Port Sudan

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Port Sudan
Port Sudan Harbor
Port Sudan Harbor
Port Sudan is located in Sudan
Port Sudan
Port Sudan
Location in Sudan
Coordinates: 19°37′N 37°13′E / 19.617°N 37.217°E / 19.617; 37.217
Country Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan
State Red Sea State
Population (2007)
 • Total 489, 275 (est)

Port Sudan (Arabic: بور سودانBōr Sūdān / Pōr Sūdān ) is the capital of the Red Sea state, Sudan; it has 489,725 residents (2007). Located on the Red Sea, it is the Republic of Sudan's main port city.

History[edit]

Post office in Port Sudan

Port Sudan was founded by the British in 1909 as the terminus of a railway linking the Red Sea to the River Nile. It served as a new modern port to replace Sawakin. The railroad was used to transport the nation's cotton and sesame seed, as well as sorghum, from the agriculturally rich areas of the Nile valley to markets. During World War II Port Sudan was an important strategic location, and in August 1940 it was raided by Eritreans under Italian command.

Tourism[edit]

Minaret in Port Sudan

Port Sudan is known among tourists for its excellent scuba-diving and beaches. Tourists, as well as far larger numbers of Muslim pilgrims en route to undertake their once-in-a-lifetime Hajj to Mecca, use Port Sudan as a departure point to cross the Red Sea to Jeddah in Saudi Arabia.

Economy[edit]

Warehouses in Port Sudan

The harbour is in the mouth of a gulf continuing seaward through a coral-free channel 18–26 meters (60–85 ft) deep. Imports include machinery, vehicles, fuel oil, and building materials. Cotton, gum arabic, oilseeds, hides and skins, and senna are the chief exports. Port Sudan has an oil refinery to handle the petroleum from onshore wells, as well as an oil pipeline to Khartoum that was completed in 1977.

A rail line links the Red Sea to the River Nile. The railroad was used to transport the nation's cotton and sesame seed as well as sea salt from salt-evaporating pans.

The city is home to the Red Sea University, established in 1994.[1]

Climate[edit]

Port Sudan has an arid near-desert climate with very hot summers and moderately hot winters, requiring the acquisition of fresh water from Wadi Arba'at in the Red Sea Hills and from salt-evaporating pans. Temperatures can easily exceed 30 °C (86 °F) in winter and 45C in summer. Over 90% of the annual rainfall falls between October and January, mostly in November, with the wettest month on record being November 1947 with 182 millimetres (7.2 in), whilst the wettest year was from July 1923 to June 1924 with 231 millimetres (9.1 in). Average annual rainfall is 76 millimetres (3.0 in), and no rainfall occurred between January 1983 and June 1984.[2] The average temperature is 28.4 °C (83.1 °F). Port Sudan receives about 3200 sunshine hours annually.

Climate data for Port Sudan, Sudan (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26.8
(80.2)
27
(81)
28.8
(83.8)
31.4
(88.5)
35
(95)
38.5
(101.3)
40.1
(104.2)
40.2
(104.4)
37.4
(99.3)
33.4
(92.1)
30.8
(87.4)
28.8
(83.8)
33.18
(91.75)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23
(73)
24.3
(75.7)
26.5
(79.7)
29.3
(84.7)
32.2
(90)
34.1
(93.4)
34.5
(94.1)
32.1
(89.8)
29.3
(84.7)
27.3
(81.1)
24.7
(76.5)
28.38
(83.05)
Average low °C (°F) 19.7
(67.5)
19
(66)
19.9
(67.8)
21.6
(70.9)
23.7
(74.7)
25.9
(78.6)
28.2
(82.8)
28.9
(84)
26.8
(80.2)
25.3
(77.5)
23.8
(74.8)
21.3
(70.3)
23.68
(74.59)
Rainfall mm (inches) 7.2
(0.283)
0.9
(0.035)
0.9
(0.035)
0.2
(0.008)
1.1
(0.043)
0.2
(0.008)
3.8
(0.15)
1.4
(0.055)
0
(0)
13.9
(0.547)
35
(1.38)
10
(0.39)
74.6
(2.934)
Avg. rainy days 1.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.8 0.3 0 1.2 4.1 1.7 10.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 195.3 228.8 282.1 306 322.4 285 272.8 288.3 282 297.6 225 213.9 3,199.2
Source: Hong Kong Observatory,[3]

Demographics[edit]

The population consists of Nubian Africans, Indigenous eastern Sudanese tribes and Arabs, including the Beja, and small minorities of Asians (mainly Indians), plus a handful of Europeans[citation needed].

Year Population[4]
1906[5] 4,289
1941 26,255
1973 132,632
1983 209,938
1993 305,385
2007 Estimate 489,275
2008 Estimate 517,338

Transportation[edit]

The economic heart of Port Sudan is the container terminal. Here most of the goods for Khartoum are discharged.

One of Sudan's major motorways links Port Sudan to Khartoum via Wad Medani, Gedaref, and Kassala. There is a major road that goes north to Halaib, but it is neglected[citation needed]. Also since 2009 a new highway linking Port Sudan via Atbara has been opened, reducing the travel time between Khartoum and Port Sudan drastically.

Port Sudan New International Airport (PZU) is located close to the city.

Sister cities[edit]

Country City
 Djibouti Coat of arms of Djibouti.svg City of Djibouti

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Arckell, A.J., UNESCO General History of Africa, History of Darfur 1200-1700 A.D. SNR.
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, "Port Sudan" (description), 2007, webpage: EB-PortSudan.

Coordinates: 19°37′N 37°13′E / 19.617°N 37.217°E / 19.617; 37.217