmons are not popularly considered to be berries, but in terms of botanical morphology the fruit is in fact a berry.

Names and etymology[edit]

The word Diospyros comes from the ancient Greek words "Dios" (διός) and "pyros" (πυρος). In context, this means more or less "divine fruit", though its literal meaning is closer to "Wheat of Zeus".[2][3] It is, however, sufficiently confusing to have given rise to some curious interpretations, such as "God's pear" and "Jove's fire". The Modern Greek name for the fruit is λωτός (lotos) which leads modern Greeks to the assumption that this is the lotos referred to in Homer's Odyssey.

The word persimmon itself is derived from putchamin, pasiminan, or pessamin, from Powhatan, an Algonquian language of the eastern United States, meaning "a dry fruit".[4]

Select species[edit]

While there are many species of Diospyros that bear fruit inedible to humans, the following are those that bear edible fruit:

Diospyros kaki (Asian persimmon, Japanese persimmon)[edit]

Diospyros kaki (柿)

Diospyros kaki is native to China.[5] It is deciduous, with broad, stiff leaves and is known as the shizi (柿子 in Chinese), and also as the Japanese Persimmon or kaki (柿) in Japanese. It is the most widely cultivated species. Its fruits are sweet, and slightly tangy with a soft to occasionally fibrous texture. Cultivation of the fruit extended first to other parts of east Asia and Pakistan, and was later introduced to California and southern Europe in the 1800s, to Brazil in the 1890s,[6] and numerous cultivars have been selected. It is edible in its crisp firm state, but has its best flavor when allowed to rest and soften slightly after harvest. The Japanese cultivar 'Hachiya' is widely grown. The fruit has a high tannin content which makes the immature fruit astringent and bitter. The tannin levels are reduced as the fruit matures. Persimmons like 'Hachiya' must be completely ripened before consumption. When ripe, this fruit comprises thick pulpy jelly encased in a waxy thin skinned shell.

"Sharon fruit" (named after the Sharon plain in Israel) is the marketing name for the Israeli-bred cultivar 'Triumph'.[7] As with all pollination-variant-astringent persimmons, the fruit are ripened off the tree by exposing them to carbon dioxide. The "sharon fruit" has no core, is seedless, particularly sweet, and can be eaten whole.[7]

Nanyo City, Yamagata, Japan. October 2005.

Diospyros lotus (date-plum)[edit]

Date-plum (Diospyros lotus) is native to southwest Asia and southeast Europe. It was known to the ancient Greeks as "the fruit of the gods", or often referred to as "nature's candy" i.e. Dios pyros (lit. "the wheat of Zeus"), hence the scientific name of the genus. Its English name probably derives from Persian Khormaloo خرمالو literally "date-plum", referring to the taste of this fruit which is reminiscent of both plums and dates. This species is one candidate for the lotus mentioned in the Odyssey: it was so delicious that those who ate it forgot about returning home and wanted to stay and eat lotus with the lotus-eaters.[8]

Diospyros virginiana (American persimmon)[edit]

American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) is native to the eastern United States and is higher in nutrients like vitamin C, calcium, iron and potassium than the Japanese Persimmon. Its fruit is traditionally eaten in a special steamed pudding in the Midwest and sometimes its timber is used as a substitute for ebony (e.g. in instruments). The American persimmon fruit is proven to be valuable food source for white tail deer, because the fruit ripens late into the year and will hang on the tree much throughout the winter months.[9]

Diospyros digyna (black persimmon)[edit]

Black persimmon or black sapote (Diospyros digyna) is native to Mexico. Its fruit has green skin and white flesh, which turns black when ripe.

Diospyros discolor[edit]

The Mabolo or Velvet-apple (Diospyros discolor) is native to the Philippines. It is bright red when ripe. It is also native to China, where it is known as shizi. It is also known as Korean mango.

Diospyros peregrina (Indian persimmon)[edit]

Indian persimmon (Diospyros peregrina) is a slow growing tree, native to coastal West Bengal. The fruit is green and turns yellow when ripe. It is relatively small and has an unremarkable flavor and is better known for its medicinal than its culinary uses.

