Electric energy consumption

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Electric energy consumption is the form of energy consumption that uses electric energy. Electric energy consumption is the actual energy demand made on existing electricity supply.

Overview[edit]

Consumption of electric energy is measured in watt-hours (written W·h, equal to Watt x Hour)

1 W·h = 3600 joule = 859.8 calorie.

Electric and electronic devices consume electric energy to generate desired output (i.e. light, heat, motion, etc.). During operation, some part of the energy is consumed in unintended output, such as waste heat. See Electrical Efficiency .

In 2008, the world total of electricity production and consumption was 20,279 TWh (terawatt-hours). This number corresponds to an average consumption rate of around 2.3 terawatts continuously during the year. The total energy needed to produce this power is roughly a factor 2 to 3 higher because the efficiency of power plants is roughly 30-50%, see Electricity generation. The generated power is thus in the order of 5 TW. This is approximately a third of the total energy consumption of 15 TW, see World energy consumption.

In 2005, the primary energy used to generate electricity was 41.60 Quadrillion BTU (Coal 21.01 quads, Natural Gas 6.69 quads, Petroleum 1.32 quads, Nuclear electric power 8.13 quads, Renewable energy 4.23 quads respectively). The gross generation of electricity in that year was 14.50 Quads; the difference, 27.10 Quads, was conversion losses. Among all electricity, 4.84 Quads was used in residential area, 4.32 Quads used in commercial, 3.47 Quads used in industrial and 0.03 Quads used in transportation.


16816TWh(83%) of electric energy was consumed by final users. The difference of 3464TWh(17%)was consumed in the process of generating power and consumed as transmission loss and all most consumed at misuse.

World Electricity Consumption Highlights in 2009[edit]

At the world level, energy consumption was cut down by 1.5% during 2009, for the first time since World War II.[1] Except in Asia and Middle East, consumptions were reduced in all the world regions. In OECD countries, accounting for 53% of the total, electricity demand scaled down by more than 4.5% in both Europe and North America while it shrank by above 7% in Japan. Electricity demand also dropped by more than 4.5% in CIS countries, driven by a large cut in Russian consumption. Conversely, in China and India (22% of the world's consumption), electricity consumption continued to rise at a strong pace (+6-7%) to meet energy demand related to high economic growth. In Middle East, growth rate was softened but remained high, just below 4%.

Electricity Consumption and GDP[edit]

Listed countries are top 20 populous countries and/or top 20 GDP (PPP) countries and Saudi Arabia as of CIA World Factbook 2009.
30 countries (exclude EU/IEA) in this table represent 77% of world population, 84% of world GDP, 83% of world electricity consumption.
Productivity per Electricity consumption (concept similar to Energy intensity) can be measured by dividing GDP amount by the electricity consumed. World average was $3.5 production/kWh.
Electricity consumption include Final consumption, in process consumption, and losses.

Electricity Consumption (2008) and GDP (PPP) (2009)
Country Population
million
rank* GDP (PPP)
billion USD
rank* GDP (PPP)
per capita
rank* Electricity
consumption
(GWh/yr)
rank** daily kWh
per capita
rank** GDP (PPP)
/kWh*
 World 6,784 $70,048 $10,325 20,279,640 8.18 $3.5
 China 1,339 1 $7,992 2 $5,969 133 3,444,108 2 7.04 17 $2.3
 India 1,166 2 $3,304 4 $2,834 166 860,723 5 2.02 23 $3.8
 USA 307 3 $14,440 1 $47,036 11 4,401,698 1 39.25 2 $3.3
 EU* 541 $16,221 $29,983 3,635,604 18.40 $4.5
 Indonesia 240 4 $917 15 $3,821 158 149,437 20 1.70 24 $6.1
 Brazil 199 5 $1,998 9 $10,040 102 505,083 9 6.95 18 $4.0
 Pakistan 176 6 $431 27 $2,449 172 91,626 24 1.43 26 $4.7
 Bangladesh 156 7 $226 49 $1,449 196 35,893 27 0.63 27 $6.3
 Nigeria 149 8 $336 35 $2,255 176 21,110 28 0.39 28 $15.9
 Russia 140 9 $2,271 6 $16,221 72 1,022,726 4 20.00 10 $2.2
 Japan 127 10 $4,340 3 $34,173 36 1,083,142 3 23.35 6 $4.0
 Mexico 111 11 $1,567 11 $14,117 77 257,812 14 6.36 19 $6.1
 Philippines 98 12 $318 37 $3,425 162 60,819 26 1.70 25 $5.2
 Vietnam 87 13 $242 45 $2,782 167 76,269 25 2.40 22 $3.2
 Ethiopia 85 14 $70 78 $824 216 3,777 30 0.12 30 $18.5
 Egypt 83 15 $445 26 $5,361 135 130,144 22 4.29 21 $3.4
 Germany 82 16 $2,925 5 $35,671 33 617,132 7 20.61 8 $4.7
 Turkey 77 17 $904 16 $11,740 92 198,085 19 7.04 16 $4.6
 DR Congo 69 18 $21 120 $304 226 6,939 29 0.28 29 $3.0
 Iran 66 19 $844 17 $12,788 86 211,972 17 8.79 15 $4.0
 Thailand 66 20 $549 24 $8,318 115 149,034 21 6.18 20 $3.7
 France 64 21 $2,133 8 $33,328 38 526,862 8 22.54 7 $4.0
 UK 61 22 $2,236 7 $36,656 30 400,390 11 17.97 13 $5.6
 Italy 58 23 $1,827 10 $31,500 41 359,161 12 16.95 14 $5.1
 Korea 49 25 $1,338 13 $27,306 49 443,888 10 24.80 5 $3.0
 Spain 41 32 $1,402 12 $34,195 35 303,179 13 20.25 9 $4.6
 Canada 33 37 $1,303 14 $39,485 22 620,684 6 51.50 1 $2.1
 Saudi Arabia 29 41 $578 22 $19,931 59 204,200 18 19.28 12 $2.8
 Taiwan 23 49 $714 19 $31,043 42 238,458 16 28.39 4 $3.0
 Australia 21 54 $803 18 $38,238 25 257,247 15 33.54 3 $3.1
 Netherlands 17 59 $674 20 $39,647 20 123,496 23 19.89 11 $5.66

