Portugal–United Kingdom relations
British–Portuguese relations are foreign relations between Portugal and the United Kingdom. The relationship dates back to the Middle Ages in 1373 with the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. The two countries now enjoy a healthy and close relationship.
The history of the relationship between Portugal and Britain dates back to the Middle Ages. In 1373 the Kingdom of England signed the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, the oldest alliance in the world still in force. The alliance was formalised by the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, and in 1387 Philippa of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, was married to John I of Portugal.
During the late 16th century England found itself fighting against Spain which at this time occupied Portugal. The English Armada was launched as part of this conflict in an attempt to restore Portuguese independence, destroying both Spanish and Portuguese military ships which formed the Invincible Armada.
A further marriage between the Portuguese and English royal families occurred in 1662 when Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal. In 1703, Portugal joined an alliance of England and the Netherlands in the War of the Spanish Succession against France and Spain. That same year, Portugal and England signed the Methuen Treaty.
The 19th century saw the alliance between Portugal and the United Kingdom come into effect once more when Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Portugal due to their alliance and trade with Britain. In 1807 Napoleon's army attacked Lisbon, forcing the Portuguese royal family to flee to Brazil under the protection of the British Royal Navy.
Royal marriages 
- Catherine of Braganza and Charles II of England
- John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt
Modern times 
The states are members of the European Union, NATO and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. There have been several state visits between the nations.
- The President of Portugal Francisco Craveiro Lopes paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in October 1955.
- The President of Portugal António Ramalho Eanes paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in November 1978.
- The President of Portugal Mário Soares paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in April 1993.
- The President of Portugal Jorge Sampaio paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in February 2002.
- HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid state visits to Portugal in February 1957, and in March 1985.
The list below is of British and Portuguese town twinnings.
- Bristol, South West and Porto, Porto
- Barton-upon-Humber, North Lincolnshire and Gondomar, Porto
- Halton, Cheshire and Leiria, Leiria
- Sherborne, Dorset and Sesimbra, Setúbal
See also 
- "Ceremonies: State visits". Official web site of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- "Portuguese president visits UK". BBC News. 2002-02-12. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
- "OUTWARD STATE VISITS MADE BY THE QUEEN SINCE 1952". Official web site of the British Monarchy. Retrieved 2008-11-28.
Further reading 
- Commercial Relations of England and Portugal (Economic History) by A.B.W. Chapman (Author), V.M. Shillinton (Author), Routledge; 1 edition (3 Nov 2005). ISBN 978-0-415-38301-1