Diospyros texana (Texas persimmon)[edit]

Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana) is a species of persimmon that is native to central and west Texas and southwest Oklahoma in the United States, and eastern Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas in northeastern Mexico. The fruit of D. texana are black on the outside (as opposed to just on the inside as with the Mexican persimmon)subglobose berries with a diameter of 1.5–2.5 cm (0.59–0.98 in) ripen in August.The fleshy berries become edible when they turn dark purple or black. At which point they are sweet and can be eaten from the hand or made into pudding or custard.

Fruit[edit]

A ripe hachiya persimmon fruit

Commercially and in general, there are two types of persimmon fruit: astringent and non-astringent.

The heart-shaped Hachiya is the most common variety of astringent persimmon. Astringent persimmons contain very high levels of soluble tannins and are unpalatably astringent (or "furry" tasting) if eaten before completely softened. However, the sweet, delicate flavor of fully ripened persimmons of varieties that are astringent when unripe, is particularly relished. The astringency of tannins is removed in various ways. Examples include ripening by exposure to light for several days, and wrapping the fruit in paper (probably because this increases the ethylene concentration of the surrounding air). Ethylene ripening can be increased in reliability and evenness, and the process can be greatly accelerated, by adding ethylene gas to the atmosphere in which the fruit are stored. For domestic purposes the most convenient and effective process is to store the ripening persimmons in a clean, dry container together with other varieties of fruit that give off particularly large quantities of ethylene while they are ripening; apples and related fruits such as pears are effective, and so are bananas and several others. Other chemicals are used commercially in artificially ripening persimmons or delaying their ripening. Examples include alcohol and carbon dioxide which change tannin into the insoluble form. Such bletting processes sometimes are jumpstarted by exposing the fruit to cold or frost. The resultant cell damage stimulates the release of ethylene, which promotes cellular wall breakdown.

This is a sound, ripe kaki, soft enough for one to lift the calyx out cleanly and split the fruit for eating
A whole Jiro persimmon fruit and a cross-section of one.

One traditional misconception is that persimmons are to be ripened till rotten. This is a confusion of the processes of controlled ripening with the processes of decay, possibly arising from problems of translation from Asiatic languages onto English. Rotting is the action of microorganisms such as fungi, and rotting persimmons are no better than any other rotting fruit. Sound persimmons should be ripened till they are fully soft, except that the carpels still might be softly chewy. At that stage the skin might be splitting and the calyx can easily be plucked out of the fruit before serving, which often is a good sign that the soft fruit is ready to eat.

Astringent varieties of persimmons also can be prepared for commercial purposes by drying. Tanenashi fruit will occasionally contain a seed or two, which can be planted and will yield a larger more vertical tree than when merely grafted onto the D. virginiana rootstock most commonly used in the U.S. Such seedling trees may produce fruit that bears more seeds, usually 6 to 8 per fruit, and the fruit itself may vary slightly from the parent tree. Seedlings are said to be more susceptible to root nematodes.

The non-astringent persimmon is squat like a tomato and is most commonly sold as fuyu. Non-astringent persimmons are not actually free of tannins as the term suggests, but rather are far less astringent before ripening, and lose more of their tannic quality sooner. Non-astringent persimmons may be consumed when still very firm, and remain edible when very soft.

There is a third type, less commonly available, the pollination-variant non-astringent persimmons. When fully pollinated, the flesh of these fruit is brown inside—known as goma in Japan—and the fruit can be eaten firm. These varieties are highly sought after and can be found at specialty markets or farmers markets only.[citation needed] Tsurunoko, sold as "chocolate persimmon" for its dark brown flesh, Maru, sold as "cinnamon persimmon" for its spicy flavor, and Hyakume, sold as "brown sugar" are the three best known.

Before ripening, persimmons usually have a "chalky" taste or bitter taste.

