Plants in space
Plants in space are plants grown in outer space. In the context of human spaceflight, they can be used for food and/or refreshing the atmosphere. Plants can scrub carbon dioxide and return oxygen, as well as adjusting humidty. Plants can be grown in a space garden. Aspects include how plants grow without gravity, and different types of lighting. Growing plants in space may provide a psychological benefit to human spaceflight crews.
The first organisms in space were "specially developed strains of seeds" launched to 134 km on July 9, 1946 on a U.S. launched V-2 rocket. These samples were not recovered. The first seeds launched into space and successfully recovered were maize seeds launched on July 30, 1946. Soon followed rye, cotton and fungus. These early suborbital biological experiments were handled by Harvard University and the Naval Research Laboratory and were concerned with radiation exposure on living tissue.
The SVET-2 Space Greenhouse successfully achieved seed to seed plant growth in 1997 aboard space station Mir. Bion 5 carried Daucus carota and Bion 7 carried maize. Biomass Production System was the precursor to the VEGGIE system (Vegetable Production System) aboard ISS. Plants tested in VEGGIE before going into space inlcuded lettuce, Swiss chard, radishes, Chinese cabbage and peas. A Skylab experiment studied the effects of gravity and light on rice plants. In one experiment flowers roots grew normal despite the lack of gravity.
Examples of plants grown in space:
- Mizuna lettuce
- Super dwarf wheat
- Apogey wheat
- Brassica rapa
- Onions, peas, radishes, lettuce, wheat, garlic, cucumbers, parsley, and dill
- Bion satellites
- VEGGIE, aboard ISS.
- SVET-2, aboard Mir.
- TAGES, aboard ISS.
- Plant Growth/Plant Phototropism, aboard Skylab
- Oasis plant growth unit
- Plant Signaling (STS-135)
- Plant growth experiment (STS-95)
- Biosatellite program
- List of microorganisms tested in outer space
- Moon tree
- ISS Images - ISS006-E-45076 (17 March 2003)
- NASA - Plants in Space
- T.Ivanova, et al. - First Successful Space Seed-to-Seed Plant Growth Experiment in the SVET-2 Space Greenhouse in 1997
- NASA - Growing Plants and Vegetables in a Space Garden
- NASA - Getting to The Root of Plant Growth Aboard The Space Station
- Beischer, DE; Fregly, AR (1962). "Animals and man in space. A chronology and annotated bibliography through the year 1960.". US Naval School of Aviation Medicine. ONR TR ACR-64 (AD0272581). Retrieved 2011-06-14.
- NASA - VEGGIE
- NASA - Station Investigation to Test Fresh Food Experience
- Plant Growth/Plant Phototropism - Skylab Student Experiment ED-61/62
- NASA SP-401 - Chapter 5
- J. Owen - Plants Grow Fine Without Gravity (2013) - National Geographic
- R. Zimmerman - Growing Pains (2003) - Air & Space/Smithsonian
- Glow-in-the-Dark Plants on the ISS
- Encyclopedia Astronautica Salyut 7
- Plant Signaling (STS-135)
- STS-95 Space Experiments (plants and cell biology).