Population and GDP data are from CIA World Factbook 2009
Electricity data are from IEA/OECD 2008 [2](retrieved on Apr-2011)
rank* of Population and GDP are World ranking
rank** of Electricity consumption are ranking within this list
GDP PP/kWh Amount of GDP (PPP) (USD) produced per every 1kWh.
EU* are EU states which are member of IEA.
include; Austria, Belgium, Czech, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK

Electricity Final Consumption by categories[edit]

There are in-process consumption of Electricity which is about 17% of total production. In 2008, total electricity produced was 20,261TWh, 3,464TWh was consumed during process and 16,816TWh went to final consumption. Data are from IEA/OECD (2008)[2]

In the consumption rate in Industry, China is highest with 67.8%, South Korea is 51.0%(7th), Germany 46.1%(11th), Japan 31.5%(26th), USA 24.0%(28th)
In the Commercial and Public Service, Japan is highest with 36.4%, USA 35.6%(3rd), China 5.4%(29th)
For Domestic usage, Saudi Arabia is highest with 56.9%, USA 36.2%(8th), Japan 29.8%(16th), China 15.5%(29th), Korea 13.8%(30th)

definition
Industry; Iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals, transport equipment, machinery, mining, Food and tobacco, Paper, pulp and print, wood and wood product, construction, textile and leather, non-specified.
Transport; Domestic aviation, Land transportation, Rail, Pipeline transport, domestic navigation, non-specified. note international marine and aviation bunkers are not included.
Fishery; some country include fishing with agriculture/forestry.

  • Listed countries are top 20 by population or top 20 by GDP (PPP) and Saudi Arabia.
Electricity Consumption 2008 (TWh) For more recent data World Electricity production 2012 [3]
Country total
(TWh)
Industry Transport Commercial
/Public
Services
Agriculture
/Forestry
Fishery Residential other
World 16,816 41.7% 1.60% 23.4% 2.50% 0.025% 27.4% 3.43%
 China 2,842 67.8% 1.05% 5.4% 3.12% 0.000% 15.5% 7.19%
 India 602 46.4% 1.93% 8.0% 17.92% 0.000% 20.7% 5.05%
 USA 3,814 24.0% 0.20% 35.0% 0.00% 0.000% 36.2% 4.59%
 Indonesia 129 37.2% 0.00% 23.9% 0.00% 0.000% 38.9% 0.00%
 Brazil 410 48.1% 0.39% 23.7% 4.49% 0.000% 23.3% 0.00%
 Pakistan 70 27.5% 0.01% 14.2% 12.50% 0.000% 45.9% 0.00%
 Bangladesh 32 56.3% 0.00% 6.0% 3.37% 0.000% 32.9% 0.00%
 Nigeria 19 20.0% 0.00% 24.7% 0.00% 0.000% 55.3% 0.00%
 Russia 725 49.6% 11.45% 20.6% 2.14% 0.037% 16.1% 0.00%
 Japan 964 31.5% 1.95% 36.4% 0.09% 0.000% 29.8% 0.23%
 Mexico 200 61.3% 0.55% 10.3% 4.05% 0.000% 23.7% 0.00%
 Philippines 49 34.6% 0.23% 28.7% 2.30% 0.311% 33.8% 0.00%
 Vietnam 68 51.8% 0.75% 8.1% 0.97% 0.000% 38.4% 0.00%
 Ethiopia 3.1 38.0% 0.00% 23.6% 0.00% 0.000% 37.7% 0.74%
 Egypt 112 33.4% 0.00% 15.4% 4.13% 0.000% 39.2% 7.84%
 Germany 526 46.1% 3.14% 22.6% 1.66% 0.000% 26.5% 0.00%
 Turkey 159 45.4% 0.60% 25.6% 3.54% 0.102% 24.8% 0.00%
 DR Congo 6.1 63.4% 0.00% 3.1% 0.00% 0.000% 33.5% 0.00%
 Iran 164 33.2% 0.15% 19.0% 12.92% 0.001% 32.3% 2.50%
 Thailand 135 42.4% 0.04% 35.6% 0.21% 0.000% 21.3% 0.54%
 France 433 32.6% 3.06% 25.0% 0.88% 0.028% 35.9% 2.57%
 UK 342 33.2% 2.47% 28.6% 1.19% 0.000% 34.5% 0.00%
 Italy 309 45.8% 3.50% 26.8% 1.81% 0.022% 22.1% 0.00%
 South Korea 407 51.0% 0.55% 32.5% 1.61% 0.449% 13.8% 0.00%
 Spain 265 38.9% 1.10% 29.5% 2.29% 0.000% 27.1% 1.08%
 Canada 519 36.3% 0.81% 30.0% 1.86% 0.000% 31.0% 0.00%
 Saudi Arabia 170 12.4% 0.00% 28.5% 2.04% 0.000% 56.9% 0.14%
 Taiwan 210 55.7% 0.52% 13.7% 0.78% 0.459% 20.3% 8.48%
 Australia 212 44.7% 1.33% 25.6% 0.88% 0.000% 27.4% 0.00%
 Netherlands 109 38.6% 1.48% 30.0% 7.15% 0.000% 22.7% 0.00%