  • Astringent
    • 'Dōjō hachiya' (ja: 堂上蜂屋)
    • 'Gionbō'
    • 'Hachiya' (ja: 蜂屋), 'Kōshū hyakume' (ja: 甲州百目), 'Fuji' (ja: 富士)
    • Hongsi (Korean: 홍시)
    • Ormond
    • 'Saijō' (ja: 西条)
    • Sheng
    • Tanenashi
      • 'Hiratanenashi' (ja: 平核無)
      • 'Tone wase' (ja: 刀根早生)
    • Tamopan
    • Maru
  • Nonastringent
    • Dan gam (Korean, 단감)
    • 'Fuyū' (ja: 富有)
    • 'Hanagosho' (ja: 花御所)
    • 'Izu' (ja: 伊豆)
    • 'Jirō' (ja: 次郎柿)
    • 'Sōshū' (ja: 早秋)
    • 'Taishū' (ja: 太秋)
Japanese persimmons, raw
Diospyros kaki
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 293 kJ (70 kcal)
Carbohydrates 18.59 g
- Sugars 12.53 g
- Dietary fiber 3.6 g
Fat 0.19 g
Protein 0.58 g
Vitamin A equiv. 81 μg (10%)
- beta-carotene 253 μg (2%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin 834 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.03 mg (3%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.02 mg (2%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.1 mg (1%)
Vitamin B6 0.1 mg (8%)
Folate (vit. B9) 8 μg (2%)
Choline 7.6 mg (2%)
Vitamin C 7.5 mg (9%)
Vitamin E 0.73 mg (5%)
Vitamin K 2.6 μg (2%)
Calcium 8 mg (1%)
Iron 0.15 mg (1%)
Magnesium 9 mg (3%)
Manganese 0.355 mg (17%)
Phosphorus 17 mg (2%)
Potassium 161 mg (3%)
Sodium 1 mg (0%)
Zinc 0.11 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
American persimmons, raw
Diospyros virginiana
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 531 kJ (127 kcal)
Carbohydrates 33.5 g
- Sugars n/a
- Dietary fiber n/a
Fat 0.4 g
Protein 0.8 g
Vitamin C 66 mg (80%)
Calcium 27 mg (3%)
Iron 2.5 mg (19%)
Phosphorus 26 mg (4%)
Potassium 310 mg (7%)
Sodium 1 mg (0%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Fruit production[edit]

The table below shows figures of persimmons for the world's top ten persimmon producing countries according to FAO statistics.

Production figures in tonnes per year[10]
Country 1970 1990 1995 2000 2005 2011
China 457,341 640,230 985,803 1,615,797 2,212,151 3,259,334
Korea 30,310 95,758 194,585 287,847 363,822 390,820
Japan 342,700 285,700 254,100 278,800 285,900 207,500
Brazil 21,659 46,712 51,685 63,300 164,849 154,625
Azerbaijan - - - 96,000 108,965 146,084
Spain - - - 30,000[11] - 70,000[12]
Italy 59,600 68,770 61,300 42,450 51,332 50,236
Pakistan - - - 19,000 19,000 19,000
Israel - 17,200 11,000 14,000 48,000 29,271
New Zealand - 972 1,600 1,352 3,000 2,526
Iran 25 925 1,000 1,331 1,748 2,123
Australia - 329 640 759 943 642
Mexico - 275 274 247 369 223
Persimmon output in 2006


Culinary uses[edit]

Peeled, flattened, and dried persimmons (shìbǐng, 柿餅) in a Xi'an market

Persimmons are eaten fresh, dried, raw, or cooked. When eaten fresh they are usually eaten whole like an apple or cut into quarters, though with some varieties it is best to peel the skin first. One way to consume very ripe persimmons, which can have the texture of pudding, is to remove the top leaf with a paring knife and scoop out the flesh with a spoon. Riper persimmons can also be eaten by removing the top leaf, breaking the fruit in half and eating from the inside out. The flesh ranges from firm to mushy, and the texture is unique. The flesh is very sweet and when firm due to being unripe, possesses an apple-like crunch.[citation needed] American persimmons and diospyros digyna are completely inedible until they are fully ripe.

In China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam after harvesting, 'Hachiya' persimmons are prepared using traditional hand-drying techniques, outdoors for two to three weeks. The fruit is then further dried by exposure to heat over several days before being shipped to market. In Japan the dried fruit is called hoshigaki (干し柿), in China it is known as "shìbǐng" (柿饼), in Korea it is known as gotgam (hangul: 곶감), and in Vietnam it is called hồng khô. It is eaten as a snack or dessert and used for other culinary purposes.

Kaki preserved in limewater
干し柿 Hoshigaki, Japanese dried persimmon

In Korea, dried persimmon fruits are used to make the traditional Korean spicy punch, sujeonggwa, while the matured, fermented fruit is used to make a persimmon vinegar called gamsikcho (감식초). The hoshigaki tradition traveled to California with Japanese American immigrants.

In Taiwan, fruits of astringent varieties are sealed in jars filled with limewater to get rid of bitterness. Slightly hardened in the process, they are sold under the name "crisp persimmon" (cuishi 脆柿) or "water persimmon" (shuishizi 水柿子). Preparation time is dependent upon temperature (5 to 7 days at 25–28 °C (77–82 °F)). In some areas of Manchuria and Korea, the dried leaves of the fruit are used for making tea. The Korean name for this tea is ghamnip cha (감잎차).

In the Old Northwest of the United States, persimmons are harvested and used in a variety of dessert dishes most notably pies. It can be used in cookies, cakes, puddings, salads, curries and as a topping for breakfast cereal. Persimmon pudding is a dessert using fresh persimmons. An annual persimmon festival, featuring a persimmon pudding contest, is held every September in Mitchell, Indiana. Persimmon pudding is a baked pudding that has the consistency of pumpkin pie but resembles a brownie and is almost always topped with whipped cream. Persimmons may be stored at room temperature 20 °C (68 °F) where they will continue to ripen. In northern China, unripe persimmons are frozen outside during winter to speed up the ripening process.

Nutrient and phytochemical content[edit]

Compared to apples, persimmons have higher levels of dietary fiber, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and manganese, but lower levels of copper and zinc.[13] They also contain vitamin C and provitamin A beta-carotene.

Persimmon fruits contain phytochemicals, such as catechin and gallocatechin,[14] as well as compounds under preliminary research for potential anti-cancer activity, such as betulinic acid.[15] In one study, a diet supplemented with dried, powdered triumph persimmons improved lipid metabolism in laboratory rats.[16]

Unripened persimmons[edit]

Unripened persimmons contain the soluble tannin shibuol, which, upon contact with a weak acid, polymerizes in the stomach and forms a gluey coagulum, a "foodball" or phytobezoar, that can affix with other stomach matter.[17] These phytobezoars are often very hard and almost woody in consistency. More than 85% of phytobezoars are caused by ingestion of unripened persimmons.[18] Persimmon bezoars (diospyrobezoars) often occur in epidemics in regions where the fruit is grown.[19][20] Diospyrobezoars should not be of concern when consuming moderate quantities of persimmons. One case in medical literature from 2004 revealed a 51-year-old patient who had eaten a kilogram (2.2 pounds) of unpeeled persimmons each day for 40 years.[21][22] Surgery is sometimes employed, but Coca-Cola has also been successfully used to chemically shrink or eliminate persimmon-related bezoars.[23]

Horses may develop a taste for the fruit growing on a tree in their pasture and overindulge also, making them quite ill.[24] It is often advised that persimmons should not be eaten on an empty stomach.[25]

Wood[edit]

An example of persimmon wood furniture

Though persimmon trees belong to the same genus as ebony trees, persimmon tree wood has a limited use in the manufacture of objects requiring hard wood. It is hard, but cracks easily and is somewhat difficult to process. Persimmon wood is used for paneling in traditional Korean and Japanese furniture.

In North America, the lightly colored, fine-grained wood of D. virginiana is used to manufacture billiard cues and textile shuttles. It is also used in the percussion field to produce the shaft of some mallets and drumsticks. Persimmon wood was also heavily used in making the highest-quality heads of the golf clubs known as "woods" until the golf industry moved primarily to metal woods in the last years of the 20th century. In fact, the first metal woods made by TaylorMade, an early pioneer of that club type, were branded as "Pittsburgh Persimmons". Persimmon woods are still made, but in far lower numbers than in past decades. Over the last few decades persimmon wood has become popular among bow craftsmen, especially in the making of traditional longbows. Persimmon wood is used in making a small number of wooden flutes and eating utensils such as wooden spoons and cornbread knives (wooden knives that may cut through the bread without scarring the dish).