Electric energy consumption of OECD member countries[edit]

Electric energy consumption per inhabitant by primary energy source in some countries and areas in 2008 is in the table.

1 MW·h/yr = 114 Watt

For the OECD with 8 991 kWh/yr/person: 1.026 Watt/person.

Electric energy per capita, 2008 (kWh/person)[4]
# Territory Use Production Import/
Export
Non-RE* RE % *
Total Fossil Nuclear RE-Bio Bio+waste
1 Iceland 53,129 53,129 0 0 53,129 0 0 0 100%
2 Norway 27,398 30,355 151 0 30,130 74 -2,957 -2,806 110.2%
3 Canada 18,111 19,092 4,653 2,834 11,333 272 -981 6,507 64.1%
4 Finlandx 17,036 14,612 5,182 4,345x 3,356 1,727 2,424 11,953 29.8%
5 Sweden 16,018 16,225 527 6,922 7,687 1,088 -206 7,244 54.8%
6 USA 14,378 14,270 10,162 2,746 1,139 224 108 13,015 9.5%
7 Switzerland 9,052 9,198 130 3,688 5,057 322 -146 3,672 59.4%
8 OECD 8,991 8,982 5,554 1,905 1,340 182 9 7,468 16.9%
9 Belgium 8,961 7,962 2,997 4,295 252 418 999 8,291 7.5%
10 Japan 8,507 8,507 5,669 2,010 682 147 0 7,679 9.7%
11 France 8,233 8,984 853 6,872 1,168 91 -751 6,974 15.3%
12 Netherlands 7,463 6,513 5,590 252 275 396 950 6,792 9.0%
13 Germany 7,450 7,693 4,635 1,804 873 381 -243 6,196 6.8%
14 EU-15 7,409 7,321 3,798 2,121 1,141 261 89 6,007 18.9%
15 Denmark 6,912 6,656 4,680 0 1,272 706 256 4,934 28.6 %
16 United Kingdom 6,573 6,392 5,069 860 266 198 180 6,108 7.1%
17 Spain 6,523 6,764 4,066 1,286 1,318 94 -241 5,111 21.6%
18 Italy 6,054 5,384 4,271 0 992 120 671 4,942 18.4%
19 Poland 4,033 4,064 3,865 0 96 103 -32 3,833 5.0%
*RE-Bio includes hydro power, wind power, solar electricity and geothermal electricity

Bio+waste includes biofuel and waste
Non-RE (Non-Renewable electricity) = electricity use – (RE-Bio) – (Bio+waste)
RE % = (own RE production (RE+ Bio+waste) / electricity use) * 100 %
Obs. No specification if waste includes fossil wastes (e.g. The share of fossil wastes in Finland in 2006 was 2% of electricity use 1.78/90TWh). Norway exported 2.8 TWh per person renewable electricity.
x In Finland 1600 MW nuclear reactor under construction since 2002

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Enerdata Statistical Review 2012
  2. ^ a b IEA/OECD IEA Statistics/Electricity and Heat by country
  3. ^ [1] World Electricity production 2012
  4. ^ Energiläget i siffror 2009 Energimyndigheten Sweden, Table 25: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source, 2008, kWh/person (Source: Electricity information 2009 IEA/OECD)


External links[edit]