Like some other plants of the genus Diospyros, older persimmon heartwood is black or dark brown in color, in stark contrast to the sapwood and younger heartwood, which is pale in color.

Trees[edit]

Persimmon Tree

The trees of all species have stiff, tumescent leaves, but the female of the D. virginiana can look less turgid than the male because the leaves droop when fruiting, perhaps because of the heavier nutrient requirements. They grow swiftly, and are resilient to the stresses of unpredictable climates. Persimmons can tolerate and adapt to a wide range of climates. Persimmons are also known for their resistance to diseases and pests. They are one of the last trees to leaf out in the spring, and do not flower until well after the leaves have formed, bypassing the threat of blossom loss to frosts. The fruit hangs on the branches long into the winter. Because they grow swiftly and colonize off their root systems, they are ideal for helping recover habitat. A persimmon tree will be mature enough to bear fruit within 7–8 years. They hold their own against flooding riverbanks quite well and are listed in Stormwater Journal's list of water-holding trees.[26]

Apocryphal and traditional significance[edit]

  • In Ozark folklore, the severity of the upcoming winter is said to be predictable by slicing a persimmon [seed] and observing the cutlery-shaped formation within it.[27][27]
    • The folklore about the seed says that a spoon means snow while a fork is a milder winter and a knife is a cold biting winter.[28]
  • In Vietnam, the fruit is a part of Mid-Autumn Festival offering.
  • In traditional Chinese medicine the fruit is thought to regulate ch'i.
  • The raw fruit is used to treat constipation and hemorrhoids, and to stop bleeding. Over-consumption can induce diarrhea, but the cooked fruit is used to treat diarrhea and dysentery; the opposing effects of the raw and cooked fruit are due to its osmotic effect in the raw fruit sugar (causing diarrhea), and the high tannin content of the cooked fruit helping with diarrhea.[citation needed]
  • In philosophy, the painting of persimmons by Mu Qi (13th Century) exemplifies the progression from youth to age as a symbol of the progression from bitterness to sweetness. The persimmon when young is bitter and inedible, but as it ages it becomes sweet and beneficial to humankind. Thus, as we age, we overcome rigidity and prejudice and attain compassion and sweetness. Mu Qi's painting of Six Persimmons is considered a masterpiece.[citation needed]
  • In Korean folklore the dried persimmon (gotgam, Korean: 곶감) has a reputation of scaring away tigers.[citation needed]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carley Petersen and Annabelle Martin. "General Crop Information: Persimmon". University of Hawaii, Extension Entomology & UH-CTAHR Integrated Pest Management Program. Retrieved 2007-01-15. 
  2. ^ Jaeger, Edmund Carroll (1959). A source-book of biological names and terms. Springfield, Ill: Thomas. ISBN 0-398-06179-3. 
  3. ^ Tice, John. H. "Essay on the Diospyros virginiana" Annual report / Missouri State Horticultural Society 1864.
  4. ^ Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1984—Merriam-Webster Page 877
  5. ^ Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. p. 181. ISBN 1561643726. 
  6. ^ The persimmon was first introduced to the State of São Paulo, afterwards expanding across Brazil through Japanese immigration; State of São Paulo is still the greatest producer, with an area of 3,610 hectares dedicated to persimmon culture in 2003; cf. todafruta.com.br
  7. ^ a b The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts, By Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull, CABI, 2008, Page 327
  8. ^ Homer. "The Odyssey". Project Gutenberg. p. 76. Retrieved 2007-10-13. 
  9. ^ Prepper Gardens. "American Persimmon for Wildlife Attraction". Retrieved 2014-1-16. 
  10. ^ "ESS Website ESS : Statistics home". Fao.org. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  11. ^ G. Llácer y M.ª L. Badenes. "Situación actual de la producción de caqui en el mundo.". INSTITUTO VALENCIANO DE INVESTIGACIONES AGRARIAS. p. 38. "Tabla 3: Estimación de la superficie cultivada y la producción de caqui en España en el año 2000: 33.000 tm" 
  12. ^ "El caqui español desbanca a la producción italiana". INSTITUTO ESPAÑOL DE COMERCIO EXTERIOR. 2010-10-27. Retrieved 31 July 2013. 
  13. ^ Gorinstein, S.; Zachwieja, Z.; Folta, M.; Barton, H.; Piotrowicz, J.; Zemser, M.; Weisz, M.; Trakhtenberg, S.; Màrtín-Belloso, O. (2001). "Comparative Contents of Dietary Fiber, Total Phenolics, and Minerals in Persimmons and Apples". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 (2): 952–957. doi:10.1021/jf000947k. PMID 11262055. 
  14. ^ Nakatsubo, Fumiaki; Enokita, Murakami, Yonemori, Sugiura, Utsunomiya and Subhadrabandhu (October 2005). "Chemical structures of the condensed tannins in the fruits of Diospyros species". Journal of Wood Science (Japan: Springer Japan) 48 (5): 414–418. doi:10.1007/BF00770702. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  15. ^ Quintal-Novelo, C.; Moo-Puc, R. E.; Chale-Dzul, J.; Cáceres-Farfán, M.; Mendez-Gonzalez, M.; Borges-Argáez, R. (2012). "Cytotoxic constituents from the stem bark ofDiospyros cuneataStandl". Natural Product Research: 1. doi:10.1080/14786419.2012.738201. PMID 23098219.  edit
  16. ^ Gorinstein, S.; Bartnikowska, E.; Kulasek, G.; Zemser, M.; Trakhtenberg, S. (1998). "Dietary persimmon improves lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing cholesterol". The Journal of nutrition 128 (11): 2023–2027. PMID 9808659. 
  17. ^ Verstanding, A. G.; Bauch, K.; Bloom, R.; Hadas, I.; Libson, E. (1989). "Small-bowel phytobezoars: detection with radiography". Radiology 172 (3): 705–707. 
  18. ^ Delia, C. W. (1961). "Phytobezoars (diospyrobezoars). A clinicopathologic correlation and review of six cases". Arch Surg. 82 (4): 579–583. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1961.01300100093010. 
  19. ^ "Bezoars". Merck Online Medical Dictionary. Merck. 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  20. ^ Merck Manual, Rahway, New Jersey, Sixteenth Edition, Gastrointestinal Disorders, Section 52, page 780
  21. ^ "Bezoars, Phytobezoars and Diospyrobezoars, OH MY!! Diospyros virginiana - common persimmons". Persimmonpudding.com. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  22. ^ Altinli, E.; Saribeyoglu, K.; Uras, C. (2004). "Laparoscopic extirpation of a large gastric diospyrobezoar". Case Rep Clin Pract Rev, 5: 503–505. 
  23. ^ Hayashi, Kazuki; Ohara, Hirotaka; Naitoh, Itaru; Okumura, Fumihiro; Andoh, Tomoaki; Itoh, Takafumi; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Joh, Takashi (November 12, 2008). "Persimmon bezoar successfully treated by oral intake of Coca-Cola: a case report". Cases Journal (London, England, U.K.: BioMed Central, published December 11, 2008) 1: 385. doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-385. ISSN 1757-1626. OCLC 234326274. Retrieved October 24, 2012. "Referring to past reports [1-9], the period from the administration of Coca-Cola until the disappearance of the bezoars was a minimum of 1 day and a maximum of 2 months." 
  24. ^ Cummings, C. A.; K. J. Copedge, A. W. Confer (1997). "Equine gastric impaction, ulceration, and perforation due to persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) ingestion". J Vet Diagn Invest 9 (3): 311–313. doi:10.1177/104063879700900315. PMID 9249173. Retrieved 15 December 2011. 
  25. ^ Damrosch, Barbara (2004-4-11-25). "East Meets West in a Fall Fruit". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-12-02. 
  26. ^ Stormh2o.com[dead link]
  27. ^ a b Edwards, Ravae (2005-10-12). "From woolly worms to persimmons, people use a variety of methods to forecast the weather". News Tribune. Retrieved 2008-12-02. [dead link]
  28. ^ "Persimmon Seeds Predict: Warm Winter, Above Average Snow Fall in the Ozarks". University of Mo. Extension. 2008-11-07. Retrieved 2013-09-10.